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7:03 1
Exercises:
1. Student researchers at Hypothetical University used a Republican feeling thermometer (higher values
indicate greater support for the Republican Party) to measure their student population’s attitudes toward
the Republican Party. In their small random sample, scores were 25, 34, 50, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61, 66, 82,
and 91.
a.) Fill in the empty cells of the table below.
Student
Deviation from the mean
Squared deviation from the mean
Republican rating
25
1
2
34
3
50
4
55
5
56
6
58
7
60
8
61
9
66
10
82
11
91
b.) What is the standard deviation for this sample?
c.) What is the standard error?
d.) Multiply by two to roughly calculate the 95% confidence interval for this sample, and explain
what this confidence interval tells us in context of this example.
e.) A group of HU statistic students criticized this study for employing too small a sample. They
recommended a much larger random sample of 1,000 students. Using the same mean and standard
deviation as you calculated above, what would the standard error for a sample of 1,000 individuals from
this larger population be?
2. In a survey of 121 individuals, .29 of respondents said Congress was doing a good job.
a.) What is the standard error for this sample proportion?
b.) What is the 95% confidence interval for this sample proportion?
3. Use the following table to evaluate this hypothesis: In a comparison of countries, those having
economies less dependent on oil wealth will be more democratic than will those having economies more
dependent on oil wealth. Democracy is measured on a 7-point scale, with higher scores indicating more
democracy.
Mean democracy scale
Standard error
Oil-dependent economy?
No
4.7
.51
Yes
2.6
.28
a.) State the null hypothesis in context of this example.
b.) What is the standard error of the difference between these means?
c.) Perform a precise one-tailed test of significance for this difference. Based on this, should we
accept or reject the null hypothesis?
4. The following table illustrates the relationship between the party affiliation of US Senators and whether
they voted to repeal “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy.
Political Party
Democrat
Total
Republican
31
0
31
No
55
8
63
Yes
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7:03 1
2 of 3
ing table to evaluate this hypothesis: In a comparison of countries, those having
economies less dependent on oil wealth will be more democratic than will those having economies more
dependent on oil wealth. Democracy is measured on a 7-point scale, with higher scores indicating more
democracy.
Oil-dependent economy?
Standard error
Mean democracy scale
4.7
No
.51
Yes
2.6
.28
a.) State the null hypothesis in context of this example.
b.) What is the standard error of the difference between these means?
c.) Perform a precise one-tailed test of significance for this difference. Based on this, should we
accept or reject the null hypothesis?
4. The following table illustrates the relationship between the party affiliation of US Senators and whether
they voted to repeal the “don’t ask, don’t tellÃ¢â‚¬Â policy.
Political Party
Democrat
Total
Republican
31
0
31
No
55
8
63
Yes
Total
55
39
94
a.) Calculate Lambda for this example.
d.) Explain what this Lambda number tells us about the relationship between these variables.
EXTRA CREDIT. In an example from our text, researchers found that the R-squared statistic for the
relationship between the percentage of the population of a district that was African-American (the
independent variable) and the distance a district was from the nearest hazardous waste facility was .88.
What does this R-square allow you to say about the relationship between these variables?
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E
Question 10
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
What is true of Lambda?
Select one:
O a. Lambda is a standardized
.
measure of the variation for a
sample mean.
b. Lambda measures how much
better you can predict changes to
values of a dependent variable
when you know values of the
independent variable.
c. The dependent variable must
be an interval-level variable.
d. All of the above
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Final Review
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E
Question 9
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
To apply a precisely accurate one-tailed
test of significance, multiply the
standard error of the difference by
and then subtract the product
of this multiplication from the difference.
Select one:
a. the standard deviation.
b. 2
c. .05
d. 1.645
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Final Review
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7:011
E
Question 7
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
Which of the following is true of random
sampling error?
Select one:
a. As sample size increases,
random sampling error decreases.
b. All of the above.
c. The standard error is another
name for random sampling error.
d. The greater the variation, the
greater the random sampling error.
