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SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students
Claudia S. Sample
School of Behavioral Sciences, Liberty University
Author Note
Claudia S. Sample (usually only included if author has an ORCID number)
I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Claudia S. Sample.
Email: cssample123456789@liberty.edu
Created by Christy Owen of Liberty University’s Online Writing Center
onlinewriting@liberty.edu; last date modified: April 13, 2022
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SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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Table of Contents
(Only Included for Easy Navigation; Hyperlinked for Quick Access)
Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students ……………………………… 6
Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7
Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7 ………………………………………………………………………………… 8
Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract …………………………………………………………………………. 9
Basic Formatting Elements …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Font ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Line Spacing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
Spaces After Punctuation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Footnotes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
Heading Levels—Level 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
Level 2 Heading …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Level 3 Heading ………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Level 4 Heading. Must be bolded and indented ½”. Add a period, one
space, and begin your content on the same line as shown here. ………………………………… 13
Level 5 Heading …………………………………………………………………. 13
Specific Elements of Academic Papers ……………………………………………………………………………. 13
Tables of Contents and Outlines …………………………………………………………………………… 13
Annotated Bibliographies ……………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
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Crediting Your Sources………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
Paraphrasing and Direct Quotes……………………………………………………………………………. 15
Paraphrasing ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
Block Quotes …………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
How Often to Cite Your Source in Each Paragraph ………………………………………………… 17
Rule for Omitting the Year of Publication ……………………………………………………………… 17
Arranging the Order of Resources in Your Citations ………………………………………………. 17
Two Works by the Same Author in the Same Year …………………………………………………. 18
Two Works by Two Different Authors with the Same Last Name ……………………………. 18
Three or More Authors Cited In-Text ……………………………………………………………………. 18
Number of Authors in the Reference List ………………………………………………………………. 19
Numbers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
Displaying Titles of Works in-Text …………………………………………………………………………………. 19
Primary Sources versus Secondary Sources ……………………………………………………………………… 20
Personal Communications ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Resources Canonically Numbered Sections (i.e., the Bible and Plays) …………………………………. 21
Bible and other Classical Works …………………………………………………………………………… 21
Plays …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Lectures and PowerPoints ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Dictionary Entries …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
Changes in Reference Entries …………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
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Electronic Sources ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
Adding Color ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Self-Plagiarism ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
Final Formatting Tweaks ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
Exhaustive Reference List Examples & Additional Helpful Resources ………………………………… 26
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
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Abstract
Begin your abstract at the left margin. This is the only paragraph that should not be indented.
Unless otherwise instructed, APA recommends an abstract be no more than 250 words. It should
generally not contain any citations or direct quotes. This should be a tight, concise summary of
the main points in your paper, not a step-by-step of what you plan to accomplish in your paper.
Avoid phrases such as “this paper will,” and just structure your sentences to say what you want
to say. The following three sentences exemplify a good abstract style: There are many
similarities and differences between the codes of ethics for the ACA and the AACC. Both include
similar mandates in the areas of —-, —, and —. However, each differs significantly in the areas
of —, —, and —. For more detailed information, see “Writing an Abstract” at
https://www.liberty.edu/casas/academic-success-center/wp-content/uploads/sites/28/2019/04/
Writing_an_Abstract_Revised_2012.pdf (note that you would not include any links in your
abstract). This is just now at 168 words, so eyeball how brief your abstract must be. Think of
your paper as a movie you want to sound enticing, and the abstract as the summary of the plot
you would share to draw people’s interest into wanting to come and see your movie. You want to
really hook and intrigue them. What you have to say is important! Remember to stay under 250,
words. Keywords highlight the search terms someone would use to find your paper in a database.
Keywords: main words, primary, necessary, search terms
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Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students
The title of your paper goes on the top line of the first page of the body (American
Psychological Association [APA], 2020, section 2.11). It should be centered, bolded, and in title
case (all major words—usually those with four+ letters—should begin with a capital letter)—see
p. 51 of your Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: Seventh Edition
(APA, 2020; hereinafter APA-7). It must match the title that is on your title page (see last line on
p. 32). As shown in the previous sentence, use brackets to denote an abbreviation within
parentheses (bottom of p. 159). Write out the full name of an entity or term the first time
mentioned before using its acronym (see citation in first sentence in this paragraph), and then use
the acronym throughout the body of the paper (section 6.25).
There are many changes in APA-7. One to mention here is that APA-7 allows writers to
include subheadings within the introductory section (APA, 2020, p. 47). Since APA-7 now
regards the title, abstract, and term “References” to all be Level-1 headings, a writer who opts to
include headings in his or her introduction must begin with Level-2 headings as shown above
(see section 2.27) for any divisions within the introductory section.
If you do choose to include headings in your introduction section (which is optional), be
sure to include two or more subheadings, since APA (2020) forbids stand-alone heading levels.
A second notable change in APA-7 is that writers are no longer required to cite their source every
single sentence that content from it is mentioned (section 8.1). As demonstrated in this paper,
since all of the content (other than the examples included for illustration and reference-entry
variation purposes) comes directly from the APA-7 itself, citations to the APA-7 are only
included for the first instance in each paragraph. Section and/or page numbers are included
parenthetically throughout for the sake of students who desire to know exactly where the stated
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rule appears in the APA-7 itself. In your academic papers, however, it is critical to include the
required author(s) and year, as applicable, for all citations that are included; this may include
more than one citation for each resource per paragraph, as required to avoid any confusion about
the source of that content.
Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing
Most beginning students have difficulty learning how to write papers and also format
papers correctly using the seventh edition of the APA manual. However, the Liberty University
Online Writing Center’s (OWC) mission includes helping students learn how to be autonomous,
proficient writers. The OWC also provides students with templates to help them with basic
formatting elements, but this sample paper is designed to help graduate and doctoral students
learn to master APA rules and formatting on their own, which will prove helpful as they progress
in their studies and work toward future publication in scholarly journals.
For the purpose of instruction, this paper will use second person (you, your), but third
person (this author) must be used in most student papers. First person (I, me, we, us, our) is not
generally permitted in academic papers. Students should refrain from using first or second person
in college courses (even though the APA manual encourages this in other writing venues) unless
the assignment instructions clearly permit such (as in the case of personal reflection sections or
life histories). If in doubt, students should clarify with their professors.
APA-7 delineates separate rules and guidelines between “student” and “professional”
writers (APA, 2020). Because a primary purpose of graduate and doctoral studies is to prepare
those students to publish professionally, Liberty University has decided to have undergraduate
students follow APA-7’s guidelines for “student papers,” and graduate/doctoral students follow
APA-7’s guidelines for “professional papers.” Separate templates are available for each level.
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This sample paper illustrates and discusses the rules and formatting of professional papers, as
required for all Liberty University graduate and doctoral courses using APA-7 style.
Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7
Most of these changes will be discussed in more detail below; this is just a very brief
overview here. APA-7 reverts back to only one space after closing punctuation in the body of the
paper (APA-6 required two spaces; APA, 2020, section 6.1). Student (undergraduate) papers no
longer include a running head or abstract (sections 2.2 and 2.8); professional (graduate/doctoral)
papers require an abstract but the running head is now the same on all pages (the added phrase
“Running head:” from APA-6 has been eliminated; see section 2.8). Title pages are different for
both student and professional formats. The title of a paper is no longer limited to 12 words
(section 2.4).
Citations of all resources with three or more authors now use the first author’s last name
and the term et al. (APA, 2020, section 8.17). Reference entries must name up to the first 19
authors before adding an ampersand and ellipsis (up from APA-6’s six authors; section 9.8).
APA-7 omits the phrase DOI and instead standardizes DOIs to be presented in hyperlink format
(i.e., https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1524838017742386; section 9.35). Formatting guidelines for
annotated bibliographies are included in APA-7 (section 9.51), as well as expanded and
standardized reference entry examples. As discussed above, it is no longer necessary to cite a
source every single time you refer to content gleaned from it as long as it is clear the content
comes from that source (section 8.1); APA-7 also expanded the specific location noted in the
citation to include page, paragraph, section (as used throughout this sample paper, to direct the
student to the exact relevant content), chapter, timestamp, etc. (section 8.13).
APA-7 allows for “self-plagiarism” (clarified and defined below). It also invites writers to
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highlight the most relevant work first, rather than just present all works in alphabetical order
(APA, 2020, section 8.12).
Heading-level formatting has changed, and APA-7 provides more flexibility in font and
line spacing (APA, 2020). The Bible must now be included in the reference list and its citations
must include the editor’s details and year (section 8.28); there are also new rules for dictionary
entries. Publisher city and state details are omitted from all reference entries except those
involving presentations or conferences, as is the phrase “retrieved from.” Hyperlinks should be
live, but they may be either presented as blue underlining or plain black text.
Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract
APA (2020) delineates separate formatting requirements for what it terms “student” and
“professional” papers. Its descriptions for those labels, however, suggests that it regards
undergraduate-level writing to fall within the student purview, and graduate/doctoral-level
writing (including dissertations and theses) to fall within the professional purview. Since a
significant goal in graduate and post-graduate studies is preparing those students to publish in
scholarly journals at and beyond graduation, it makes sense to train those students in the
formatting that is required for professionals. As such, Liberty University has opted to require the
APA-7’s “student” version format for all undergraduate assignments using APA, and its
“professional” version for all graduate and doctoral assignments. To that end, this being the
sample paper for professional formatting, it includes the additional elements required for such: a
running head (same on all pages), an author’s note, and an abstract. Graduate and doctoral
students will use this format. Note that the first “paragraph” under the author’s note is generally
only included if the author has an ORCID number, which most students will not have. However,
it is included in this sample paper and the corresponding template because the purpose of these
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resources is to prepare students to publish manuscripts post-graduation. The student’s full
address, however, is intentionally omitted from the Liberty University template and this sample
paper for privacy and safety reasons, since student papers are often unfortunately published
online and disclosing their home addresses could pose safety risks.
Basic Formatting Elements
Font
APA-7 does not prescribe a specific font or size (APA, 2020, section 2.19) but rather
allows for some choice (e.g., 12-point Times New Romans, 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 11point Georgia, or 10-point Lucinda Sans Unicode). Most journals and academic institutions will
have a preference, however, as even APA-7 acknowledges on p. 44. For this reason—and
because font size can easily be changed if an editor interested in publishing a student’s work
prefers a different font—Liberty University recommends that students use 12-point Times New
Romans or 11-point Calibri font for the body text in all academic papers. Data in charts, figures,
and tables should be presented in 8- to 14-point size in either Calibri, Arial, or Lucinda Sans
Unicode font. Students are not permitted to use any fonts such as script, calligraphy, poster,
decorative, or others not found in published scholarly journals. Since APA-7 itself authorizes a
variety of fonts and sizes, assignments will be gauged by word count rather than page count.
Word count constitutes the number of words within the body of the paper, and excludes the title
page, abstract, reference list, appendices, and other supplemental resources.
Line Spacing
APA-7 adds extra/blank lines on the title page (APA, 2020, sections 2.5, 2.7, 2.21). It also
specifies that spacing in tables and figures may be single-, 1-1/2-, or double-spaced; equations
can be triple- or quadruple-spaced. Footnotes, when used at the bottom of a page, should be
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single-spaced (section 2.21).
Spaces After Punctuation
APA-7 reverts back to just one space after closing punctuation in the body of the paper, as
well as in reference entries (APA, 2020, section 6.1). Ordinarily, it would be improper to have a
paragraph with only one sentence, though APA itself asserts that for its purposes “sentences and
paragraphs of any length are technically allowed.”1
Footnotes
This leads to another new rule in APA-7, one allowing the inclusion of footnotes (APA,
2020, section 2.13). Footnotes should be use very sparingly and are appropriate to include
information such as that in the prior section to alert the reader to supplemental material that is
available online for that thought. Though APA-7 authorizes placement of footnote content either
at the bottom of the page (as in this sample paper) or on a separate page after the reference list
(section 2.21), Liberty University recommends that student place them, when used, at the bottom
of the page, as shown here.
Heading Levels—Level 1
This sample paper uses primarily two levels of headings (Levels 1 and 2). APA style,
however, has five heading levels, which will be demonstrated briefly for visual purposes. See
section 2.27 of your APA-7 (APA, 2020) for more details on heading levels and formatting. In
APA-7, all heading levels are now bolded and in title case (capitalize each major word—usually
those with four or more letters, including hyphenated compound words). Do not capitalize
articles (a, an, the) in headings unless they begin a title or follow a colon. Level 1 headings are
centered, with the content falling on the line beneath each, in standard paragraph format.
1 See https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/05/index.html
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Many students misunderstand that you progress from Level 1 to Level 2 to Level 3 to
Level 4 to Level 5, but that is not correct. In fact, your paper may have only Level 1 headings, or
just Levels 1 and 2. The rule of thumb is that you must have at least two of each heading level
that you use, otherwise omit that heading level.
Headings are basically styling ways of organizing your paper, without using an outline
format. APA specifies five levels of headings; you would likely never use Level 5 and only very
rarely use Level 4 as a student. Think of each level as the different levels in an outline. Roman
numerals, for example, would be Level 1 headings. Capital letters would be Level 2 headings.
Numerals would be Level 3 headings. Lowercase letters would be Level 4. And lowercase
Roman numerals would be Level 5. You must always have two or more of each subheading, but
you do not need every level. You start with Level 1 and work down from that (but not
consecutive 1-2-3-4-5). Under a Level 1, you would either have two+ Level 2 headings or none
at all (just one big section in paragraphs before the next Level 1 section).
