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Prompt: Each week, you will be asked to provide five new articles or dissertations that support your study. Remember, articles must be scholarly. The articles must come from academic journals (Tier 1 or 2 level) or dissertations. Conference papers, when from a scholarly association or conference, are also allowed. Textbooks are not generally acceptable. Use the provided Proposal 2 PowerPoint template (or a format of your own) to submit your assignment. The template will request that article information, how the article will support your study, and where you intend to use the citation of the article in Chapter 1. You will need to review the Dissertation Template, Chapter 1 as a reminder of the sections you are required to cover. You will be using these articles in preparing your final paper for this course.

Requirements: Use the PowerPoint template (or a format of your own) to report the research findings of your searches this week. Report five (5) articles or doctoral dissertations you found this week. If using your own format, make sure to address all the questions in the predefined PowerPoint template. Also, be thinking about how any of your search findings can be used in the Literature Review (Chapter 2).

Topic selected is “Public Administration”.

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[REPLACE WITH YOUR DISSERTATION TITLE]
A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Business Administration
By
[Replace with your Name]
[Replace with Month, Year of Completion]
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Committee
[Committee Chair name], [Degree], Chair, _______________________________
[Committee Name], [Degree], _________________________________________
[Committee Name], [Degree], _________________________________________
__________________________________________
Approval Date
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© [Replace with your name], [Replace with Year of Completion]
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Abstract
[Replace this with your Abstract. An abstract is a single paragraph, without indentation,
that summarizes the key points of the manuscript in 150 to 250 words. The purpose of the
abstract is to provide the reader with a brief overview of you research work. See the APA
Publication Manual for additional information on writing the Abstract. The Abstract should
include a brief overview of the topic and purpose of the study, description of the research
methodology, and summary of the findings of the research.]
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Dedication
[Add a Dedication, if desired]
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Acknowledgements
[Add Acknowledgements]
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Table of Contents
Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
List of Tables …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
List of Figures ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
Chapter One ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Topic Overview/Background ……………………………………………………………………………. 12
Problem Statement ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
Purpose Statement …………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
Research Question(s) ………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Hypotheses/Propositions ………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
Theoretical Perspectives and Conceptual Framework ………………………………………….. 14
Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Assumptions and Biases ………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
Delimitations ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
Limitations …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
General Overview of the Research Design …………………………………………………………. 16
Summary of Chapter One ………………………………………………………………………………… 16
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Organization of Dissertation (or Proposal) …………………………………………………………. 16
Chapter Two………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Review and Discussion of the Literature (the exact headings will depend on the
content) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Summary of Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………. 18
Chapter Three…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
Research Tradition(s) ………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
Research Questions, Propositions, and/or Hypotheses (as appropriate) ………………….. 19
Research Design……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Population and Sample ………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Sampling Procedure …………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
Instrumentation …………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Validity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
Reliability…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
Data Collection ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Ethical Considerations …………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
Summary of Chapter Three ………………………………………………………………………………. 23
Chapter Four ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
Participant Demographics (if appropriate)………………………………………………………. 24
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Presentation of the Data ……………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Presentation and Discussion of Findings ………………………………………………………… 25
Summary of Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………………. 25
Chapter Five ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
Findings and Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………………… 26
Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………… 26
Implications for Practice ………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
Implications of Study and Recommendations for Future Research………………………… 26
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
Appendix …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
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List of Tables
Table 1. Sample Table with Correct Formatting ……………………………………………………………….. 24
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List of Figures
Figure 1. Sample figure with correct formatting. See the APA Manual section 5.20-5.25 for
more information about figure formatting and many examples. ……………………………….. 25
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CHAPTER ONE
[Chapter 1 is an overview of the research study, including the statement of the
problem, a rationale for the study, research question(s), a discussion of the research
design, and limitations that could impact the research results. Add an Introduction here.
There is no heading used for the Introduction in the manuscript. The introduction to
Chapter 1 tells the reader what the dissertation is about, how the paper is organized, and
how this chapter will be organized. According to APA 6th edition, this section should not
have a heading.]
