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7:03 1

Exercises:

1. Student researchers at Hypothetical University used a Republican feeling thermometer (higher values

indicate greater support for the Republican Party) to measure their student population’s attitudes toward

the Republican Party. In their small random sample, scores were 25, 34, 50, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61, 66, 82,

and 91.

a.) Fill in the empty cells of the table below.

Student

Deviation from the mean

Squared deviation from the mean

Republican rating

25

1

2

34

3

50

4

55

5

56

6

58

7

60

8

61

9

66

10

82

11

91

b.) What is the standard deviation for this sample?

c.) What is the standard error?

d.) Multiply by two to roughly calculate the 95% confidence interval for this sample, and explain

what this confidence interval tells us in context of this example.

e.) A group of HU statistic students criticized this study for employing too small a sample. They

recommended a much larger random sample of 1,000 students. Using the same mean and standard

deviation as you calculated above, what would the standard error for a sample of 1,000 individuals from

this larger population be?

2. In a survey of 121 individuals, .29 of respondents said Congress was doing a good job.

a.) What is the standard error for this sample proportion?

b.) What is the 95% confidence interval for this sample proportion?

3. Use the following table to evaluate this hypothesis: In a comparison of countries, those having

economies less dependent on oil wealth will be more democratic than will those having economies more

dependent on oil wealth. Democracy is measured on a 7-point scale, with higher scores indicating more

democracy.

Mean democracy scale

Standard error

Oil-dependent economy?

No

4.7

.51

Yes

2.6

.28

a.) State the null hypothesis in context of this example.

b.) What is the standard error of the difference between these means?

c.) Perform a precise one-tailed test of significance for this difference. Based on this, should we

accept or reject the null hypothesis?

4. The following table illustrates the relationship between the party affiliation of US Senators and whether

they voted to repeal “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy.

Political Party

Democrat

Repeal DADT?

Total

Republican

31

0

31

No

55

8

63

Yes

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2 of 3

ing table to evaluate this hypothesis: In a comparison of countries, those having

economies less dependent on oil wealth will be more democratic than will those having economies more

dependent on oil wealth. Democracy is measured on a 7-point scale, with higher scores indicating more

democracy.

Oil-dependent economy?

Standard error

Mean democracy scale

4.7

No

.51

Yes

2.6

.28

a.) State the null hypothesis in context of this example.

b.) What is the standard error of the difference between these means?

c.) Perform a precise one-tailed test of significance for this difference. Based on this, should we

accept or reject the null hypothesis?

4. The following table illustrates the relationship between the party affiliation of US Senators and whether

they voted to repeal the “don’t ask, don’t tellÃ¢â‚¬Â policy.

Political Party

Democrat

Repeal DADT?

Total

Republican

31

0

31

No

55

8

63

Yes

Total

55

39

94

a.) Calculate Lambda for this example.

d.) Explain what this Lambda number tells us about the relationship between these variables.

EXTRA CREDIT. In an example from our text, researchers found that the R-squared statistic for the

relationship between the percentage of the population of a district that was African-American (the

independent variable) and the distance a district was from the nearest hazardous waste facility was .88.

What does this R-square allow you to say about the relationship between these variables?

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E

Question 10

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

What is true of Lambda?

Select one:

O a. Lambda is a standardized

.

measure of the variation for a

sample mean.

b. Lambda measures how much

better you can predict changes to

values of a dependent variable

when you know values of the

independent variable.

c. The dependent variable must

be an interval-level variable.

d. All of the above

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Question 9

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

To apply a precisely accurate one-tailed

test of significance, multiply the

standard error of the difference by

and then subtract the product

of this multiplication from the difference.

Select one:

a. the standard deviation.

b. 2

c. .05

d. 1.645

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Question 7

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

Which of the following is true of random

sampling error?

Select one:

a. As sample size increases,

random sampling error decreases.

b. All of the above.

c. The standard error is another

name for random sampling error.

d. The greater the variation, the

greater the random sampling error.

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/ Week 14 / Final Exam

Question 8

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

What is the variation component when

we are calculating the standard error of

a sample mean?

Select one:

a. the standard deviation.

b. the square root of p multiplied

by q.