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Final Review
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E
/ Week 14 / Final Exam
Question 8
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
What is the variation component when
we are calculating the standard error of
a sample mean?
Select one:
a. the standard deviation.
b. the square root of p multiplied
by q.
O
c. the square root of n.
o
d. None of the above.
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Final Review
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7:011
E
Question 6
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
What of the following is the correct way
to calculate the variance of a sample
mean?
Select one:
a. Divide the sum of squares by n
– 1.
b. You cannot calculate the
variance for a sample mean.
a
c. Take the square root of the
sum of squares.
d. Divide the sum of squares by
n.
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Final Review
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7:02 7
E
Question 10
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
What is true of Lambda?
Select one:
O a. Lambda is a standardized
.
measure of the variation for a
sample mean.
b. Lambda measures how much
better you can predict changes to
values of a dependent variable
when you know values of the
independent variable.
c. The dependent variable must
be an interval-level variable.
d. All of the above
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:02 7
E
Question 9
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
To apply a precisely accurate one-tailed
test of significance, multiply the
standard error of the difference by
and then subtract the product
of this multiplication from the difference.
Select one:
a. the standard deviation.
b. 2
c. .05
d. 1.645
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
Question 7
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
Which of the following is true of random
sampling error?
Select one:
a. As sample size increases,
random sampling error decreases.
b. All of the above.
c. The standard error is another
name for random sampling error.
d. The greater the variation, the
greater the random sampling error.
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:02 7
E
/ Week 14 / Final Exam
Question 8
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
What is the variation component when
we are calculating the standard error of
a sample mean?
Select one:
a. the standard deviation.
b. the square root of p multiplied
by q.
O
c. the square root of n.
o
d. None of the above.
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
Question 6
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
What of the following is the correct way
to calculate the variance of a sample
mean?
Select one:
a. Divide the sum of squares by n
– 1.
b. You cannot calculate the
variance for a sample mean.
a
c. Take the square root of the
sum of squares.
d. Divide the sum of squares by
n.
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:01 7
III
Question 4
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
If a sample is smaller than
you
should use the Student’s t Distribution
(instead of using 1.96) to calculate
confidence intervals.
Select one:
a. 1.645
O
b. 1,000,000
C. 100
O
d. 1.96
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
Which of the following is true of random
sampling?
Select one:
a. So long as we select our
sample randomly, we can be 100%
certain our findings accurately
represent the population being
studied.
b. The standard level of
confidence social scientists seek for
random samples is 50%.
O
c. Both A and B.
d. In a random sample, every
individual in the population has an
equal chance of being selected as
part of the sample.
Previous page
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Final Review
lumn to
I
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7:011
E
/ Week 14 / Final Exam
Question 1
Points out of 2.00
Remove flag
Which of the following is used to test
the null hypothesis?
Select one:
a. Both B and C
b. Confidence interval tests
c. P-values
d. Lambda tests
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
yuuuuuu
Points out of 2.00
Remove flag
Which of the following statistics
measures how well we can predict
values for the dependent variable once
we know values for the independent
variable?
Select one:
a. All of the above.
b. R-squared
c. Lambda.
d. Somers’ Dyx.
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
III
Which of the following is true of a
spurious relationship?
Select one:
a. In a spurious relationship, the
independent variable is shown to
have no effect on the dependent
variable in all values of the control
variable.
b. In a spurious relationship, the
independent variable has an effect
on the dependent variable in one
value of the control variable but not
in the others.
O c. In a spurious relationship, the
independent variable has an effect
of roughly the same strength and in
the same direction in all values of
the control variable.
d. In a spurious relationship, the
effect of the independent variable
on the dependent variable runs in
the opposite direction in one value
of the control variable as it does in
another value of the control
variable.
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
Which of the following is true of random
sampling?
Select one:
a. So long as we select our
sample randomly, we can be 100%
certain our findings accurately
represent the population being
studied.
b. The standard level of
confidence social scientists seek for
random samples is 50%.
O
c. Both A and B.
d. In a random sample, every
individual in the population has an
equal chance of being selected as
part of the sample.