Topic Overview/Background
[Doctoral students at Belhaven will produce research that reflects the emphasis of
the program and the concentration within their program. This section shares a bit about
the particular interest in pursuing this study and the background that will provide the
reader with some context for what follows. You should include citations to the most
relevant references that support the topic you will be studying. Do not use first or second
person here or anywhere else in the dissertation.
A NOTE ABOUT CITATIONS. Citations are required throughout Chapters 1 and
2, and where relevant, in other chapters. In academic research and in particular in the
dissertation your personal experiences are not acceptable. All evidence regarding your
research must come from the literature (prior research and academic work). Most of the
citations should be within the last five (5) years.]
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Problem Statement
[All doctoral research aims at addressing a gap in the body of knowledge, as
observed in the literature that surrounds the topic of choice. Once this is identified, the
researcher explains it so that the reader is clear about the direction of the research.]
Purpose Statement
[The purpose statement explains why the research is being pursued. It serves as a
beacon for both the researcher and the reader, stating the focus of the research and
rationale for its pursuit. Provide sufficient citations from relevant reference sources to
justify the topic of study.]
Research Question(s)
[The researcher will shape the research intention, as stated in the problem and
purpose statements above, into the form of one or more concise questions. The research
question explicitly states the variables, also referred to as concepts or categories in
qualitative research, that will be studied. At the end of the research effort, the researcher
returns to these queries to address the results of the study based on these questions. At
times a central question is posed, followed by several sub questions.]
Hypotheses/Propositions
[Hypotheses are assumptions about a phenomenon that the research will seek to
prove or disprove. Hypotheses are stated in two forms: the null hypothesis and the
alternate hypothesis. The null hypothesis is proved or disproved by the research. If the
null hypothesis were disproved, there would be no relationship between the variables
being examined. The alternate hypothesis is examined when there is a relationship
between the variables. Hypothesis testing is commonly found in research, typically
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accompanying quantitative research. Propositions are similar to hypotheses; however,
when a proposition is stated, the relationship between the variables will not be proved or
disproved by experiment within the context of the research proposed. Propositions help
direct the focus of research such that ultimately testable hypotheses can be developed.
Propositions typically accompany qualitative research.]
Theoretical Perspectives and Conceptual Framework
[The theoretical framework presents the logic you have developed, supported by
the literature, that informs the development of your research design. The theoretical
perspectives assist the reader in understanding and following the design of your study.
Frameworks and theoretical perspectives or models are most often found in foundational
research related to your topic of study.]
Significance of the Study
[In this section, the researcher explains how the study will benefit the
stakeholders of the study. Stakeholders can be defined as persons or groups that may
have a vested interest in the subjects explored in the study, as well as the research
question itself. This section provides an explanation of the value your research will have
on the body of knowledge related to your topic.]
Assumptions and Biases
[All research is accompanied by assumptions held by the researcher. It is
extremely important to explore and state these assumptions as they are related to your
study. The assumptions may arise from past experience or previous knowledge. The
assumptions may also be based in existing theory. Remember, no first or second person
use.]
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Delimitations
[Delimitations represent the boundaries of the study as determined by the
researcher.]
Limitations
[The limitations of the study are aspects of the research that cannot be controlled
by the researcher. Limitations may be identified prior to the implementation of the
research and/or may emerge during the process of doing the research, in which case those
limitations are reported in Chapter 5.]
Definition of Terms
[The definition of terms includes a list of terms used throughout the study and is
critical to the understanding of the study and its documentation. The terms in this list can
be defined both by the researcher and the literature, resulting in an operational definition
for the term. Note: The definition of terms should not be a laundry list of all the technical
terms that can be found in the study. When a term is mentioned infrequently in a study,
however important it may be, the definition should appear where the term is mentioned in
the study, not in the definition of terms. The list here should be those terms unique to the
topic or field that are necessary for the reader to understand. General terms in the field of
study may not be necessary to define due to common use in academia and industry. If
you have a question, ask your faculty for help in determining the need for a definition
you may be questioning.
Example of the formatting of the terms:
Genomics: The science of molecular biology interested in the structure, function, and, in
particular, the mapping of genomes.
