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I’m working on a management discussion question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

Based on what we have covered in chapter 1 – 6 , which one of the individual mechanisms (job satisfaction , stress , motivation , trust ,  justice , ethics , learning and decision making ) you think it will impact your performance and commitments the most ? Discuss with life examples.

Chapter 1
What Is Organizational
Behavior?
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
What is organizational behavior?
Does organizational behavior matter?
How do we “know” what we know about organizational
behavior?
Summary: Moving Forward in this Book
©McGraw-Hill Education.
What Is Organizational Behavior?
Think of the single worst coworker you’ve ever had.
• What did he or she do that was so bad?
Think of the single best coworker you’ve ever had.
• What did he or she do that was so good?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
1 of 2
What Is Organizational Behavior?
2 of 2
A field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and
ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals
and groups in organizations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 1-1 Integrative Model of Organizational
Behavior
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Does Organizational Behavior Matter?
Do firms that do a good job managing organizational behavior
concepts become more profitable as a result?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 1-2 What Makes a Resource Valuable?
The resource-based view
of the firm
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 1-2 Survey Questions Designed to Assess HighPerformance Work Practices
Survey Question about Organizational Behavior Practice
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Covered in Chapter
What is the proportion of the workforce whose jobs have been subjected
to a formal job analysis?
2
What is the proportion of the workforce who are administered attitude
surveys on a regular basis?
4
What is the proportion of the workforce who have access to company
incentive plans, profit-sharing plans, and/or gain-sharing plans?
6
What is the average number of hours of training received by a typical
employee over the last 12 months?
8, 10
What is the proportion of the workforce who have access to a formal
grievance procedure and/or complaint resolution system?
7
What proportion of the workforce are administered an employment test
prior to hiring?
9, 10
What is the proportion of the workforce whose performance appraisals are
used to determine compensation?
6
Source: Adapted from M.A. Huselid, “The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover,
Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance.” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, pp. 635-72.
Copyright © 1995. Academy of Management.
Table 1-3 The “100 Best Companies
to Work For” in 2019
©McGraw-Hill Education.
1. Hilton
25. Cheesecake Factory
49. T-Mobile US
2. Salesforce
26. Deloitte
57. Nationwide
3. Wegmans
28. SAP America
60. SAS Institute
4. Workday
31. Marriott
61. Accenture
6. Cisco
32. Hyatt
62. Goldman Sachs
7. Edward Jones
34. EY
70. Atlassian
10. Boston Consulting
36. KPMG
78. Kronos
12. Publix
39. Capital One
89. Four Seasons
13. American Express
42. Dropbox
95. FedEx
14. Quicken Loans
44. PricewaterhouseCoopers
96. Activision Blizzard
22. Adobe
45. Genentech
97. Delta
24. Intuit
46. REI
100. Patagonia
Source: M.C. Bush and S. Lewis-Kulin, “The 100 Best Companies to Work For.” Fortune, March 15, 2017.
So What’s So Hard?
The Rule of One-Eighth
“One must bear in mind that one-half of organizations won’t believe
the connection between how they manage their people and the
profits they earn. One-half of those who do see the connection will
do what many organizations have done—try to make a single
change to solve their problems, not realizing that the effective
management of people requires a more comprehensive and
systematic approach. Of the firms that make comprehensive
changes, probably only about one-half will persist with their
practices long enough to actually derive economic benefits.”
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
1 of 7
Where does the knowledge in this textbook come from?
Understanding that requires an understanding of how we know
things in general.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
2 of 7
How do we know about what causes:
• People to stay healthy?
• Children to grow up happy?
• Employees to be satisfied with their jobs?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
3 of 7
Methods of Knowing
• Experience
• Intuition
• Authority
• Science
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 1-3 The Scientific Method
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Scientific Interests
1 2
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
DISAGREE
3 4
NEUTRAL
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. I think being a scientist would be an interesting career path.
2. Working as a scientist is something I could see myself enjoying.
3. A scientific career path could be engaging, even if the work took a long time
to finish.
4. Working with other scientists to make important discoveries would offer
meaning.
5. Studying scientific knowledge to solve problems would be intrinsically
satisfying.
Average Score: 15
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
4 of 7
What is a “theory”?
A collection of assertions—both verbal and symbolic—that specify
how and why variables are related, as well as the conditions in
which they should (and should not) be related
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
5 of 7
Consider the theory diagram shown above. It explains why two “independent variables”
(the quality of a movie’s script and the fame of its stars) affect a “dependent variable”
(how much the movie makes at the box office).
In groups, build a theory similar to the one shown, for each outcome.
• Job satisfaction
• Strain
• Motivation
• Trust in supervisor
Is organizational behavior common sense?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
6 of 7
To test our theory, we gather data on the variables included in our
hypotheses.
We then use variants of the correlation coefficient to test hypotheses, to
see if they verify our theory.
The correlation is as follows:
Perfect positive relationship: 1
Perfect negative relationship: -1
Strength of the correlation inferred from judging the compactness of a
scatterplot of the X-Y values
More compact = stronger correlation
Less compact = weaker correlation
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 1-4 Three Different Correlation Sizes
1 of 3
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 1-4 Three Different Correlation Sizes
2 of 3
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Figure 1-4 Three Different Correlation Sizes
3 of 3
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 1-4 Some Notable Correlations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
CORRELATION BETWEEN
Height and weight
Ibuprofen and pain reduction
Antihistamines and reduced sneezing
Smoking and lung cancer within 25 years
r
.44
.14
.11
.08
SAMPLE SIZE
16,948
8,488
1,023
3,956
Coronary bypass surgery and 5-year survival
.08
2,649
Source: Robert Hogan, “In Defense of Personality Measurement: New Wine for Old Whiners.” Human Performance, Vol. 18, 2005, pp. 331–41.
The Correlation
1 of 2
How big is “big”?
• What’s the correlation between height and weight?