Special note about conclusion sections: Please note that some of the sample papers
published by APA to demonstrate proper APA-7 format (including the “professional” sample on
pp. 50-60 of the APA-7 manual) depict the “Conclusion” section with a Level-2 heading. This is
limited to empirical papers that are being submitted for publication in scholarly journals, as those
conclusions pertain to the “Discussion” sections in such papers and are not conclusions of the
overall papers themselves. Conclusions in academic papers at Liberty University will be Level 1
headings (including dissertations and theses, which are divided by chapters, unlike journal article
manuscripts).
Level 2 Heading
Level 2 headings are left-justified (APA, 2020, p. 48). The supporting information is
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posed in standard paragraph form beneath it. Never use only one of any level of heading. You
must use two or more of any level you use, though not every paper will require more than one
level. The heading levels are simply demonstrated here for visual purposes, but you would
always have two or more of each under a larger heading, as shown throughout all the other
sections of this sample paper.
Level 3 Heading
Level 3 headings are bolded, left-justified, and italicized; the content falls on the line
underneath, as with Levels 1 and 2.
Level 4 Heading. Must be bolded and indented ½”. Add a period, one space, and begin
your content on the same line as shown here.
Level 5 Heading. Same as Level 4, but also italicized. Despite heavy writing experience,
this author has never used Level 5 headings.
Specific Elements of Academic Papers
Tables of Contents and Outlines
APA (2020) does not regulate every type of paper and some elements in various
assignments are not addressed in the APA-7 manual, including outlines and tables of content. In
those cases, follow your professor’s instructions and the grading rubric for the content and
format of the outline or annotations, and use standard APA formatting for all other elements
(such as running head, title page, body, reference list, 1″ margins, double-spacing, permitted
font, etc.). Note that most academic papers will not require a table of contents, nor would one be
appropriate. One was included in this paper simply for ease-of-access so students could go
directly to the content they want to see. Generally speaking, no table of contents would be
necessary for papers less than 20 pages of content, unless otherwise required by your professor.
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That being said, when organizing outlines in APA format, set your headings up in the
proper levels (making sure there are at least two subheadings under each level), and then use
those to make the entries in the outline. As discussed above, Level 1 headings become uppercase
Roman numerals (I, II, III), Level 2 headings become capital letters (A, B, C), Level 3 headings
become numbers (1, 2, 3), Level 4 headings become lowercase letters (a, b, c), and Level 5
headings become lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii, iii). Many courses now require “working
outlines,” which are designed to have the bones and foundational framework of the paper in
place (such as title page, abstract, body with title, outline/heading divisions, supporting content
with citations, and references), without the full “meat” that fills out and forms a completed paper.
Annotated Bibliographies
Many Liberty University courses also now require students to prepare and submit an
annotated bibliography as a foundational step to building a research paper. There is significant
merit in these assignments, as they teach students to critique the resources they have found and
rationalize why each is relevant for their paper’s focus. APA (2020) includes a section on
annotated bibliographies (9.51; see the example provided on p. 308). The appendix attached to
this sample paper also includes a sample annotated bibliography.
Appendices
Appendices, if any, are attached after the reference list (APA, 2020, section 2.14). You
must refer to them (i.e., “callout”) in the body of your paper so that your reader knows to look
there (see the yellow-highlighted callouts to Table 1 on p. 54 and to Footnote 1 on p. 55 of your
APA-7 for visuals on how this should appear in your paper). The word “Appendix” is singular;
use it to refer to individual appendices. APA-7 regards it as a Level 1 heading so it should be
bolded. I attached a sample Annotated Bibliography as a visual aid (see Appendix). You will see
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that I included the title “Appendix” at the top of the page and formatted it in standard APA
format beneath that. Because I only included one appendix, it is simply titled as such. If there are
more appendices, assign a letter to each and denote each by that: “Appendix A” and “Appendix
B.”
Crediting Your Sources
Paraphrasing and Direct Quotes
Paraphrasing is rephrasing another’s idea in one’s own words by changing the wording
sufficiently without altering the meaning (remember not to just change a word here or there or
rearrange the order of the original source’s wording). Quoting is using another’s exact words.
Both need to be cited; failure to do so constitutes plagiarism. Include the author(s) and year for
paraphrases, and the author(s), year, and page or paragraph number for direct quotes. APA-7 also
expands this to include figure number, time stamp, etc.—whatever detail is necessary to get the
reader directly to that content. Page numbers should be used for any printed material (books,
articles, etc.), and paragraph numbers should be used in the absence of page numbers (online
articles, webpages, etc.; see APA, 2020, section 8.13). Use p. for one page and pp. (not italicized
in your paper) for more than one (section 8.25). Use para. for one paragraph and paras. (also not
italicized in your paper) for two or more (section 8.28). For example: (Perigogn & Brazel, 2012,
pp. 12–13) or (Liberty University, 2019, para. 8). Section 8.23 of the APA (2020) manual
specifies that it is not necessary to include a page or paragraph number for paraphrases (just for
direct quotes), but writers may choose to do so to help their readers find that content in the cited
resource.
When naming authors in the text of the sentence itself (called a narrative citation), use the
word “and” to connect them. For example, Perigogn and Brazel (2012) contemplated that . . .
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Use an ampersand (&) in place of the word “and” in parenthetical citations and reference lists:
(Perigogn & Brazel, 2012).
Paraphrasing
Only use quotes when the original text cannot be said as well in your own words or
changing the original wording would change the author’s meaning. You cannot simply change
one word and omit a second; if you paraphrase, the wording must be substantially different, but
with the same meaning. Regardless, you would need to cite the resource you took that
information from. For example, Benoit et al. (2010) wrote that “although, a link between
attachment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has been established, the
mechanisms involved in this link have not yet been identified” (p. 101). A paraphrase for that
quote might be: A link between dysfunctional attachment and the development of PTSD has
been made, though there is insufficient data to determine exactly how this mechanism works
(Benoit et al., 2010).
Block Quotes
Quotes that are 40 or more words must be blocked, with the left margin of the entire
quote indented ½ inch. Maintain double-spacing of block quotes. APA prefers that you introduce
quotes but note that the punctuation falls at the end of the direct quote, with the page number
outside of that (which is contrary to punctuation for non-blocked quotes). For example, Alone
(2008) claims:2
Half of a peanut butter sandwich contains as much bacteria as the wisp of the planet
Mars. Thus, practicality requires that Mrs. Spotiker nibble one bit at a time until she is
assured that she will not perish from ingesting it too quickly. (p. 13)
2
Note that there are no quotation marks for block quotes, as shown in the example.
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Usually quotes within quotes use single quotation marks; however, use double quotation marks
for quotes within blocked quotes, since there are no other quotation marks involved. Also
understand that direct quotes should be used sparingly in scholarly writing; paraphrasing is much
preferred in APA format (APA, 2020, section 8.23), as it demonstrates that you read, understood,
and assimilated other writers’ content into one cohesive whole.