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]
General Overview of the Research Design
[Although the research design will be covered in depth in Chapter 3 of the
dissertation, it is helpful to present a summary of the design in Chapter 1 so that the
reader has a complete picture of the proposed research.]
Summary of Chapter One
[As you conclude Chapter 1, there should be a short summary of the contents of
topics mentioned above. This serves as a transition into the next section.]
Organization of Dissertation (or Proposal)
[Concluding Chapter 1 requires a brief discussion telling the reader how the
dissertation or proposal is organized, chapter-by-chapter. Each sentence or paragraph
regarding a chapter should be short and succinct.]
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CHAPTER TWO
[Of the five chapters of a dissertation, the structure of Chapter 2 is the most
variable. The heading in Chapter 2 will be specific to the content of the chapter, as it is
related to the research topic and proposed study. However, the following elements should
be included in Chapter 2, regardless of the sections.
Chapter 2 is a presentation of a review of the literature. The researcher
accomplishes three things during the process of developing Chapter 2:
a) The researcher develops subject matter expertise in the topics relating to the
research,
b) The researcher identifies and substantiates a gap in the body of knowledge
(your topic) that will be addressed by the study, and
c) The researcher develops a conceptual framework which informs the research
design.
The introduction to Chapter 2 tells the reader what the chapter is to be about and
tells the reader how the chapter will be organized. According to APA 6th edition, this
section should not have a heading.]
Review and Discussion of the Literature (the exact headings will depend on the
content)
[The researcher presents and discusses key literature related to the topic and
makes the connection between these and the research topic. The sections in the Review
and Discussion of the Literature should demonstrate the researcher’s mastery of the
literature. The sections throughout Chapter 2 should be descriptive of the material being
shared. Each major section should use CU Level 1 style. The only other level used would
be sub-sections or CU Level 2 style.]
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[A synthesis of the literature should also be included. The synthesis is an
organization of information that reflects the researcher’s critical thinking that supports
the direction that this specific research takes. The synthesis provides the foundation for
the conceptual framework which is a narrative (and visual, if desired) picture of how the
literature examination and subsequent critical thinking combine to form a “whole” which
represents the researcher’s intellectual approach to the study. As a result, it is clear to
both the researcher and readers how the topics discussed are seen in relationship to each
other from the unique perspective of the researcher, and supported by the literature. This
synthesis may be presented in a variety of ways, but often is topological or chronological,
or both.]
Summary of Literature Review
[The researcher provides a summary of the key elements of Chapter 2 and
provides a brief transition to Chapter 3.]
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CHAPTER THREE
[Chapter 3 presents the methods used in the research as well as supporting
information. This Chapter should contain sufficient information for replication of the
study by other researchers. The introduction to Chapter 3 tells the reader what the chapter
is to be about, and how the chapter will be organized. The introduction should also
provide a brief, restated sentence or short paragraph regarding the topic of the study.
According to APA 6th edition, this section should not have a heading.]
Research Tradition(s)
[Every research design has its roots in one or more established research traditions
(Overarching methods of doing research studies). The researcher should briefly provide
the reader with information about the origins of the method(s) which follow: The
researcher often times must go to the literature to learn more about the pertinent research
traditions before planning his/her research. This exploration may produce copious
information. Lengthy discussions about the research tradition should be avoided, as what
appears can easily be found in research texts and amounts to a treatise of the researcher’s
self-education process. What appears in this section should be a summary of these
findings, evidence that the researcher is grounded in the tradition selected, and how this
tradition(s) is applied to this research study.]
Research Questions, Propositions, and/or Hypotheses (as appropriate)
[The research questions, propositions, and hypotheses (as applicable) should be
restated here, so that the methods chapter, if segregated from the entire document, would
provide sufficient information for replication of the study.]
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Research Design
[The research design includes several components. Each component should have
its own heading. You can remove this description, leaving the heading, followed
immediately by the Population and Sample sub-section. You need to provide sufficient
details in each section that someone else could replicate this study without needing to
reach out to you for the details.]
Population and Sample
[Determining the population of a study necessitates developing the criteria for
participating in the particular study and identifying the group that would fit the criteria.