• Will the correlation between job satisfaction and job performance
be higher or lower?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The Correlation
2 of 2
Important disclaimer
• Correlation does not prove causation.
Proving causation requires:
• Correlation
• Temporal precedence
• Elimination of alternative explanations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
7 of 7
The correlations from multiple studies get averaged together
using meta-analysis.
Meta-analyses can then form the foundation for evidence-based
management—the use of scientific findings to inform
management practice.
Well-supported theories become helpful tools for answering why
questions, like:
• Why your best and worst coworkers act so differently
• Why you sometimes think, feel, and act a certain way
©McGraw-Hill Education.
OB on Screen
Moneyball
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Summary: Moving Forward in this Book
The following chapters work through the integrative model of OB:
• Beginning with the individual outcomes
• Continuing with the individual, group, and organizational
mechanisms that lead to those outcomes
Each chapter ends with three sections:
• A summarizing theory diagram
• Results of meta-analyses that summarize relationships between
that chapter’s topic and both job performance and organizational
commitment
• Description of how the content of that chapter can be applied, at
a specific level, in an actual organization
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Introspection
Average Score: 26
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Source: Adapted from A. Fenigstein, M.F. Scheier, and A.H.
Buss, “Public and Private Self-Consciousness: Assessment and
Theory.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 43,
August 1975, pp. 522–27. American Psychological Association.
Next Time
Chapter 2: Job Performance
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 2
Job Performance
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
Job performance
What Does It Mean to Be a “Good Performer”?
• Task performance
• Citizenship behavior
• Counterproductive behavior
Trends Affecting Performance
• Knowledge Work
• Service Work
Application: Performance Management
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Job Performance
The value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute,
either positively or negatively, to organizational goal
accomplishment
Not the consequences or results of behavior—the behavior
itself
• What’s good about this distinction?
• What’s bad about this distinction?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
What Does It Mean to Be a “Good Performer”?
Categories of behavior relevant to job performance
• Task performance
• Citizenship behavior
• Counterproductive behavior
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Task Performance
1 of 3
The behaviors directly involved in transforming organizational
resources into the goods or services an organization produces
(i.e., the behaviors included in one’s job description)
Typically a mix of:
• Routine task performance
• Adaptive task performance
• Creative task performance
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 2-1 Behaviors Involved in Adaptability
BEHAVIORS
SPECIFIC EXAMPLES
Handling emergencies or
crisis situations
Quickly analyzing options for dealing with danger or crises and their
implications; making split-second decisions based on clear and focused thinking
Handling work stress
Remaining composed and cool when faced with difficult circumstances or a
highly demanding workload or schedule; acting as a calming and settling
influence to whom others can look for guidance
Solving problems creatively Turning problems upside-down and inside-out to find fresh new approaches;
integrating seemingly unrelated information and developing creative solutions
Dealing with uncertain and Readily and easily changing gears in response to unpredictable or unexpected
unpredictable work
events and circumstances; effectively adjusting plans, goals, actions, or
situations
priorities to deal with changing situations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Learning work tasks,
technologies, and work
situations
Quickly and proficiently learning new methods or how to perform previously
unlearned tasks; anticipating change in the work demands and searching for
and participating in assignments or training to prepare for these changes
Demonstrating
interpersonal adaptability
Being flexible and open-minded when dealing with others; listening to and
considering others’ viewpoints and opinions and altering one’s own opinion
when it’s appropriate to do so
Demonstrating cultural
adaptability
Willingly adjusting behavior or appearance as necessary to comply with or
show respect for others’ values and customs; understanding the implications of
one’s actions and adjusting one’s approach to maintain positive relationships
with other groups, organizations, or cultures
Source: Adapted from E.E. Pulakos, S. Arad, M.A. Donovan, and K.E. Plamondon, “Adaptability in
the Workplace: Development of a Taxonomy of Adaptive Performance,” Journal of Applied
Psychology 85 (2000), pp. 612–24. American Psychological Association.
Task Performance
2 of 3
How do we identify relevant behaviors?
Job analysis
• Generate a list of the activities involved in a job.
• Rate the tasks on frequency and importance.
• Use most frequent and important tasks to define task performance.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Task Performance
3 of 3
Exercise: Performance of a server
Do a job analysis
• List four major dimensions of the job.
• Identify two tasks per dimension
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2-1 O*NET Results for Flight Attendants
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Source: O-Net
Citizenship Behavior
Academic origin
A future professor’s account of an experience in a paper mill:
“…while the man’s assistance was not part of his job and gained him no
formal credits, he undeniably contributed in a small way to the
functioning of the group and, by extension, to the plant and the
organization as a whole. By itself, of course, his aid to me might not have
been perceptible in any conventional calculus of efficiency, production, or
profits. But repeated many times over, by himself and others, over time,
the aggregate of such actions must certainly have made that paper mill a
more smoothly functioning organization than would have been the case
had such actions been rare.”
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2-2 Types of Citizenship Behaviors
Voluntary activities that may or
may not be rewarded but that
contribute to the organization by
improving the quality of the
setting where work occurs
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Interpersonal Citizenship Behaviors
Helping
Assisting new coworkers or those with heavy workloads
Courtesy
Keeping coworkers informed about matters that are relevant to
them
Sportsmanship
Maintaining a positive attitude with coworkers
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Helping
Average score: 40
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Source: L.V. Van Dyne and J.A. LePine, “Helping and Voice Extra-Role Behaviors: Evidence of Construct and Predictive Validity,” Academy of Management Journal 41 (1998), pp. 108–19.
Sportsmanship
1 2
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
DISAGREE
3 4
NEUTRAL
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. I never complain about “the small stuff.”