How Often to Cite Your Source in Each Paragraph
As already mentioned above, APA’s (2020) new official rule is that you no longer must
cite your source every single time you refer to material you gleaned from it (section 8.1). It is
now acceptable to cite your source the first time you refer to content from it in your paragraph,
and then not again in that same paragraph unless your phrasing does not make the source of your
content clear. This is demonstrated throughout this sample paper.
Rule for Omitting the Year of Publication
That being said, APA (2020) has clarified its special rule that excludes the year of
publication in subsequent narrative in-text citations (when you name the authors in the text of the
sentence itself), after the first narrative citation in each paragraph. It should continue to appear in
all parenthetical citations (see section 8.16). For example, Alone (2008) portrays imagery of Mrs.
Spotiker. This includes her devouring a peanut butter sandwich (Alone, 2008). Alone conveys
this through the lens of astronomy. Note that the year of publication was omitted from the second
narrative citation (underlined for visual purposes).
Arranging the Order of Resources in Your Citations
If the material you cited was referred to in multiple resources, separate different sets of
authors with semicolons, arranged in the order they appear (alphabetically by the first author’s
last name) in the reference list (i.e., Carlisle, n.d.-a; Prayer, 2015) (APA, 2020, section 8.12).
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APA-7 now invites writers to prioritize or highlight one or more sources as most prominent or
relevant for that content by placing “those citations first within parentheses in alphabetical order
and then insert[ing] a semicolon and a phrase, such as ‘see also,’ before the first of the remaining
citations” (APA., 2020, p. 263)—i.e., (Cable, 2013; see also Avramova, 2019; De Vries et al.,
2013; Fried & Polyakova, 2018). Periods are placed after the closing parenthesis, except with
indented (blocked) quotes.
Two Works by the Same Author in the Same Year
Authors with more than one work published in the same year are distinguished by lowercase letters after the years, beginning with a (APA, 2020, section 8.19). For example, Double
(2008a) and Double (2008b) would refer to resources by the same author published in 2008.
When a resource has no date, use the term n.d. followed by a dash and the lowercase letter (i.e.,
Carlisle, n.d.-a and Carlisle, n.d.-b; see APA, 2020, section 8.19).
Two Works by Two Different Authors with the Same Last Name
Citations in the body of the paper should include only the last names, unless you have
two or more resources authored by individuals with the same last name in the same year (or are
citing a personal communication). When there are two different authors with the same last name
but different first names who published in the same year, include the first initials: Brown, J.
(2009) and Brown, M. (2009) (APA, 2020, section 8.20).
Three or More Authors Cited In-Text
When referring to material that comes from three or more authors, APA-7 now requires
that all citations name just the first author’s last name followed by the words et al. (without
italics) (APA, 2020, section 8.17). Et al. is a Latin abbreviation for et alii, meaning “and others,”
which is why the word “al.” has a period, whereas “et” does not. Alone et al. (2011) stipulated
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that peacocks strut. Every single time I refer to their material, I would apply APA-7’s rule: Alone
et al. (2011) or (Alone et al., 2011). Since et al. denotes plural authors, the verb must be plural to
match, too: Alone et al. (2011) are… This applies to all citations within the body of the paper
with three or more authors.
Number of Authors in the Reference List
For resources with 20 or fewer authors in the reference list, write out all of the authors’
last names with first and middle initials, up to and including the 20th author (APA, 2020, section
9.8). APA-7 has a special rule for resources with 21 or more authors: Write out the first 19
authors’ last names with initials, insert an ellipsis (…) in place of the ampersand (&), and finish
it with the last name and initials of the last author. See example #4 provided on page 317 of your
APA-7, as well as this paper’s reference list for visuals of these variances (Acborne et al. 2011;
Kalnay et al., 1996).
Numbers
Numbers one through nine must be written out in word format (APA, 2020, section 6.33),
with some exceptions (such as ages—see section 6.32). Numbers 10 and up must be written out
in numerical format (section 6.32). Always write out in word format any number that begins a
sentence (section 6.33).
Displaying Titles of Works in-Text
The names of journals, books, plays, and other long works, if mentioned in the body of
the paper, are italicized in title case (APA, 2020, section 6.17). Titles of articles, lectures, poems,
chapters, website articles, and songs should be in title case, encapsulated by quotation marks
(section 6.7). The year of publication should follow the author’s name, whether in narrative or
parenthetical format: Perigogn and Brazel (2012) anticipated…, or (Perigogn & Brazel, 2012).
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The page or paragraph number must follow after the direct quote. Second (2015) asserted that
“paper planes can fly to the moon” (p. 13). You can restate that with a parenthetical citation as:
“Paper planes can fly to the moon” (Second, 2015, p. 13). Second (2011) is another resource by
the same author in a different year.
Primary Sources versus Secondary Sources
APA (2020) strongly advocates against using secondary sources; rather, it favors you
finding and citing the original (primary) resource whenever possible (section 8.6). On the rare
occasion that you do find it necessary to cite from a secondary source, both the primary (who
said it) and secondary (where the quote or idea was mentioned) sources should be included in the
in-text citation information. If the year of publication is known for both resources, include both
years in the citation (section 8.6). Only the secondary source should be listed in the reference
section, however. Use “as cited in” (without the quotation marks) to indicate the secondary
source. For example, James Morgan hinted that “goat milk makes the best ice cream” (as cited in
Alone, 2008, p. 117). Morgan is the primary source (he said it) and Alone is the secondary
source (he quoted what Morgan said). Only the secondary source is listed in the reference section
(Alone, and not Morgan) because if readers want to confirm the quote, they know to go to page
117 of Alone’s book.
Personal Communications
APA (2020) rationalizes the exclusion of references for information obtained through
personal communication (such as an interview, email, telephone call, postcard, text message, or
letter) in the reference list because your readers will not be able to go directly to those sources
and verify the legitimacy of the material. Instead, these items are cited only in the body of the
paper. You must include the individual’s first initial, his or her last name, the phrase “personal
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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communication” (without the quotation marks), and the full date of such communication (section
8.9). As with other citations, such citations may be either narrative or parenthetical. For example,
L. Applebaum advised him to dip pretzel rolls in cheese fondue (personal communication, July
13, 2015). The alternative is that he was advised to dip pretzel rolls in cheese fondue (L.
Applebaum, personal communication, July 13, 2015). Note that there is no entry for Applebaum
in the reference list below.
Resources Canonically Numbered Sections (i.e., the Bible and Plays)
These resources should be cited in book format (APA, 2020, Section 9.42). The Bible and
other religious works are generally regarded as having no author; an annotated version would be
treated as having an editor. Include republished dates as necessary. The OWC will publish a list
of reference entries for various Bible versions on its APA Quick Guide webpage.
Bible and other Classical Works
Works such as the Bible, ancient Greek or Roman works, and other classical works like
Shakespeare must be cited in the body of the paper (APA, 2020, section 8.28). APA-7 now also
requires that they be included in the reference list, too (section 9.42), which is a significant
change from APA-6. Republished dates are included as well (see section 9.41). As such, you
would add a parenthetical phrase at the end of your reference entry with the original publication
details; note that there should be no punctuation following such parenthetical content at the end
of a reference entry (the reference entries depicting this in the reference list below are correctly
punctuated).