Describing the sample entails recognition that the entire population for most studies
would be very large and that there are significant and legitimate constraints on using the
entire population. Most studies then, utilize a sample, a subset of the population that has
been identified. The criteria for the sample must be described and may result in
refinement of the description of the population as the limits and constraints are taken into
consideration and justified.]
Sampling Procedure
[To support the robustness of the study, the sample for the study must be selected.
The researcher must present a substantiated rationale for the sample size and how the
sample will be selected.]
Instrumentation
[In quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, researchers utilize instruments
for data collection. The instrument may be a survey, interview protocol, or some other
tool that must be determined prior to data collection. A discussion of the instrument(s)
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must be presented in this chapter (although appendices may be used for lengthy
documents). The presentation should include a rationale for each segment of the
instrument, which illuminates the theories, constructs, sources, etc. contributing to the
development of each segment of the instrument. Be aware of any copyright issues
associated with preexistent instruments.]
Validity
[The researcher must present evidence that the instrument(s) performs as the
researcher claims it will perform, before the data for the study is collected. The researcher
should also present the method(s) used to determine the validity of the instrumentation
(i.e. Construct, content, and other validity tests). When the instrument is preexistent
(most cases), you must provide validity information made available by the originator of
the instrument. Where you create your own instrument, you must provide this
information through field tests and other methods of confirming validity. Qualitative
studies use a field test to validate the interview questions. A field test utilizes subject
matter experts to confirm validity.]
Reliability
[For reliability, the researcher must ascertain whether the instrument(s)
consistently gather(s) the same information over time and circumstance. There’s an
assumption that accompanies this; what is being measured stays the same over time. As
you can imagine, this may be difficult to ascertain in some studies. However, when
quantitative instruments are employed, the researcher must provide evidence of the
reliability of the instrument. It is likely that you use Test-Retest Reliability measures
and/or Inter-rater reliability measures. When the instrument is preexistent (most cases),
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you must provide reliability information made available by the originator of the
instrument. Where you create your own instrument, you must provide this information
through a pilot study and other methods of confirming reliability. A pilot study utilizes a
subset of the population (sample) of participants to provide a set of data to compare to the
full main study results.]
Data Collection
[The researcher describes how the data will be collected utilizing the
aforementioned instrument(s). This section details the protocol from initial contact with
the participants through handling and storage of the data.]
Data Analysis
[This section contains a thorough step-by-step description of how the data will be
analyzed, substantiated by the literature, and/or other rationale that is evaluated by the
researcher’s committee.]
Ethical Considerations
[This section should include a discussion of the ethical issues and considerations
you will address and the methods employed to mitigate risk to participants in the study.
The section needs to address the concerns as outlined in the Belmont Report, as created
for the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and
Behavioral Research. The section must also note the use of an Informed Consent that will
be required of each participant. You must note the ethical concerns, even when no human
subjects will be used, by use of a statement to the effect that the study uses systems or
other processes that require no human interaction or participation in the course of the
research effort.]
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Summary of Chapter Three
[The researcher provides a summary of the key elements of Chapter 3 and brief
description of the upcoming Chapter 4.]
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CHAPTER FOUR
[The introduction of Chapter 4 (no heading is used) includes a brief discussion of
what will be found in the chapter and how the chapter is organized. You should restate
your topic, research question(s), and the method used to carry out the research.]
Participant Demographics (if appropriate)
[Often, the presentation of data is preceded by information about the participants
who took part in the study. This section often contains tables, which should always be
accompanied by a narrative. The reader should not be expected to interpret tables in the
absence of a narrative. Tables should not be used for simple demographics information.
As an example, a table showing the percentage of females versus males that participated
in the study is should not be used. The information can be shared as narrative, and makes
the point succinctly.]
Presentation of the Data
Table 1.
Sample Table with Correct Formatting
Longer
Column 1
Column 2
Column 3
Column 4
Column 5
Row 1
1.0
0.2
-3
4
Row 2
5
6
7
8
Row 3
9
8
9
10
Row 4
-9
-1
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289
Row 5
5
4
3
2
Note: Table notes are located below the table. See APA Manual sections 5.07-5.19 for
more information about table formatting and many examples.