2. I voice support for what’s going on in the organization.
3. I focus on maintaining a positive attitude at work.
4. I tend to dwell on what’s going well, not what’s going poorly.
5. I focus on “being a good sport” even when negative things happen.
Average score: 18
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Voice
Speaking up and offering constructive suggestions to improve unit
or organizational functioning or to address problems
Civic Virtue
Participating in the company’s operations at a deeper-than-normal
level
Boosterism
Representing the organization in a positive way when out of the
office
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2-3
Types of Counterproductive Behavior
Employee behaviors that
intentionally hinder
organizational goal
accomplishment
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Political Deviance
1 2
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
DISAGREE
3 4
NEUTRAL
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. I have, at times, undermined a coworker.
2. I have, at times, blamed a coworker for something that I did.
3. I sometimes gossip about colleagues at work.
4. I sometimes distract my coworkers when they’re trying to get things done.
5. I enjoy playing “pranks” on others at work.
6. I have, at times, kept colleagues “in the dark” about things they needed to know.
Average Score: 12
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Counterproductive Behavior
1 of 2
Key questions:
• Are these all examples of the same general behavior pattern? If
you do one, are you likely to do most of the others as well?
• How does counterproductive behavior relate to task
performance and citizenship behavior?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Counterproductive Behavior
2 of 2
Answers:
• Research using both anonymous self-reports and supervisor
ratings tends to find strong correlations between the categories.
• Counterproductive behavior has a strong negative correlation with
citizenship behavior, but is only weakly related to task
performance.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
OB on Screen
Molly’s Game
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2-4 What Does It Mean to Be a “Good
Performer”?
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Trends Affecting Performance
Knowledge work
• Cognitive emphasis
• Fluid, dynamic in nature
Service work
• Growing segment providing nontangible goods to customers
• Requires direct interaction with customers
• Emphasizes need for high levels of citizenship behavior and low
levels of counterproductive behavior
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Application: Performance Management
What tools do organizations use to manage job performance
among employees?
• Management by Objectives (MBO)
• Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
• 360-degree feedback
• Forced rankings
• Social networking systems
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 2-2 BARS Example for “Planning,
Organizing, and Scheduling” 1 of 2
Rating
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Behavioral Anchors
[7] Excellent
• Develops a comprehensive project plan, documents it well, obtains
required approval, and distributes the plan to all concerned.
[6] Very Good
• Plans, communicates, and observes milestones; states week by week
where the project stands relative to plans. Maintains up-to-date charts
of project accomplishment and backlogs and uses these to optimize any
schedule modifications.
• Experiences occasional minor operational problems but communicates
effectively.
[5] Good
• Lays out all the parts of a job and schedules each part to beat schedule;
will allow for slack.
• Satisfies customer’s time constraints; time and cost overruns occur
infrequently.
[4] Average
• Makes a list of due dates and revises them as the project progresses,
usually adding unforeseen events; investigates frequent customer
complaints.
• May have a sound plan but does not keep track of milestones; does not
report slippages in schedule or other problems as they occur.
Table 2-2 BARS Example for “Planning,
Organizing, and Scheduling” 2 of 2
Rating
Behavioral Anchors
[3] Below Average
• Plans are poorly defined; unrealistic time schedules are common.
• Cannot plan more than a day or two ahead; has no concept of a
realistic project due date.
[2] Very Poor
• Has no plan or schedule of work segments to be performed.
• Does little or no planning for project assignments.
[1] Unacceptable
• Seldom, if ever, completes project because of lack of planning and
does not seem to care.
• Fails consistently due to lack of planning and does not inquire about
how to improve.
Source: D.G. Shaw, C.E. Schneier, and R.W. Beatty. “Managing Performance with a Behaviorally Based Appraisal
System,” in Applying Psychology in Business: The Handbook for Managers and Human Resource Professionals, ed.
J.W. Jones, B.D. Steffy, and D.W. Bray (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 2001), pp. 314-25
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2-5 Jack Welch’s Vitality Curve
Forced ranking under Jack Welch at GE
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Next Time
Chapter 3: Organizational Commitment
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 3
Organizational Commitment
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
Organizational Commitment
What Does It Mean to Be “Committed”?
• Types of Commitment
• Withdrawal Behavior
Trends Affecting Commitment
• Diversity of the Workforce
• The Changing Employee-Employer Relationship
Application: Commitment Initiatives
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Commitment 1 of 2
Consider this scenario:
• You’ve worked at your current employer for five years and have
recently been approached by a competing organization.
What would cause you to stay?
• Do those reasons fit into different kinds of categories?
Organizational commitment is a desire on the part of an
employee to remain a member of an organization.
• May be based on want, need, or feeling of obligation
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 3-1 Organizational Commitment and Employee
Withdrawal
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 3-1 The Three Types of Organizational
Commitment
What Makes Someone Stay with His/Her Current Organization?
AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT
(EMOTION-BASED)
CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT
(COST-BASED)
Some of my best friends work
in my office … I’d miss them if I
left.
I’m due for a promotion soon … My boss has invested so much
will I advance as quickly at the time in me, mentoring me,
new company?
training me, showing me the
ropes.
I really like the atmosphere at
my current job … it’s fun and
relaxed.
My salary and benefits get us a
nice house in our town … the
cost of living is higher in this
new area.
My organization gave me my
start … they hired me when
others thought I wasn’t
qualified.
My current job duties are very
rewarding … I enjoy coming to
work each morning.
The school system is good here,
my spouse has a good job …
we’ve really put down roots
where we are.
My employer has helped me
out of a jam on a number of
occasions … how could I leave
now?
Staying because you want to.
Staying because you need to.
Staying because you ought to.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
NORMATIVE COMMITMENT
(OBLIGATION-BASED)
Figure 3-2 Drivers of Overall
Organizational Commitment
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Affective Commitment
A desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an
organization because of an emotional attachment to, and
involvement with, that organization
• You stay because you want to.
• What would you feel if you left anyway?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Assessment on Affective Commitment
Average Score: 20
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
From N.J. Allen and J.P. Meyer, “The Measurement and Antecedents
of Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the
Organization,” Journal of Occupational Psychology 63 (1990), pp. 1-18.
Figure 3-3 A Social Network Diagram
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Continuance Commitment 1 of 2
A desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an
organization because of an awareness of the costs associated
with leaving it
• You stay because you need to.