Citations for the Bible will include the Bible version’s name in the author’s position (as
an anonymous work), original and republished years, and then the book chapter/verse (spelled
out) in place of the page number (i.e., King James Bible, 1769/2017, Genesis 3:8)—see sections
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8.28 and 9.42. Note that APA (2020) requires book titles to be italicized in every venue,
including citations and reference entries. Because Liberty University is a distinctly-Christian
institution and many of its courses require biblical integration, most if not all of its students will
cite the Bible in virtually every course. The examples provided on pp. 274 and 325 of APA-7 are:
(note the italics in each)
•
Narrative citation: King James Bible (1769/2017)
•
Parenthetical citation: (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Song of Solomon 8:6)
•
Reference entry: King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online.
https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)
Plays
When citing plays, “cite the act, scene, and line(s), in a single string, separated by
periods. For example, ‘1.3.36-37’ refers to Act 1 Scene 3, Lines 36-37” (APA, 2020, section
8.28; see also example #37 on p. 325).
Lectures and PowerPoints
APA (2020) has expanded and standardized its rules for citations and reference entries in
an effort to best credit the original sources. It now includes rules for crediting content in course
or seminar handouts, lecture notes, and PowerPoint presentations (see #102 on p. 347). When
citing a PowerPoint presentation, include the slide number rather than the page number. For
purposes of Liberty University course presentations and lectures (which are not readily available
to the public), reference each as a video lecture with the URL (if available) for the presentation,
naming the presenter(s) in the author’s position. Include the course number, lecture title, and
enough details for others to identify it within that course, in a sort of book format, naming
Liberty University as publisher. Peters (2012) is an example of this in the reference list of this
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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paper. If the presenter for a Liberty University class lecture is not named, credit Liberty
University as the author; see Liberty University (2020) in the reference list below as an example.
Dictionary Entries
In keeping with its efforts to standardize reference entries, APA (2020) now requires
citation and referencing of word definitions from dictionaries to follow the same rules for
chapters in an edited book (see #47 and #48 on p. 328; section 8.13). As such, you will now
name either the individual, group, or corporate author of the dictionary in the author’s place (e.g.,
Merriam-Webster, n.d.). If you searched online, include the retrieval date and the URL to the
exact webpage. If you used a hard copy book, include the publisher details. The in-text citation
in the body of the paper would follow standard author/year format (e.g., Merriam-Webster, n.d.).
Changes in Reference Entries
There are a number of notable changes in APA-7 from past versions. For the most part,
these simplify and unify the formats to be more consistent across the different resource venues.
Some of these have already been discussed above (i.e., naming up to 19 authors’ names before
adding an ellipsis, and crediting authors and editors of classical works and dictionaries). Other
changes include italicizing names of webpages and website resources in the reference list (APA,
2020, section 6.22), as well as book titles even when named in the author’s position (such as
King James Bible). The city and state locations of publishers are no longer required; only include
those details “for works that are associated with a specific location, such as conference
presentations” (p. 297, section 9.31). Issue numbers are required for all journal articles that have
such, regardless of what page number each issue begins with (section 9.25). If two or more
publishers are listed on the copyright page, include all of them in the order listed, separated by
semicolons (section 9.29). Omit the word Author in the publisher’s place when it is the same as
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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the author (section 9.24).
Electronic Sources
Note that since the APA 6th edition was published in 2010, great strides have been made
in online and electronic resource accessibility, and APA’s position on electronic resources has
shifted to embrace this. More and more resources are available electronically through the
Internet. The advent of this increased availability has resulted in APA-7’s effort to standardize
the formatting of resources, which in turn simplifies them to some extent. All reference entries
follow the same basic details: Author(s), year of publication, name of resource, and location
details (i.e., either journal name/volume/issue/page numbers, or book publisher, or webpage).
APA (2020) requires inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in the references
whenever available (section 9.34); if not, then a webpage, if available. In keeping with its
unification of resources, APA-7 now standardizes all DOIs and URLs to be presented in
https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1524838017742386 format. The phrase “Retrieved from” is now
excluded except when the content may have changed (such as dictionary entries, Twitter profiles,
Facebook pages; see section 9.16). APA-7 requires all hyperlinks to be active (so your reader can
click on one to go directly to that webpage), but they may appear as either blue-underlined text
or simple black text (section 9.35). There should be no period after any URL. APA-7 no longer
requires authors to break long URLs with soft returns (hold down the Shift key and press the
Enter key) at forward slashes, periods, or underscores to avoid unsightly spacing gaps, but it may
be best to do so in academic papers.
Adding Color
Though APA (2020) authorizes writers to include the use of color in photographs and
figures (section 7.26), Liberty University discourages this in academic papers. It risks becoming
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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distracting for both students in their quest to be creative, and professors in their quest to focus on
academic content.
Self-Plagiarism
APA (2020) also invites writers to repurpose some of their work in future papers.
Specifically, APA-7 states that:
In specific circumstances, authors may wish to duplicate their previously used works
without quotation marks or citation …, feeling that extensive self-referencing is
undesirable or awkward and that rewording may lead to inaccuracies. When the
duplicated material is limited in scope, this approach is permissible. (p. 8.3)
APA-7 adds “Do not use quotation marks or block quotation formatting around your own
duplicated material” (p. 256).
Liberty University, however, has stringent rules against self-plagiarism, as do many
scholarly journals. Liberty University students receive grades for their class papers; those who
have received feedback and a grade from a prior professor on a prior paper have an advantage
over their classmates, both in having the benefit of that feedback/grade and in not having to write
a whole paper from scratch during the subsequent class. Student papers are also submitted to
SafeAssign to deter plagiarism. For these reasons, Liberty University expressly forbids students
using significant portions of a prior paper in a subsequent course (either a retake of the same
course or a new class altogether). It is conceivable that students who are building their
knowledge base in a subject matter—particularly at the graduate and post-graduate levels—
would reasonably justify incorporating brief excerpts from past papers into current ones. In such
case, Liberty University authorizes students to utilize APA-7’s disclosure (i.e., “I have previously
discussed”), along with a citation to the prior class paper and a reference entry (i.e., Owen, 2012;
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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Yoo et al., 2016). Such self-references and re-use of content from prior papers should be used
sparingly and disclosed fully in the current paper; that content should not constitute a significant
portion of any academic assignment, however.
Final Formatting Tweaks
The templates provided by Liberty University are already formatted with proper spacing,
margins, heading level structure, and hanging indents, as necessary. With the exceptions of the
title page, figures, and equations, papers in APA format should be double-spaced throughout,
with no extra spacing between lines. Academic papers at Liberty University should also be in
one of the accepted fonts throughout (recommended: Times New Romans, 12-point font).