[The reader should get a sense of the data that was collected, without being
bombarded with the data in its entirety (data may be placed in an appendix as appropriate,
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usually when lengthy). Representative selections of data may be interspersed within a
discussion of the data. Tables may also be common in this section. Again, tables should
always be accompanied by narrative. Tables must be numbered per APA (See the chapter
in the APA Publication Manual). In qualitative studies, this section will introduce each
theme that emerged from the study and provide appropriate quotations from participants
that are representative of the theme.]
Presentation and Discussion of Findings
[A recap of the data analysis process appears here, and the findings emerge in the
course of a narrative where the findings are explained. Once the reader has seen
representatives of the data and a discussion of the findings, the researcher applies the
findings to the research question. A discussion follows.]
Figure 1. Sample figure with correct formatting. See the APA Manual section 5.20-5.25
for more information about figure formatting and many examples.
Summary of Chapter
[The researcher provides summary of the key elements of Chapter 4 and describes
the upcoming Chapter 5.]
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CHAPTER FIVE
[Introduction (no heading) The introduction of Chapter 5 includes a brief
discussion of what will be found in the chapter and how the chapter is organized. As with
other chapters, the introduction does not need a section heading.]
Findings and Conclusions
[A summary of the findings should be presented here. This section should include
further interpretation of the findings as related to the research question(s), propositions,
and/or hypotheses. This section should provide your interpretation of the results, based on
your subject matter expertise on the topic area, now that you have shown your research
capabilities. Begin this section with a very brief summary of the topic, the population
under study, and methodology used for the study.]
Limitations of the Study
[Although limitations may have been discussed before the research was executed,
as the research was conducted it is likely that further limitations were discovered. These
should be added to the discussion of Limitations.]
Implications for Practice
[The study and its results may be relevant for practitioners in the field. The
research should be discussed from this standpoint. Before you include this section, check
with your research chair.]
Implications of Study and Recommendations for Future Research
[The researcher is now thoroughly steeped in the topic, prior research, and results
of the current study. As a result, you need to provide guidance for future research that
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could be the next step in continuing to contribute to the body of knowledge, following on
from the research presented in your dissertation.]
Conclusion
[The author briefly summarizes the study, findings, and conclusions.]
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References
[Add references here (Template is programmed for Belhaven Reference style). The
format is: All references must by cited in APA 7th edition format other than the
following: SINGLE spaced, with a carriage return (space) between each reference
entry. All entries must use the hanging indent (Refer to the APA Publication
Manual for proper presentation).]
[The References section must contain only references to citations used in the paper. Do
not include references that have not been cited in the text. In addition, there must
be a citation found in the References section for any cited material in the text.
There can be no orphaned references or citations.]
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APPENDIX
[Appendices are optional. You use an appendix section as needed, to provide
supplemental information necessary to convey additional information. In general, the
material in the appendix supplements the main paper. Items that may be helpful to the
reader would include large datasets, listings, large tables, or other representative data that
supports analysis or interpretation of your study results. In addition, information that
would help in replicating the study can be added to the appendix. Use an additional
appendix section for each major grouping of additional information. If only one appendix
element is needed, do not Letter identify each section, but use the heading APPENDIX. If
more than one section is required, Letter each new section. Start with APPENDIX A,
APPENDIX B, and so on. Each new Appendix section will start on a new page (use Page
Break).
Examples of items that, in general, should not be included in the Appendix:
•
Informed Consent: It is assumed you have followed IRB requirements
•
Survey Instruments: If the survey instrument(s) is copyrighted it should not be
included. If the survey instrument is new, that is you have developed the
questionnaire for the research, you may need to publish it in the appendix to
allow for future replication. You should assure your Copyright information is
present in the appendix to protect your rights regarding the created instrument.
•
Personal CV: This is not a normal document necessary for a dissertation. If
you are asked to publish your CV, you should remove personally identifiable
information from the document.
•
IRB application: The IRB information is far too lengthy for the publication. In
addition, certain information in the document may be protected.]
•
Full transcripts of interviews with participants should not be included in the
appendices or elsewhere due to the potential of compromising the anonymity
of human subjects. Publishing the full content of all interviews would be a
violation of law.
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