• What would you feel if you left anyway?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Continuance Commitment
2 of 2
1
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
2
DISAGREE
3
NEUTRAL
4
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. Quitting my job would bring with it major personal sacrifice.
2. I don’t have enough employment options to consider leaving right now.
3. It’s difficult to leave the organization because I don’t have anywhere else to go.
4. Staying in my current job is more a product of circumstances than preference.
5. Leaving my job now would bring significant personal disruption.
6. Frankly, I couldn’t quit my job now, even if it’s what I wanted to do.
Average Score: 19
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 3-2 Embedded and Continuance Commitment
“Embedded” people feel:
FACET
FOR THE ORGANIZATION:
FOR THE COMMUNITY:
Links
• I’ve worked here for such a long time.
• I’m serving on so many teams and
committees.
• Several close friends and family live
nearby.
• My family’s roots are in this
community.
Fit
• My job utilizes my skills and talents
well.
• I like the authority and responsibility I
have at this company.
• The weather where I live is suitable
for me.
• I think of the community where I live
as home.
Sacrifice
• The retirement benefits provided by
the organization are excellent.
• I would sacrifice a lot if I left this job.
• People respect me a lot in my
community.
• Leaving this community would be
very hard.
Source: Adapted from T.R. Mitchell, B.C. Holtom, T.W. Lee, C.J. Sablynski, and M. Erez, “Why People Stay: Using Job
Embeddedness to Predict Voluntary Turnover,” Academy of Management Journal 44 (2001), pp. 1102-21.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Normative Commitment
1 of 2
A desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an
organization because of a feeling of obligation
• You stay because you ought to.
• What would you feel if you left anyway?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Normative Commitment
2 of 2
1 2
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
DISAGREE
3 4
NEUTRAL
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. I have an obligation to stay with my company.
2. I wouldn’t quit my job right now because I owe the company too much.
3. I owe this company for the things it’s given me.
4. Leaving my job now would fill me with significant guilt.
5. It just wouldn’t be right to think about quitting my job.
6. Staying with my organization is just something that I ought to do.
Average Score: 16
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Commitment 2 of 2
Exercise: Reacting to Negative Events
• Consider the three scenarios depicted on the following slide.
• Come to consensus on two specific behaviors that capture your
likely response (that is, what you would probably do, as opposed
to what you wish you would do).
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Commitment Scenarios
Scenario
Description
Likely behaviors
Annoying Boss
You’ve been working at your current company for about a year. Over time,
your boss has become more and more annoying to you. It’s not that your
boss is a bad person, or even necessarily a bad boss. It’s more a personality
conflict–the way your boss talks, the way your boss manages every little
thing, even the facial expressions your boss uses. The more time passes, the
more you just can’t stand to be around your boss.
Two likely behaviors:
Boring Job
You’ve been working at your current company for about a year. You’ve come
to realize that your job is pretty boring. It’s the first real job you’ve ever had,
and at first, it was nice to have some money and something to do every day.
But the “new job” excitement has worn off, and things are actually quite
monotonous. Same thing every day. It’s to the point that you check your
watch every hour, and Wednesdays feel like they should be Fridays.
Two likely behaviors:
Pay and Seniority
You’ve been working at your current company for about a year. The
Two likely behaviors:
consensus is that you’re doing a great job—you’ve gotten excellent
performance evaluations and have emerged as a leader on many projects. As
you’ve achieved this high status, however, you’ve come to feel that you’re
underpaid. Your company’s pay procedures emphasize seniority much more
than job performance. As a result, you look at other members of your
project teams and see poor performers making much more than you, just
because they’ve been with the company longer.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
OB on Screen
Baby Driver
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Withdrawal
1 of 4
Around 60 percent of employees think about looking for jobs.
“When the going gets tough, the organization doesn’t want you
to get going.”
Difficult times put an employee’s commitment to the test.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Exit-Voice-Loyalty-Neglect
Common employee reactions to negative work events:
Exit
• Ending or restricting organizational membership
Voice
• A constructive response where individuals attempt to improve the
situation
Loyalty
• A passive response where the employee remains supportive
while hoping for improvement
Neglect
• Reduced interest and effort in the job
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 3-3 Four Types of Employees
Source: Adapted from R.W. Griffeth, S. Gaertner, and J.K. Sager, “Taxonomic Model of Withdrawal Behaviors: the Adaptive Response
Model,” Human Resource Management Review 9 (1999), pp. 577-90.
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Withdrawal
2 of 4
Withdrawal: a set of actions that employees perform to avoid the
work situation
• One study found that 51 percent of employees’ time was spent
working.
• The other 49 percent was allocated to coffee breaks, late starts,
early departures, personal, and other forms of withdrawal.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 3-4
Psychological and Physical Withdrawal
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Withdrawal
3 of 4
Key question:
How exactly are the different forms of withdrawal related to one
another?
• Independent forms
• Compensatory forms
• Progression
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Withdrawal
4 of 4
Answer:
• The various forms of withdrawal are almost always moderately to
strongly correlated.
• Those correlations suggest a progression, as lateness is strongly
related to absenteeism, and absenteeism is strongly correlated to
quitting.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Trends Affecting Commitment
Diversity of the workforce
• Growing more racially and ethnically diverse
• Becoming older
• Including more foreign-born workers
The changing employee-employer relationship
• Psychological contracts
• Transactional contacts
• Relational contracts
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Application: Commitment Initiatives
Employees are more committed when employers are committed
to them.
Perceived organizational support is fostered when
organizations:
• Provide rewards
• Protect job security
• Improve work conditions
• Minimize impact of politics
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Next Time
Chapter 4: Job Satisfaction
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 4
Job Satisfaction
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
Job Satisfaction
Why Are Some Employees More Satisfied than Others?
• Value Fulfillment
• Satisfaction with the Work Itself
• Mood and Emotions
How Important is Job Satisfaction?
