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Question Description

I’m working on a nursing project and need support to help me understand better.

Competency

Identify multidimensional nursing care strategies for clients with reproductive system disorders.

Scenario

You work in a gynecological office, and your office has been asked to participate in a women’s health fair. The focus of the fair is health promotion. Preventative screening for female reproductive disorders is vital to identify and treat rapidly to produce the best patient outcomes. Preventative screening includes mammogram and Pap smear and should be performed based on recommended age and associated risk factors. To promote preventative screening, your office will be creating brochures to distribute at the health fair.

Instructions

Design a women’s health brochure by choosing one of the female reproductive disorders covered in this module. In the brochure, include the following:

Overview of the disease including disease process, signs and symptoms, and risk factors

Preventative screening

Diagnostics tests

Treatment

Multidimensional nursing care interventions


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ExampleBreast Cancer Brochure_04.19.20-1.pdf – Adobe Acrobat Reader DC (32-bit)
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PREVENTATIVE SCREENING
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
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SELF-BREAST EXAMINATION
Preventative measures for breast cancer include self-
breast examinations (SBE) (I). SBEs should be
conducted monthly seven days after the end of a
menstrual cycle (1). Clients should be aware of the
appearance and feel of their breasts so abnormalities
are more easily detected (1). Perform the SBE laying
down on the back (1). Put the right arm abov
arm above the head
and use the three center finger pads on the left hand to
feel the right breast in dime sized circles (1). Feel the
breast using three differing pressures: light, medium,
and firm (1). Start at the top outside area of the breast
near the armpit and move down the breast in a straight
line (1). When you reach the bottom of the breast, move
the fingers slightly inward and move back up to the top
of the breast (1). Continue this until you reach the center
of your chest (1). Repeat these steps on the left breast
by raising left arm above the head and using the
right three center finger pads to feel (1). Contact a
physician if signs and symptoms of breast cancer are
present or if there are questions about the SBE (1)
There are various diagnostic tests that can be utilized
for breast disorders, including breast cancer. They
include:
• Breast Biopsy: A sample of breast tissue i removed
to detect the presence of cand
of cancer and evaluate lymph
nodes of potential metastases. This is the only
definitive way to diagnose breast cancer (1)
• Liver Enzymes: Elevated levels could indicate
potential metastases (1)
• Calcium Level: Elevated levels could indicate bone
metastases (1)
•
Alkaline Phosphate Levels: Elevated levels could
indicate bone metastases (1)
• Mammography: X-ray of the breast to detect
abnormalities a
• Digital | Breast Tomosynthesis: Three-dimensional
image to detect breast abnormalities (1)
• Breast Ultrasound: Performed to identify lumps or
changes in dense breast tissue (1)
• Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Detailed image of the
breast to detect breast abnormalities (1)
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TREATMENT
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RISK FACTORS
Risk factors for breast cancer include:
Age over 65 years old: Increasing age is the primary risk
factor in
en and
d women until age 80 (1)
Female Gender: Account for 99% of cases (1)
Genetic factor: BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 are inherited
mutations that increase risk (1)
Family history of breast cancer: Having two first-degree
relatives with breast cancer increases risk (1)
of previous breast cancer. Five times more likely
to get breast cancer in the other breast than the
general population (1)
Alcohol consumption: 3-14 drinks per week (1)
increased fat in the abdomen and
postmenopausal obesity (1)
No breast feeding (1)
No pregnancies (1)
Onset of first period at an early or late age (1)
Smoking: Increases risk for all cancers (1)
Taking oral contraceptives: Risk decreases to normal
after 10 years of discontinuation (1)
Hormone therapy: Risk decreases to normal 5 years
after discontinuation (1)
05
History
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Obesitys Especially i
Miguel Serrat Escaminton Taktorom Riber, C.A. Ignatovic, D.D. Workeiman, M. L. (2013). Medical
Surgical Nursing Concepts for interprofesional collaborative care (hd) St. Louis hier
MAMMOGRAPHY
Treatment for breast cancer includes nonsurgical
measures and surgical measures. If treatment is not
effective, the client can also be placed on palliative care
or hospice to keep them as comfortable as possible (1)
NONSURGICAL
Nonsurgical treatment options for clients with breast
cancer include radiation therapy, chemotherapy,
hormone therapy, targeted therapy, adjunctive therapy,
