Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are diseases of the airways and other structures of the lung. Some of the most common is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and occupational lung diseases. Please give an overview of the risk factors of CRD and methods of prevention of CRD in KSA?
Responses for 2 students
First response (ayman):
The burden of CRDs in Saudi Arabia (KSA) is increasing rapidly due to the
massive industrialization, socio-economic development, changing lifestyles,
urbanization, and demographic transition. Tobacco smoking is the primary risk
factor for CRDs (Soriano et al., 2020). Most KSA citizens smoke cigarettes
containing toxic tar that blocks the air passages, causing breathing problems,
asthma, and other lung diseases. The second risk factor is air pollution from
chemicals such as insecticides, carbon monoxide from burning fuels, and
industrial emissions like sulphur dioxide (Shin et al., 2021). Household
activities like burning garbage, rubber, and volatile compounds in paints also
increase the risk of CRDs. Furthermore, allergens like deodorants, perfumes,
pollen grains from trees, and detergents cause CRDs. Dust is also a significant
risk factor for CRDs as it blocks airways.
Although CBDs are incurable, they can be prevented or treated by forms to
opening air passages to enhance breathing and control symptoms. The
primary prevention measure is quitting tobacco smoking and increasing
physical exercise (Troosters et al., 2019). The second measure is neutralizing
industrial gases before disposing of them. Also, CRDs can be prevented by
controlled use of allergens, like body sprays, perfumes and deodorants. Farm
chemicals like pesticides and insecticides should not be used near homes or
human residents. Plastic and rubber wastes should be recycled rather than
burned. In addition, people should avoid dust by sprinkling water or planting
grass in their environments. Inhaled corticosteroid medicines help relieve
symptoms and open airways if affected by CRDs.
Shin, S., Bai, L., Burnett, R. T., Kwong, J. C., Hystad, P., van Donkelaar, A. … &
Chen, H. (2021). Air pollution is a risk factor for incident chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease and asthma. A 15-year population-based cohort study.
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 203(9), 1138-1148.
Soriano, J. B., Kendrick, P. J., Paulson, K. R., Gupta, V., Abrams, E. M., Adedoyin,
R. A., … & Moradi, M. (2020). Prevalence and attributable health burden of
chronic respiratory diseases, 1990â€“2017: a systematic analysis for the Global
Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(6), 585-596.
Troosters, T., Blondeel, A., Rodrigues, F. M., Janssens, W., & Demeyer, H.
(2019). Strategies to increase physical activity in chronic respiratory diseases.
Clinics in Chest Medicine, 40(2), 397-404.
Second responses (ali)
Discussion phc 331
Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRD)
Risk Factors of CRD
Chronic respiratory disease accounted for 9% of all non-communicable disease deaths in
the Arab world. The risks of CRD include metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors
(Mohammad et al., 2021). Smoking is a significant behavioral factor in chronic respiratory
disease, with its prevalence in the KSA estimated at 20%, and 83% of smokers begin the habit at
15 years (Alsubaiei et al., 2018). This practice predisposes them to CRD. Physical inactivity also
contributes to the risk of CRD. Over 96% of Saudi men and 98% of women do not meet the
recommended 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week years
(Alsubaiei et al., 2018). The inactivity predisposes the individuals to lifestyle and metabolic
problems, including obesity, which further increase the risk of CRD.
Methods of Preventing CRD in KSA
The government has invested in smoking cessation campaigns via clinics and sensitization
efforts. There are over 70 smoking cessation clinics, and smoking is banned in government
sectors, public institutions, and universities (Alsubaiei et al., 2018). A ban on smoking advertising
has also been implemented. It is important to sensitize Saudis on the importance of physical
exercise and healthy eating habits. Importantly, access to exercise facilities should be facilitated
for all persons to ensure that Saudis keep fit. Besides, people should be sensitized to healthy
eating and avoid foods that predispose them to CRD.
Alsubaiei, M.E., et al. (2018). Factors influencing management of chronic respiratory diseases in
general and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in particular in Saudi Arabia: an
overview. Ann Thorac Med, 13, 3, 144-149.
Mohammad, Y., et al. (2021). Chronic respiratory diseases in the Arab world. In Handbook of
healthcare in the Arab world. Springer.
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