Application: Tracking Satisfaction
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior
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Job Satisfaction
1 of 2
A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of
one’s job or job experiences
Based on how you think about your job and how you feel about
your job
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Job Satisfaction
2 of 2
What kinds of things do you value in a job?
What is it that makes you satisfied?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 4-1
Commonly
Assessed Work
Values
Key Question:
Which of these things are
most important to you?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Categories
Specific Values
Pay
• High Salary
• Secure Salary
Promotions
• Frequent Promotions
• Promotions based on ability
Supervision
• Good supervisory relations
• Praise for good work
Coworkers
• Enjoyable coworkers
• Responsible coworkers
Work Itself
•
•
•
•
•
Altruism
• Helping others
• Moral causes
Status
• Prestige
• Power over others
• Fame
Environment
• Comfort
• Safety
Utilization of ability
Freedom and independence
Intellectual stimulation
Creative expression
Sense of achievement
Sources: Adapted from R.V. Dawis, “Vocational Interests Values, and Preferences,” in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 2, Ed. M.D. Dunnette and L.M.
Hough (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1991), pp. 834-71; and D.M. Cable and J.R. Edwards, “Complementary and Supplementary Fit: A Theoretical and Empirical
Investigation,” Journal of Applied Psychology 89 (2004), p. 822-34.
Value Fulfillment
Value-percept theory: Job satisfaction depends on whether you
perceive that your job supplies the things that you value.
Does your job supply what you value?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 4-1
The Value-Percept Theory of Job Satisfaction
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Permission required for reproduction or display.
Figure 4-2 Correlations between Satisfaction Facets and
Overall Job Satisfaction
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Permission required for reproduction or display.
Satisfaction with the Work Itself
Job Characteristics Theory
Jobs are more enjoyable when work tasks are challenging and
fulfilling.
Characteristics that make some jobs more rewarding than others:
• Variety
• Identity
• Significance
• Autonomy
• Feedback
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 4-3 Job Characteristics Theory
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
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Assessing Growth Need Strength
1. A feeling of doing something meaningful with my job
2. A chance to “spread my wings” and grow as an employee
3. An opportunity to be inventive and creative with what I do
4. A chance to gain new knowledge and skill
5. An opportunity to structure my work my own way
6. A feeling of challenge and self-expression
Average Score: 18
©McGraw-Hill Education.
OB on Screen
Ocean’s 8
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 4-4 Growth Need Strength as a Moderator of Job
Characteristic Effects
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Image: Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Adapted
from B.T. Loher, R.A. Noe, N.L. Moeller, and M.P. Fitzgerald,” A Meta-Analysis of the Relation of Job
Characteristics to Job Satisfaction,” Journal of Applied Psychology 70 (1985), pp. 280-89.
Core Job Characteristics
Average Score: 150
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Job Characteristics Theory
Exercise: Job Satisfaction across Jobs
Come to consensus on a Satisfaction Potential Score for:
• A third-grade public school teacher
• A stand-up comedian
• A computer programmer (who replaces “98” with “1998” in computer code)
• A president of the United States
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Mood and Emotions
1 of 2
Even the most satisfied employees aren’t satisfied every minute
of every day.
Satisfaction levels wax and wane as a function of mood and
emotions.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 4-5 Hour-by-Hour Fluctuations in Job Satisfaction
during the Workday
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Figure 4-6 Different Kinds of Moods
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Table 4-2 Different Kinds of Emotions
1 of 2
Positive Emotions
Joy
Pride
Relief
Hope
Love
Compassion
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Description
A feeling of great pleasure
Enhancement of identity by taking credit
for achievement
A distressing condition has changed for
the better
Fearing the worst but wanting better
Desiring or participating in affection
Being moved by another’s situation
Source: Adapted from R.S. Lazarus, Emotion and Adaptation (New York: Oxford University, 1991).
Table 4-2 Different Kinds of Emotions
2 of 2
Negative Emotions
Anger
Anxiety
Fear
Guilt
Shame
Sadness
Envy
Disgust
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Description
A demeaning offense against me and mine
Facing an uncertain or vague threat
Facing an immediate and concrete danger
Having broken a moral code
Failing to live up to your ideal self
Having experienced an irreversible loss
Wanting what someone else has
Revulsion aroused by something offensive
Source: Adapted from R.S. Lazarus, Emotion and Adaptation (New York: Oxford University, 1991).
Mood and Emotions
2 of 2
Feeling vs. showing
• Emotional labor
• Emotional contagion
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Bonus Assessment: Emotional Labor
My job requires me to:
1. Make myself feel the things I need to express at work.
2. Attempt to actually experience the feeling that I need to display.
3. Try to feel the things that I need to show to others.
4. Conceal the emotions that I actually experience.
5. Pretend that I’m feeling things that I’m not.
6. Avoid showing the true emotions that I’m experiencing.
Average Score: 17
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 4-7 Why Are Some Employees More Satisfied
Than Others?
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 4-8 Effects of Job Satisfaction on Performance
and Commitment
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Life Satisfaction
The degree to which people feel a sense of happiness with
their lives
Job satisfaction is one of the strongest predictors of life
satisfaction.
Increase in job satisfaction has stronger impact on life
satisfaction than do increases in salary or income.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Application: Tracking Satisfaction
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
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Next Time
Chapter 5: Stress
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 5
Stress
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
Stress
Why Are Some Employees More “Stressed” than Others?
•
Types of Stressors
•
How Do People Cope with Stressors?
•
The Experience of Strain
•
Summary: Why Are Some Employees More “Stressed” than Others?
How Important Is Stress?
Application: Stress Management
•
Assessment
•
Reducing stressors
•
Providing resources
•
Reducing strains
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Stress
A psychological response to demands that possess certain
stakes for the person and that tax or exceed the person’s
capacity or resources
Do you want a stress-free job?