Sometimes when you format your paper or cut-and-paste material into it, things get skewed. One
quick way to ensure that your paper appears correct in these regards is to do a final formatting
tweak after you have completed your paper. Hold down the “Ctrl” button and press the “A” key,
which selects and highlights all of the text in your paper. Then go to the Home tab in Microsoft
Word and make sure that whichever acceptable font/size you choose to use is selected in the Font
box. Next, click on the arrow at the bottom of the Paragraph tab. Set your spacing before and
after paragraphs to “0 pt” and click the “double” line spacing. The extra spacing required on the
title page is already programmed into the template and should not change even when you
complete these actions.
Exhaustive Reference List Examples & Additional Helpful Resources
The reference list at the end of this paper includes an example of a myriad of different
sources and how each is formatted in proper APA-7 format. One example of each of the primary
types of resources will be included in the reference list, as cited in the body of this paper.
Remember that, for purposes of this paper only, many of the sources cited in the body of the
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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paper were provided for illustrative purposes only and thus are fictional, so you will not be able
to locate them if you searched online. Nevertheless, in keeping with APA-7 style, all resources
cited in the body of the paper are included in the reference list and vice versa (except for personal
communications, per APA-7’s published exceptions). Be absolutely sure that every resource cited
in the body of your paper is also included in your reference list (and vice versa), excepting only
those resources with special rules, such as personal communications and primary sources you
could not access directly.
The reference list in this paper is fairly comprehensive and will include a book by one
author who also appears as one of many authors in another resource (Alone, 2008; Alone et al.,
2011); chapters in edited books (Balsam et al., 2019; Haybron, 2008; Perigogn & Brazel, 2012;
Weinstock et al., 2003); electronic version of book (Strong & Uhrbrock, 1923); electronic only
book (O’Keefe, n.d.); edited books with and without DOIs, with multiple publishers (Hacker
Hughes, 2017; Schmid, 2017); work in an anthology (Lewin, 1999); journal articles (Andrews,
2016; Carlisle, n.d.-a, n.d.-b; De Vries R. et al., 2013; McCauley & Christiansen, 2019);
newspaper article (Goldman, 2018; Guarino, 2017); online webpages (Liberty University, 2019;
Prayer, 2015); resource with corporate author as publisher (American Psychological Association,
2020); resources by two authors with the same last name but different first names in the same
year of publication (Brown, J., 2009; Brown, M., 2009); two resources by same author in the
same year (Double, 2008a, 2008b; Carlisle, n.d.-a, n.d.-b); two resources by the same author in
different years (Second, 2011, 2015); resource with 20 authors (maximum allowed by APA-7
before special rule applies) (Acborne et al., 2011); resource with 21 or more authors (Kalnay et
al., 1996); dictionary entries (American Psychological Association, n.d.; Graham, 2019;
Merriam-Webster, n.d.); Liberty University class lecture using course details (Peters, 2012);
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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PowerPoint slides or lecture notes, not including course details (Canan & Vasilev, 2019); citing a
student’s paper submitted in a prior class, in order to avoid self-plagiarism (Owen, 2012);
unpublished manuscript with a university cited (Yoo et al., 2016); code of ethics (American
Counseling Association, 2014); diagnostic manual (American Psychiatric Association, 2013);
religious and classical works, including the Bible (Aristotle, 350 BC/1994; King James Bible,
1769/2017; Shakespeare, 1623/1995); dissertation or thesis (Hollander, 2017; Hutcheson, 2012);
review of a book (Schatz, 2000); video (Forman, 1975); podcast (Vedentam, 2015); recorded
webinar (Goldberg, 2018); YouTube or other streaming video (University of Oxford, 2018); clip
art or stock image (GDJ, 2018); map (Cable, 2013); photograph (McCurry, 1985); data set (Pew
Research Center, 2018); measurement instrument (Friedlander et al., 2002); manual for a test,
scale, or inventory (Tellegen & Ben-Porah, 2011); test, scale, or inventory itself (Project
Implicit, n.d.); report by a government agency or other organization (National Cancer Institute,
2018); report by individual authors at a government agency or other organization (Fried &
Polyakova, 2018); annual report (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2017); conference
session (Fistek et al., 2017); and webpages (Avramova, 2019; Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, 2018; National Nurses United, n.d.; U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.).
Lastly, below are a few webpages that address critical topics, such as how to avoid
plagiarism and how to write a research paper. Be sure to check out Liberty University’s Online
Writing Center (https://www.liberty.edu/online/casas/writing-center/) for more tips and tools, as
well as its Facebook page (https://www.facebook.com/groups/LUOWritingCenter). Remember
that these links are only provided for your easy access and reference throughout this sample
paper, but web links and URLs should never be included in the body of scholarly papers; just in
the reference list. Writing a research paper (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zaa-PTexW2E
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS
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or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNT6w8t3zDY and avoiding plagiarism
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeCrUINa6nU).
Conclusion
The conclusion to your paper should provide your readers with a concise summary of the
main points of your paper (though not via cut-and-pasted sentences used above). It is a very
important element, as it frames your whole ideology and gives your readers their last impression
of your thoughts. Be careful not to introduce new content in your conclusion.
After your conclusion, if you are not using the template provided by the Online Writing
Center, insert a page break at the end of the paper so that the reference list begins at the top of a
new page. Do this by holding down the “Ctrl” key and then clicking the “Enter” key. You will go
to an entirely new page in order to start the reference list. The word “References” (not in
quotation marks) should be centered and bolded. Items in the reference list are presented
alphabetically by the first author’s last name and are formatted with hanging indents (the
second+ lines of each entry are indented 1/2” from the left margin). APA authorizes the use of
singular “Reference” if you only have one resource.3 Students would, of course, NOT include
any color-coding or footnotes in their reference entries. However, for the sake of clarity and
ease in identifying what each entry represents, each one included in the reference list of this
sample paper is color-coordinated to its corresponding footnote, with a brief description of what
each depicts.
3
https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/creating-reference-list.pdf
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
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References
Acborne, A., Finley, I., Eigen, K., Ballou, P., Gould, M. C., Blight, D., Callum, M., Feist, M.,
Carroll, J. E., Drought, J., Kinney, P., Owen, C., Owen, K., Price, K., Harlow, K.,
Edwards, K., Fallow, P., Pinkley, O., Finkel, F., & Gould, P. P. (2011). The emphasis of
the day after tomorrow. Strouthworks. 4
Alone, A. (2008). This author wrote a book by himself. Herald Publishers. 5
Alone, A., Other, B., & Other, C. (2011). He wrote a book with others, too: Arrange
alphabetically with the sole author first, then the others. Herald Publishers. 6
American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics.
https://www.counseling.org/knowledge-center 7
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(5th ed.). https://www.doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596 8
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Positive transference. In APA dictionary of
psychology. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://dictionary.apa.org/positivetransference 9
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-00010
4
Resource with 20 authors (maximum allowed by APA before special rule applies).
5
Entry by author who also appears as one of many authors in another resource (single author
appears first in list).
6
Multiple authors appear after same single-author resource.