and stem cell transplant (1)
SURGICAL
Surgical treatment options for clients with breast cancer
can be breast conserving or total (I). A lumpectomy
removes only the tumor (1). A partial mastectomy
removes the tumor, some surrounding tissue, and some
lymph nodes (1). A total removes all breast tissue and
some lymph nodes (1). A modified radical mastectomy
removes all breast tissue, some lymph nodes, and some
of the chest wall (1)
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A mammography can also be utilized to detect breast
abnormalities using x-radiation (x-ray) (I). Those with
average risk should begin annual screening mammography
at age 45 switching to once every two years at age 55 (1).
Women ages 40 to 45 can receive yearly mammograms if
they are at increased risk for breast cancer and would
benefit from earlier screenings (1)
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MULTIDIMENSIONAL CARE
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na physical,
BREAST
CANCER
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In healthcare, providing high-quality care to a client is
essential to have the client achieve positive outcomes. A
multidimensional approach is curating health care based
not only on targeting specific disease processes ranging
from primary to tertiary asso
to tertiary diseases, but also
also integrating
the
dividual needs of the client and community (2). This
is especially important in cases that are more complex,
such as breast cancer clients, who have a multitude of
needs to be met. The nurse must first perform a
emotional, psychosocial, financial,
and cultural assessment to determine the client’s needs
notional, psychosocial, financial, nutritional, spiritual,
and for the
the needs to be met (1). Care
Core interventions will
will be
altered based on the assessment findings. For the
physical needs to be met, the nurse will need to monitor
vital signs, all physiologic systems, laboratoru results
,
and diagnostic test results. The nurse will report
abnormalities to the provider and provide prescribed
eatment accordingly (1). Emotional stress and anxiety
are common in clients with breast cancer not only due to
the diagnosis, but also the adverse effects of treatments
(1) Treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation
can alter the client’s body. These alterations,
the cliente haby, radiation therapy,
such as losing hair or obtaining scars, can lower the
client’s self-esteem and body image (1). Therefore, the
nurse should be to discussing the client’s feelings
amigo
and provide information on support groups for the client
and his or her family (1). Treatments may also impact
nutritional status so the nurse should monitor intake and
.
output to ensure adequate nutrition is achieved (1). If
apply, the e nurse can provide
resources based on the financial status of the client and
the client with a social
social worker
(1). The financial
burden of health care carcer clients is substantial
in
War
because
treatments tend to be costly (1). The nurse can
also
and cultural contexts of the client. For example, if a
accommodate treatment based on the psychosocial
client’s religion discourages one form of treatment the
care team must alter the care plan and offer a different
solution 2. If the client engages in spiritual practices, the
nurse should provide information on connecting with a
chaplain of the religion in which he or she participates (1).
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REFERENCES
DISEASE PROCESS
Cancer is common characterized as impaired cellular
regulation (1) Breast cancer occurs when a cell transforms,
grows, and multiplies in the epithelial lining of the
mammary ducts or lobules (1). The two categories of breast
cancer are noninvasive and the more common, invasive (1)
Noninvasive breast cancer remains in the mammary duct
whereas invasive breast cancer grows into the surrounding
breast tissue and lymph nodes (1). Invasive breast cancer
can go into the blood and metastasize, which is the spread
of cancer cells to other parts of the body (1). Common sites
for metastasis are the bones, liver, lungs, and brain (1)
Signs and symptoms vary person to person but any
abnormal breast changes should be immediately reported
to the physician (1)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Signs and symptoms of breast cancer include:
• Hard lumps or knots in breast tissue (1)
• A feeling of fullness in the breasts (1)
• Dimpling in the breast tissue (1)
• Bulges or ridges of breast skin (1)
• Changes in the nipples (1)
• Bloody nipple discharge (1)
Itching, red, swollen, or painful breasts (1)
financial constraints
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connect the client was
1. Rebar, C. R., Ignatavicius, D.D., & Workman, M.
L. (2018). Medical-Surgical Nursing
Concepts for interprofessional
collaborative care (9th ed.). St. Louis
Elsevier
2. Heath, I., Rubinstein, A, Stange, K., & van Driel,
1.000
(2009, Apr. 2). Quality in primary health
care: A multidimensional approach to
complexity. BMJ 2009, 338, 911-913. Retrieved
from https://www.bmj.com/bmj/section-
pdf/186191?
path=/bmj/338/7700/Analysis.full.pdf
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