Which jobs are more and less stressful?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
LEAST STRESSFUL JOBS
Table 5-1
Jobs Rated from
Least Stressful
(1) to Most
Stressful (200)
Note: The stress level score is calculated by summing points in 10 categories:
deadlines, working in the public eye, competitiveness, physical demands,
environmental conditions, hazards, own life at risk, another’s life at risk, public
encounters, and employment change.
Source: Adapted from L. Krantz and T. Lee. “The Jobs Rated Almanac” (Lake
Geneva, WI: iFocus Books, 2015). The stress level score is calculated by
summing points in 10 categories: deadlines, working in the public eye,
competitiveness, physical demands, environmental conditions, hazards, own life
at risk, another’s life at risk, public encounters, and employment change.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
STRESS LEVEL
MOST STRESSFUL JOBS
STRESS LEVEL
1. Tenured University Professor
5.03
143. Elementary School
Teacher
27.37
2. Audiologist
6.33
148. Management
Consultant
28.24
3. Medical Records Technician
7.48
150. Air Traffic Controller
28.58
4. Jeweler
8.10
154. Surgeon
28.90
8. Librarian
10.61
163. Construction
Foreman
30.92
14. Software Engineer
12.13
166. Lumberjack
32.00
18. Computer Service Technician
12.64
172. Attorney
36.40
24. Occupational Therapist
13.14
175. Sales Representative
36.95
29. Chiropractor
13.55
179. Real Estate Agent
38.57
30. Actuary
14.09
180. Social Media
Manager
38.60
35. Multimedia Artist
14.40
183. Stockbroker
39.97
39. Hair Stylist
14.59
185. Advertising Account
Executive
43.24
40. Meteorologist
14.65
189. Taxi Driver
46.18
42. Loan Officer
14.73
191. Senior Corporate
Executive
47.55
47. Biologist
15.10
194. Event Coordinator
49.73
50. Optician
15.57
195. Police Officer
50.81
53. Veterinarian
15.83
196. Airline Pilot
59.12
63. Chemist
17.00
198. Newspaper Reporter
69.67
74. Sustainability Manager
18.50
199. Firefighter
71.64
84. Accountant
19.85
200. Enlisted Military
Personnel
74.83
Why Are Some Employees More “Stressed” than
Others?
To understand what it means to feel “stressed,” it’s helpful to
consider the transactional theory of stress.
This theory explains how stressors are perceived and
appraised, as well as how people respond.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 5-1 Transactional Theory of Stress
©McGraw-Hill Education.
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Challenge Stressors
How much stress do you feel because of the following aspects of your coursework?
1. The pressures I have to finish assignments on time
2. The sheer amount of stuff I have to do
3. The complexity of the material on exams and assignments
4. The time I have to devote to getting everything done
5. The number of “balls in the air” as I balance all my responsibilities
Average score: 16
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Hindrance Stressors
How much stress do you feel because of the following aspects of your coursework?
1. The sense that I’m not making progress in mastering the material
2. The hassles I have to go through when doing class assignments
3. A sense of uncertainty about what’s expected of me by professors
4. A belief that my professors play favorites when grading exams and assignments
5. The amount of “busy work” I have that winds up wasting my time
Average score: 12
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Work Stressors
1 of 2
Challenge stressors
• Time pressure
• Work complexity
• Work responsibility
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Work Stressors
2 of 2
Hindrance stressors
• Role conflict
• Role ambiguity
• Role overload
• Daily hassles
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Family Stressors
1 of 2
Challenge stressors
• Family time demands
• Personal development
• Positive life events
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Family Stressors
2 of 2
Hindrance stressors
• Work-family conflict
• Financial uncertainty
• Negative life events
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 5-2 Stressful Life Events
©McGraw-Hill Education.
LIFE EVENT
STRESS SCORE
LIFE EVENT
STRESS SCORE
Death of a spouse
100
Trouble with in-laws
29
Divorce
73
Outstanding achievement
28
Marital separation
65
Begin or end school
26
Jail term
63
Change in living conditions
25
Death of close family member
63
Trouble with boss
23
Personal illness
53
Change in work hours
20
Marriage
50
Change in residence
20
Fired at work
47
Change in schools
20
Marital reconciliation
45
Change in social activities
18
Retirement
45
Change in sleeping habits
16
Pregnancy
40
Change in family get-togethers
15
Gain of new family member
39
Change in eating habits
15
Death of a close friend
37
Vacations
13
Change in occupation
36
The holiday season
12
Child leaving home
29
Minor violations of the law
11
Source: Adapted from T.H. Holmes and R.H. Rahe, “The Social Re-Adjustment Rating Scale,” Journal of Psychosomatic
Research 11 (1967), pp. 213–18.
How Do People Cope with Stressors?
Coping refers to the behaviors and thoughts people use to
manage stressful demands and the emotions associated with
those demands.
Method of coping
• Behavioral versus cognitive
Focus of coping
• Problem solving versus regulation of emotions
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 5-3 Examples of Coping Strategies
Methods
Problem-Focused
Behavioral Methods
•
•
•
Working harder
Seeking assistance
Acquiring additional
resources
•
•
•
•
Strategizing
Self-motivating
Changing priorities
•
Cognitive Methods
Emotion-Focused
•
•
•
•
Engaging in alternative
activities
Seeking support
Venting anger
Avoiding, distancing,
and ignoring
Looking for the positive
in the negative
Reappraising
Source: Adapted from J.C. Latack and S.J. Havlovic, “Coping with Job Stress: A Conceptual Evaluation Framework for Coping Measures,”
Journal of Organizational Behavior 13 (1992), pp. 479–508.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
OB on Screen
First Man
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The Experience of Strain
Strain refers to the negative consequences associated with
stress.
• Physiological strains
• Psychological strains
• Behavioral strains
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 5-2 Examples of Strain
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Accounting for Individuals in the Stress Process
Individual factors in coping with stress include:
Type A Behavior Pattern
Recovery
Social support
•
Instrumental support
•
Emotional support
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Type A Behavior Pattern
Average score: 60
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Source: Adapted from R.H. Friedman & R. H. Rosenman,
“Association of Specific Overt Behavior Pattern with Blood and
Cardiovascular Findings,” Journal of the American Medical
Association 169 (1959), pp. 1286–69.