7
Code of ethics.
8
Diagnostic manual.
9
Entry in a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia, with group author.
10
Resource with corporate author as publisher.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
31
Andrews, P. M. (2016). Congruence matters. Educational Leadership, 63(6), 12-15. 11
Aristotle. (1994). Poetics (S. H. Butcher, Trans.). The internet Classics Archive.
http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/poetics.html (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.) 12
Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, heathy life? Think age-positive.
CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-lifeintl/index.html 13
Balsam, K. F., Martell, C. R., Jones, K. P., & Safren, S. A. (2019). Affirmative cognitive
behavior therapy with sexual and gender minority people. In G. Y. Iwamasa & P. A.
Hays (Eds.), Culturally responsive cognitive behavior therapy: Practice a supervision
(2nd ed., pp. 287-314). American Psychological Association.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0000119-012 14
Benoit, M., Bouthillier, D., Moss, E., Rousseau, C., & Brunet, A. (2010). Emotion regulation
strategies as mediators of the association between level of attachment security and PTSD
symptoms following trauma in adulthood. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 23(1), 101-118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615800802638279
Brown, J. (2009). Ardent anteaters. Brockton.
Brown, M. (2009). Capricious as a verb. Journal of Grammatical Elements, 28(6), 11-12. 15
11
Journal article without DOI, from most academic research databases or print version.
12
Ancient Greek or Roman work.
13
Webpage on a news website.
14
Chapter in an edited book with DOI.
15
Resources by two authors with the same last name but different first names in the same year of
publication. Arrange alphabetically by the first initials.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
32
Cable, D. (2013). The racial dot map [Map]. University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for
Public Service. https://demographics.coopercenter.org/Racial-Dot-Map 16
Canan, E., & Vasilev, J. (2019, May 22). [Lecture notes on resource allocation]. Department of
Management Control and Information Systems, University of Chile. https:// uchilefau.
academia.edu/ElseZCanan 17
Carlisle, M. A. (n.d.-a). Erin and the perfect pitch. Journal of Music, 21(3), 16-17. http:// makesure-it-goes-to-the-exact-webpage-of-the-source-otherwise-don’t-include 18
Carlisle, M. A. (n.d.-b). Perfect pitch makes sweet music. Journal of Music, 24(8), 3-6. http://
make-sure-it-goes-to-the-exact-webpage-of-the-source-otherwise-don’t-include
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of
developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/highrisk/index.htm 19
De Vries R., Nieuwenhuijze, M., Buitendijk, S. E., & the members of Midwifery Science Work
Group. (2013). What does it take to have a strong and independent profession of
midwifery? Lessons from the Netherlands. Midwifery, 29(10), 1122-1128.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2013.07.007 20
Double, C. (2008a). This is arranged alphabetically by the name of the title. Peters.
Double, C. (2008b). This is the second (“the” comes after “arranged”). Peters. 21
16
Map.
17
PowerPoint slides or lecture notes.
18
Online journal article with a URL and no DOI; also depicts one of two resources by the same
author with no known publication date.
19
Webpage on a website with a group author.
20
Journal article with a DOI, combination of individual and group authors.
21
Two resources by same author in the same year. Arrange alphabetically by the title and then
add lowercase letters (a and b, respectively here) to the year.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
33
Fistek, A., Jester, E., & Sonnenberg, K. (2017, July 12-15). Everybody’s got a little music in
them: Using music therapy to connect, engage, and motivate [Conference session].
Autism Society National Conference, Milwaukee, WI, United States.
https://asa.confex.com/asa/2017/webprogramarchives/Session9517.html 22
Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo’s nest [Film]. United Artists. 23
Fried, D., & Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic Council.
https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/democratic-defenseagainst-disinformation/ 24
Friedlander, M. L., Escudero, V., & Heatherton, L. (2002). E-SOFTA: System for observing
family therapy alliances [Software and training videos] [Unpublished instrument].
http://www.softa-soatif.com/ 25
GDJ. (2018). Neural network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart.
https://openclipart.org/detail/309343/neural-network-deep-learning-prismatic 26
Goldberg, J. F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar]. American Psychiatric
Association. https://education.psychiatry.org/Users/ProductDetails.aspx?
ActivityID=6172 27
Goldman, C. (2018, November 28). The complicate calibration of love, especially in adoption.
22
Conference session.
23
Video.
24
Report by individual authors at a government agency or other organization.
25
Measurement instrument.
26
Clip art or stock image.
27
Webinar, recorded.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
34
Chicago Tribune. 28
Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy
(Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University.
https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2019/entries/behaviorism 29
Guarino, B. (2017, December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some
predictions. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-ofscience/wp/2017/12/04/how-will-humanity-react-to-alien-life-psychologists-have-somepredictions/ 30
Hacker Hughes, J. (Eds.). (2017). Military veteran psychological health and social care:
Contemporary approaches. Routledge. 31
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J.
Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). Guilford Press. 32
Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons
from the Milgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral dissertation,
University of Wisconsin-Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. 33
Hutcheson, V. H. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and
lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master’s thesis, The College
28
Newspaper article without DOI, from most academic research databases or print version
29
Entry in a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia, with individual author.
30
Online newspaper article.
31
Edited book without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version.
32
Book chapter, print version.
33
Doctoral dissertation, from an institutional database.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
35
of William & Mary]. William & Mary Digital Archive.
https://scholarworks.wm.edu/etd/1539272210/
34
Kalnay, E., Kanimitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S.,
White, G., Whollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J.,
Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., … Joseph, D. (1996). The
NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological
Society, 77(3), 437-471. http://doi.org/ fg6rf9 35
King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/
(Original work published 1769) 36
Lewin, K. (1999). Group decision and social change. In M. Gold (Ed.), The complex social
scientist: A Kurt Lewin reader (pp. 265-284). American Psychological Association.
https://doi.org/10.1037/10319-010 (Original work published 1948) 37
Liberty University. (2019). The online writing center. https://www.liberty.edu/online/casas/
writing-center/ 38
Liberty University. (2020). BIOL 102: Human biology. Week one, lecture two: Name of class
lecture. https://learn.liberty.edu 39
34
Thesis or dissertation, from the web (not in a database).
35
Resource with 21 or more authors. Note the ellipse (…) in place of the ampersand (&).
36
Religious work.
37
Work in an anthology.
38
Online webpage with URL.
39
Liberty University class lecture with no presenter named.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
36
McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A crosslinguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51.
https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126 40
McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-yearsof-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg 41
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Heuristic. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved 01/02/2020,
from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic 42
National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication
No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of
Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf 43
National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika.
https://www.nationalnursesunited.org/pages/what-employers-should-do-to-protect-rnsfrom-zika 44
O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. http:// www. onlineoriginals.com/
showitem.asp?itemID-135
45
40
Typical journal article with doi.
41
Photograph.
42
Dictionary entry.
43
Report by a government agency or other organization.
44
Webpage on a website with no date.