O

c. the square root of n.

o

d. None of the above.

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Question 6

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

What of the following is the correct way

to calculate the variance of a sample

mean?

Select one:

a. Divide the sum of squares by n

– 1.

b. You cannot calculate the

variance for a sample mean.

a

c. Take the square root of the

sum of squares.

d. Divide the sum of squares by

n.

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Final Review

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7:02 7

E

Question 10

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

What is true of Lambda?

Select one:

O a. Lambda is a standardized

.

measure of the variation for a

sample mean.

b. Lambda measures how much

better you can predict changes to

values of a dependent variable

when you know values of the

independent variable.

c. The dependent variable must

be an interval-level variable.

d. All of the above

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

moodle.quincy.edu

7:02 7

E

Question 9

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

To apply a precisely accurate one-tailed

test of significance, multiply the

standard error of the difference by

and then subtract the product

of this multiplication from the difference.

Select one:

a. the standard deviation.

b. 2

c. .05

d. 1.645

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

moodle.quincy.edu

7:011

E

Question 7

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

Which of the following is true of random

sampling error?

Select one:

a. As sample size increases,

random sampling error decreases.

b. All of the above.

c. The standard error is another

name for random sampling error.

d. The greater the variation, the

greater the random sampling error.

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Final Review

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7:02 7

E

/ Week 14 / Final Exam

Question 8

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

What is the variation component when

we are calculating the standard error of

a sample mean?

Select one:

a. the standard deviation.

b. the square root of p multiplied

by q.

O

c. the square root of n.

o

d. None of the above.

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

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7:011

E

Question 6

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

What of the following is the correct way

to calculate the variance of a sample

mean?

Select one:

a. Divide the sum of squares by n

– 1.

b. You cannot calculate the

variance for a sample mean.

a

c. Take the square root of the

sum of squares.

d. Divide the sum of squares by

n.

Previous page

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Final Review

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7:01 7

III

Question 4

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

If a sample is smaller than

you

should use the Student’s t Distribution

(instead of using 1.96) to calculate

confidence intervals.

Select one:

a. 1.645

O

b. 1,000,000

C. 100

O

d. 1.96

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Final Review

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7:011

E

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

Which of the following is true of random

sampling?

Select one:

a. So long as we select our

sample randomly, we can be 100%

certain our findings accurately

represent the population being

studied.

b. The standard level of

confidence social scientists seek for

random samples is 50%.

O

c. Both A and B.

d. In a random sample, every

individual in the population has an

equal chance of being selected as

part of the sample.

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Final Review

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I

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E

/ Week 14 / Final Exam

Question 1

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Remove flag

Which of the following is used to test

the null hypothesis?

Select one:

a. Both B and C

b. Confidence interval tests

c. P-values

d. Lambda tests

Next page

Final Review

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7:011

E

yuuuuuu

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Remove flag

Which of the following statistics

measures how well we can predict

values for the dependent variable once

we know values for the independent

variable?

Select one:

a. All of the above.

b. R-squared

c. Lambda.

d. Somers’ Dyx.

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Final Review

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7:011

III

Which of the following is true of a

spurious relationship?

Select one:

a. In a spurious relationship, the

independent variable is shown to

have no effect on the dependent

variable in all values of the control

variable.

b. In a spurious relationship, the

independent variable has an effect

on the dependent variable in one

value of the control variable but not

in the others.

O c. In a spurious relationship, the

independent variable has an effect

of roughly the same strength and in

the same direction in all values of

the control variable.

d. In a spurious relationship, the

effect of the independent variable

on the dependent variable runs in

the opposite direction in one value

of the control variable as it does in

another value of the control

variable.

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E

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

Which of the following is true of random

sampling?

Select one:

a. So long as we select our

sample randomly, we can be 100%

certain our findings accurately

represent the population being

studied.

b. The standard level of

confidence social scientists seek for

random samples is 50%.

O

c. Both A and B.

d. In a random sample, every

individual in the population has an

equal chance of being selected as

part of the sample.

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

lumn to

I

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7:01 7

III

Question 4

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

If a sample is smaller than

you

should use the Student’s t Distribution

(instead of using 1.96) to calculate

confidence intervals.