Figure 5-3 Why Are Some Employees More “Stressed”
Than Others?
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Important Is Stress?
Stressors and the stress process influence strains and,
ultimately, people’s health and well-being.
Stressors also have an impact on job performance and
organizational commitment.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 5-4 Effects of Hindrance Stressors on
Performance and Commitment
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 5-5 Effects of Challenge Stressors on
Performance and Commitment
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Application: Stress Management
1 of 2
Stress audit assesses the level and sources of stress.
Reducing stressors
• Managing hindrance stressors
• Improving work-life balance through job sharing,
sabbaticals, etc.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Application: Stress Management
2 of 2
Providing resources
• Training interventions
• Supportive practices such as flex-time, onsite child care,
etc.
Reducing strains
• Relaxation techniques
• Cognitive-behavioral techniques
• Health and wellness programs
• Employee assistance programs
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 5-4 Supportive Practices Used by
Organizations
PRACTICE
Flextime
Part-time
telecommuting
Compressed
workweek
Bring child to work
if needed
Full-time
telecommuting
Lactation program
Onsite child care
Company-supported
child care center
©McGraw-Hill Education.
% OF SMALL
ORGANIZATIONS
57
% OF MEDIUM
ORGANIZATIONS
56
% OF LARGE
ORGANIZATIONS
56
36
33
43
27
30
41
43
25
18
14
18
24
8
20
28
1
3
13
0
1
11
Source: Adapted from M.E. Burke, “2005 Benefits Survey Report,” Society of Human Resource Management, 2005.
Next Time
Chapter 6: Motivation
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 6
Motivation
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
Motivation
Why Are Some Employees More Motivated than Others?
• Expectancy theory
• Goal setting theory
• Equity theory
• Psychological empowerment
How Important Is Motivation?
Application: Compensation Systems
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Motivation
A set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside
an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its
direction, intensity, and persistence
What do you do?
• How hard do you do it?
• How long do you do it?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Engagement
1 2
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
DISAGREE
3 4
NEUTRAL
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
Consider your approach to your classes this semester:
1. I give my assignments my utmost attention.
2. I really concentrate on the things my classes demand.
3. I find myself absorbed in the content of my classes.
4. I really focus my attention on the things I’m learning.
5. I rarely get distracted when I’m working on my class stuff.
6. In general, I approach my class work with focus.
Average Score: 24
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Why Are Some Employees More Motivated
than Others?
Several theories attempt to summarize the key factors that
foster high motivation:
• Expectancy theory
• Goal setting theory
• Equity theory
• Psychological empowerment
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Expectancy Theory
1 of 3
Motivation is fostered when the employee believes three things:
• That effort will result in performance
• That performance will result in outcomes
• That those outcomes will be valuable
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 6-2 Expectancy Theory
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Expectancy Theory
2 of 3
Effort → Performance
The belief that a high level of effort will lead to the successful
performance of a task
Expectancy can be shaped by self-efficacy.
• Past accomplishments
• Vicarious experiences
• Verbal persuasion
• Emotional cues
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 6-3 Sources of Self-Efficacy
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Self-Efficacy
1 2 3 4 5
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
DISAGREE
NEUTRAL
AGREE
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. I can succeed, even when the going gets tough.
2. I do most things well, relative to my peers.
3. I have a sense of confidence on a lot of different tasks.
4. I know that I can overcome challenges when I encounter them.
5. If I set my mind to certain goals, I’m confident I can achieve them.
6. I am able to succeed at the things I want to be good at.
7. I’m confident in my ability, even when I face difficult tasks.
8. When I set a goal for myself, I believe I can meet it.
Average Score: 31
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Instrumentality
Performance → Outcomes
The belief that successful performance will result in certain
outcomes.
Can be hindered by:
• Inadequate budget to provide outcomes, even when performance
is high
• Use of policies that reward things besides performance, such as
attendance or seniority
• Time delays in rewarding good performance
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Valence
1 of 2
Anticipated value of outcomes
Positive
•
Prefer having the outcome (salary increases, bonuses)
•
Outcomes that satisfy needs are more positively valenced.
Negative
•
Prefer not having outcome (disciplinary action, termination)
•
No interest in outcome either way (bored with outcome)
Zero
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 6-1 Commonly Studied Needs in Organizational
Behavior
NEED LABEL
ALTERNATIVE LABELS
DESCRIPTION
Existence
Physiological, Safety
The need for the food, shelter, safety, and protection
required for human existence.
Relatedness
Love, Belongingness
The need to create and maintain lasting, positive,
interpersonal relationships.
Control
Autonomy, Responsibility
The need to be able to predict and control one’s future.
Esteem
Self-Regard, Growth
The need to hold a high evaluation of oneself and to feel
effective and respected by others.
Meaning
Self-Actualization
The need to perform tasks that one cares about and
that appeal to one’s ideals and sense of purpose.
Sources: Adapted from E.L. Deci and R.M Ryan, “The ‘What’ and ‘Why’ of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior,” Psychological Inquiry 11 (2000), pp. 227–
68; R. Cropanzano, Z.S. Byrne, D.R. Bobocel, and D.R. Rupp, “Moral Virtues, Fairness Heuristics, Social Entities, and Other Denizens of Organizational Justice,” Journal of Vocational
Behavior 58 (2001), pp. 164–209; A.H. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychological Review 50 (1943), pp. 370–96; C.P. Alderfer, “An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human
Needs,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 4 (1969), pp. 142–75.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 6-2 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Outcomes
Sources: Adapted from E.E. Lawler III and J.L. Suttle, “Expectancy Theory and Job Behavior,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 9 (1973), pp. 482–503; J. Galbraith and
L.L. Cummings, “An Empirical Investigation of the Motivational Determinants of Task Performance: Interactive Effects between Instrumentality–Valence and Motivation–Ability,”
Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 2 (1967), pp. 237–57; E. McAuley, S. Wraith, and T.E. Duncan, “Self-Efficacy, Perceptions of Success, and Intrinsic Motivation for
Exercise,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 21 (1991), pp. 139–55; and A.S. Waterman, S.J. Schwartz, E. Goldbacher, H. Green, C. Miller, and S. Philip, “Predicting the Subjective
Experience of Intrinsic Motivation: The Roles of Self-Determination, the Balance of Challenges and Skills, and Self-Realization Values,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 29
(2003), pp. 1447–58.