45
Electronic only book.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
37
Owen, C. (2012, Spring). Behavioral issues resulting from attachment have spiritual
implications [Unpublished manuscript]. COUN502, Liberty University. 46
Perigogn, A. U., & Brazel, P. L. (2012). Captain of the ship. In J. L. Auger (Ed.) Wake up in the
dark (pp. 108-121). Shawshank Publications. 47
Peters, C. (2012). COUN 506: Integration of spirituality and counseling. Week one, lecture two:
Defining integration: Key concepts. Liberty University.
https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/defining-integration-keyconcepts/id427907777?i=1000092371727 48
Pew Research Center. (2018). American trend panel Wave 26 [Data set].
https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/dataset/american-trends-panel-wave-26 49
Prayer. (2015). http:// www exact-webpage 50
Project Implicit. (n.d.). Gender–Science IAT. https://implicit.harvard.edu/implici/taketest.html 51
Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social
life of information, by J. S. Brown & P. Duguid]. Science, 290, 1304.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.290.5495.1304 52
Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we
reorganize ad adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De
46
Citing a student’s paper submitted in a prior class, in order to avoid self-plagiarism.
47
Chapter from an edited book.
48
Liberty University class lecture using course details.
49
Data set.
50
Online resource with no named author. Title of webpage is in the author’s place.
51
Test, scale, or inventory itself.
52
Review of a book.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
38
Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1037/15969-000 53
Second, M. P. (2011). Same author arranged by date (earlier first). Journal Name, 8, 12-13.
Second, M. P. (2015). Remember that earlier date goes first. Journal Name, 11(1), 18. 54
Shakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B. A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.).
Washington Square Press. (Original work published 1623) 55
Strong, E. K., Jr., & Uhrbrock, R. S. (1923). Bibliography on job analysis. In L. Outhwaite
(Series Ed.), Personnel research series: Vol. 1, Job analysis and the curriculum (pp. 140146). https://doi.org/10.1037/10762-000 56
Tellegen, A., & Ben-Porah, Y. S. (2011). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2
Restructured Form (MPI-2-RF): Technical manual. Pearson. 57
U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Retrieved July 3, 2019, from https://www.census.gov/popclock 58
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (2017). Agency financial report: Fiscal year 2017.
https://www.sec.gov/files/sec-2017-agency-financial-report.pdf 59
University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qm1xGfOZJc8 60
53
Edited book with a DOI, with multiple publishers.
54
Two resources by the same author, in different years. Arrange by the earlier year first.
55
Shakespeare.
56
Electronic version of book chapter in a volume in a series
57
Manual for a test, scale, or inventory.
58
Webpage on a website with a retrieval date.
59
Annual report.
60
YouTube or other streaming video.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
39
Vedentam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/
series/423302056/hidden-brain 61
Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and
responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd
ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press. 62
Yoo, J., Miyamoto, Y., Rigotti, A., & Ryff, C. (2016). Linking positive affect to blood lipids: A
cultural perspective [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Psychology, University of
Wisconsin-Madison. 63
61
Podcast.
62
Chapter in an edited book without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print
version.
63
Unpublished manuscript with a university cited.
SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
40
Appendix
Annotated Bibliography
Cross, D., & Purvis, K. (2008). Is maternal deprivation the root of all evil? Avances en
Psycologia Latinoamericana, 26(1), 66-81. https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.77.4.582
Weaving spiritual applications throughout the article, the authors incorporate a plethora
of references to substantiate that maltreatment has a direct connection to attachment
disorders. They provide articulate and heavily supported reasoning, detailing the specific
causes of maternal deprivation individually and then incorporating them in a broader
sense to answer the article’s title in the affirmative.
Feldman, R. (2007). Mother-infant synchrony and the development of moral orientation in
childhood and adolescence: Direct and indirect mechanisms of developmental continuity.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(4), 582-597.
This longitudinal study tracked 31 Israeli children from ages 3 months to 13 years
(infancy to adolescence). There were direct parallels noted between increased
attachment/coherence and the child’s moral cognition, empathy development, and verbal
IQ. Toddlers who were able to regulate their own behavior later proved to excel in leadlag structures and language skills.
1
School of , Liberty University
Author Note
“Insert full name here. Include ORCID number in URL format if you have one.”
I have no known conflict of interest to disclose. “”
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to
“Insert Student’s Full Name” . Email:
2
Abstract
Keywords:
3
4
References
Evaluating the evidence
Learning Goal: I’m working on a nursing multi-part question and need an explanation and
answer to help me learn.
Module 7: Week 7 Introduction
Overview
While it’s important to correctly analyze individual research studies, we also need to decide
what the research as a whole is saying. Practice changes are not made based on one research
study but on the totality of the evidence. Synthesis is the process of analyzing, drawing
conclusions, and suggesting possible changes in practice based on several research studies.
Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this module, you will be able to:
•
•
•
Analyze the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in the literature related to a selected topic
Demonstrate understanding of research conclusions
Articulate conclusions for practice change based on research synthesis
Requirements: 5 pages
Watch: Writing A Literature Synthesis

SYNTHESIS OF LITERATURE ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS
OVERVIEW
Utilize the articles addressed in the literature matrix to write a synthesis of the research. You
will
only have 10 – 15 articles, but you should be able to draw some conclusions and form opinions
about how the research could be used to make a practice change. It is important that students
are
able to not only analyze individual research studies, but to then see how the evidence on a
topic
“fits together”. This is beyond a simple literature review; it is looking at research as a whole and
drawing conclusions.
Review the articles you’ve gathered and address the following:
1. What are the overall strengths and weaknesses of the research studies?
2. Where there any obvious gaps in the research (something that wasn’t addressed that really
needed addressing)?
3. Which studies had similar conclusions? How did these studies differ in terms of strength
of design, level of evidence (using Melnyk classification system), number of subjects,
usefulness for practice, and other pertinent aspects of research?
4. Were there studies that had very different or contradictory results? Why do you think this
is the case?
5. What is your overall conclusion about what the research is concluding and using the
evidence for a practice change?
6. Anything else you found pertinent or noteworthy about the research studies you
reviewed.
Keep in mind that this is a synthesis, so you don’t want to discuss research using a “shotgun”
approach where you talk about research A, then research B, then research C, etc. This doesn’t
demonstrate an understanding of the research as a whole. An example of an approach for
synthesis might be research A & B reached similar conclusions while research C reached a
different conclusion with a smaller sample size. You would then add your own
conclusions/opinion, based on the whole of what the studies are telling you.
INSTRUCTIONS
• This is a formal paper and should be written in narrative format, utilizing APA format per
LU graduate level paper guidelines.
• Please include a title page, abstract, and reference page.
• Use headings to separate sections of your paper.
• Clearly cite information from the research studies themselves and other sources used in
evaluating them. Note that you may have several citations in one paragraph as you
discuss different research studies.
• A minimum of 5 pages is required, not including title, abstract, and reference pages.
Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool
Please note that we need abstract too

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