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
lumn to
I
moodle.quincy.edu
7:01 7
III
Question 4
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
If a sample is smaller than
you
should use the Student’s t Distribution
(instead of using 1.96) to calculate
confidence intervals.
Select one:
a. 1.645
O
b. 1,000,000
C. 100
O
d. 1.96
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
yuuuuuu
Points out of 2.00
Remove flag
Which of the following statistics
measures how well we can predict
values for the dependent variable once
we know values for the independent
variable?
Select one:
a. All of the above.
b. R-squared
c. Lambda.
d. Somers’ Dyx.
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
/ Week 14 / Final Exam
Question 1
Points out of 2.00
Remove flag
Which of the following is used to test
the null hypothesis?
Select one:
a. Both B and C
b. Confidence interval tests
c. P-values
d. Lambda tests
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
III
Which of the following is true of a
spurious relationship?
Select one:
a. In a spurious relationship, the
independent variable is shown to
have no effect on the dependent
variable in all values of the control
variable.
b. In a spurious relationship, the
independent variable has an effect
on the dependent variable in one
value of the control variable but not
in the others.
O c. In a spurious relationship, the
independent variable has an effect
of roughly the same strength and in
the same direction in all values of
the control variable.
d. In a spurious relationship, the
effect of the independent variable
on the dependent variable runs in
the opposite direction in one value
of the control variable as it does in
another value of the control
variable.
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
/ Week 14 / Final Exam
Question 1
Points out of 2.00
Remove flag
Which of the following is used to test
the null hypothesis?
Select one:
a. Both B and C
b. Confidence interval tests
c. P-values
d. Lambda tests
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
III
Which of the following is true of a
spurious relationship?
Select one:
a. In a spurious relationship, the
independent variable is shown to
have no effect on the dependent
variable in all values of the control
variable.
b. In a spurious relationship, the
independent variable has an effect
on the dependent variable in one
value of the control variable but not
in the others.
O c. In a spurious relationship, the
independent variable has an effect
of roughly the same strength and in
the same direction in all values of
the control variable.
d. In a spurious relationship, the
effect of the independent variable
on the dependent variable runs in
the opposite direction in one value
of the control variable as it does in
another value of the control
variable.
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
yuuuuuu
Points out of 2.00
Remove flag
Which of the following statistics
measures how well we can predict
values for the dependent variable once
we know values for the independent
variable?
Select one:
a. All of the above.
b. R-squared
c. Lambda.
d. Somers’ Dyx.
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:01 7
III
Question 4
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
If a sample is smaller than
you
should use the Student’s t Distribution
(instead of using 1.96) to calculate
confidence intervals.
Select one:
a. 1.645
O
b. 1,000,000
C. 100
O
d. 1.96
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
Which of the following is true of random
sampling?
Select one:
a. So long as we select our
sample randomly, we can be 100%
certain our findings accurately
represent the population being
studied.
b. The standard level of
confidence social scientists seek for
random samples is 50%.
O
c. Both A and B.
d. In a random sample, every
individual in the population has an
equal chance of being selected as
part of the sample.
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
lumn to
I
moodle.quincy.edu
7:01 7
III
Question 4
Points out of 2.00
Flag question
If a sample is smaller than
you
should use the Student’s t Distribution
(instead of using 1.96) to calculate
confidence intervals.
Select one:
a. 1.645
O
b. 1,000,000
C. 100
O
d. 1.96
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
yuuuuuu
Points out of 2.00
Remove flag
Which of the following statistics
measures how well we can predict
values for the dependent variable once
we know values for the independent
variable?
Select one:
a. All of the above.
b. R-squared
c. Lambda.
d. Somers’ Dyx.
Previous page
Next page
Final Review
moodle.quincy.edu
7:011
E
/ Week 14 / Final Exam
Question 1
Points out of 2.00
Remove flag
Which of the following is used to test
the null hypothesis?
Select one:
a. Both B and C
b. Confidence interval tests
c. P-values
d. Lambda tests
Next page
Final Review