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Valence
2 of 2
Why does pay have such a high valence?
The meaning of money
• Achievement
• Respect
• Freedom
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Meaning of Money
Average
Score: 13
Average
Score: 15
Average
Score: 20
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Expectancy Theory
3 of 3
𝑀𝑜𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 = (𝐸 → 𝑃)×𝜀[(𝑃 → 𝑂)×𝑉]
Key aspect: multiplicative effects
• The Σ symbol in the equation signifies that instrumentalities
and valences are judged with various outcomes in mind, and
motivation increases as successful performance is linked to
more and more attractive outcomes.
• Motivation is zero if either expectancy, instrumentality, or
valence is zero
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Goal Setting Theory
Motivation is fostered when employees are given specific and
difficult goals rather than no goals, easy goals, or “do your
best” goals.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 6-4
Goal Difficulty and Task Performance
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 6-5 Goal Setting Theory
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
TABLE 6-4 Strategies for Fostering Goal Commitment
STRATEGY
Rewards
Publicity
Support
Participation
Resources
DESCRIPTION
Tie goal achievement to the receipt of monetary or nonmonetary rewards.
Publicize the goal to significant others and coworkers to create some social pressure to
attain it.
Provide supportive supervision to aid employees if they struggle to attain the goal.
Collaborate on setting the specific proficiency level and due date for a goal so that the
employee feels a sense of ownership over the goal.
Provide the resources needed to attain the goal and remove any constraints that could
hold back task efforts.
Sources: Adapted from J.R. Hollenbeck and H.J. Klein, “Goal Commitment and the Goal-Setting Process: Problems, Prospects, and Proposals for Future Research,” Journal of Applied Psychology 72 (1987), pp. 212–20;
H.J. Klein, M.J. Wesson, J.R. Hollenbeck, and B.J. Alge, “Goal Commitment and the Goal-Setting Process: Conceptual Clarification and Empirical Synthesis,” Journal of Applied Psychology 84 (1999), pp. 885–96;
E.A. Locke, G.P. Latham, and M. Erez, “The Determinants of Goal Commitment,” Academy of Management Review 13 (1988), pp. 23–29; G.P. Latham, “The Motivational Benefits of Goal-Setting,” Academy of
Management Executive 18 (2004), pp. 126–29.
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Equity Theory
Motivation is maximized when an employee’s ratio of “outcomes”
to “inputs” matches those of some “comparison other.”
Thus, motivation also depends on the outcomes received by
other employees.
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Figure 6-6 Equity Theory Comparisons
1 of 3
Are these really equal?
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Source: Adapted from J.S. Adams, “Inequity in Social Exchange,”
in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 2, ed. L.
Berkowitz (New York: Academic Press, 1965), pp. 267–99
Figure 6-6 Equity Theory Comparisons
2 of 3
What emotion do you feel in this case?
What methods can be used to restore equity?
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Source: Adapted from J.S. Adams, “Inequity in Social Exchange,” in
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 2, ed. L. Berkowitz
(New York: Academic Press, 1965), pp. 267–99
Figure 6-6 Equity Theory Comparisons
3 of 3
What emotion do you feel in this case?
What methods can be used to restore equity?
Access the text alternative for slide images
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Source: Adapted from J.S. Adams, “Inequity in Social Exchange,” in
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 2, ed. L. Berkowitz
(New York: Academic Press, 1965), pp. 267–99
OB on Screen
Battle of the Sexes
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Psychological Empowerment
An intrinsic form of motivation derived from the belief that one’s
work tasks are contributing to some larger purpose
Fostered by four beliefs:
• Meaningfulness
• Self-determination
• Competence
• Impact
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How Important Is Motivation?
Does motivation have a significant impact on the two primary
outcomes in our integrative model of OB—does it correlate
with job performance and organizational commitment?
Answering that question is somewhat complicated, because
motivation is not just one thing but rather a set of energetic
forces.
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Figure 6-8 Effects of Motivation on Performance and
Commitment
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Table 6-7 Compensation Plan Elements
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Individual-Focused
Description
Piece-rate
A specified rate is paid for each unit produced, each unit sold, or each service provided.
Merit pay
An increase to base salary is made in accordance with performance evaluation ratings.
Lump-sum bonuses
A bonus is received for meeting individual goals, but no change is made to base salary.
The potential bonus represents “at risk” pay that must be re-earned each year. Base
salary may be lower in cases in which potential bonuses may be large.
Recognition awards
Tangible awards (gift cards, merchandise, trips, special events, time off, plaques) or
intangible awards (praise) are given on an impromptu basis to recognize achievement.
Unit-Focused
Description
Gainsharing
A bonus is received for meeting unit goals (department goals, plant goals, business unit
goals) for criteria controllable by employees (labor costs, use of materials, quality). No
change is made to base salary. The potential bonus represents “at risk” pay that must be
re-earned each year. Base salary may be lower in cases in which potential bonuses may
be large.
Organization-Focused
Description
Profit Sharing
A bonus is received when the publicly reported earnings of a company exceed some
minimum level, with the magnitude of the bonus contingent on the magnitude of the
profits. No change is made to base salary. The potential bonus represents “at risk” pay
that must be re-earned each year. Base salary may be lower in cases in which potential
bonuses may be large.
Next Time
Chapter 7: Trust, Justice and Ethics
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