Select one:

a. 1.645

O

b. 1,000,000

C. 100

O

d. 1.96

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

moodle.quincy.edu

7:011

E

yuuuuuu

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Remove flag

Which of the following statistics

measures how well we can predict

values for the dependent variable once

we know values for the independent

variable?

Select one:

a. All of the above.

b. R-squared

c. Lambda.

d. Somers’ Dyx.

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

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7:011

E

/ Week 14 / Final Exam

Question 1

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Remove flag

Which of the following is used to test

the null hypothesis?

Select one:

a. Both B and C

b. Confidence interval tests

c. P-values

d. Lambda tests

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

moodle.quincy.edu

7:011

III

Which of the following is true of a

spurious relationship?

Select one:

a. In a spurious relationship, the

independent variable is shown to

have no effect on the dependent

variable in all values of the control

variable.

b. In a spurious relationship, the

independent variable has an effect

on the dependent variable in one

value of the control variable but not

in the others.

O c. In a spurious relationship, the

independent variable has an effect

of roughly the same strength and in

the same direction in all values of

the control variable.

d. In a spurious relationship, the

effect of the independent variable

on the dependent variable runs in

the opposite direction in one value

of the control variable as it does in

another value of the control

variable.

moodle.quincy.edu

7:011

E

/ Week 14 / Final Exam

Question 1

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Remove flag

Which of the following is used to test

the null hypothesis?

Select one:

a. Both B and C

b. Confidence interval tests

c. P-values

d. Lambda tests

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

moodle.quincy.edu

7:011

III

Which of the following is true of a

spurious relationship?

Select one:

a. In a spurious relationship, the

independent variable is shown to

have no effect on the dependent

variable in all values of the control

variable.

b. In a spurious relationship, the

independent variable has an effect

on the dependent variable in one

value of the control variable but not

in the others.

O c. In a spurious relationship, the

independent variable has an effect

of roughly the same strength and in

the same direction in all values of

the control variable.

d. In a spurious relationship, the

effect of the independent variable

on the dependent variable runs in

the opposite direction in one value

of the control variable as it does in

another value of the control

variable.

moodle.quincy.edu

7:011

E

yuuuuuu

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Remove flag

Which of the following statistics

measures how well we can predict

values for the dependent variable once

we know values for the independent

variable?

Select one:

a. All of the above.

b. R-squared

c. Lambda.

d. Somers’ Dyx.

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

moodle.quincy.edu

7:01 7

III

Question 4

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

If a sample is smaller than

you

should use the Student’s t Distribution

(instead of using 1.96) to calculate

confidence intervals.

Select one:

a. 1.645

O

b. 1,000,000

C. 100

O

d. 1.96

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

moodle.quincy.edu

7:011

E

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

Which of the following is true of random

sampling?

Select one:

a. So long as we select our

sample randomly, we can be 100%

certain our findings accurately

represent the population being

studied.

b. The standard level of

confidence social scientists seek for

random samples is 50%.

O

c. Both A and B.

d. In a random sample, every

individual in the population has an

equal chance of being selected as

part of the sample.

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

lumn to

I

moodle.quincy.edu

7:01 7

III

Question 4

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Flag question

If a sample is smaller than

you

should use the Student’s t Distribution

(instead of using 1.96) to calculate

confidence intervals.

Select one:

a. 1.645

O

b. 1,000,000

C. 100

O

d. 1.96

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

moodle.quincy.edu

7:011

E

yuuuuuu

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Remove flag

Which of the following statistics

measures how well we can predict

values for the dependent variable once

we know values for the independent

variable?

Select one:

a. All of the above.

b. R-squared

c. Lambda.

d. Somers’ Dyx.

Previous page

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

moodle.quincy.edu

7:011

E

/ Week 14 / Final Exam

Question 1

Not yet answered

Points out of 2.00

Remove flag

Which of the following is used to test

the null hypothesis?

Select one:

a. Both B and C

b. Confidence interval tests

c. P-values

d. Lambda tests

Next page

Final Review

Jump to…

moodle.quincy.edu

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