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What type of deductive reasoning is being utilized? Name the form. – What is the enthymeme? – What is the unstated assumption? – Using an example from the source your selected, identify a fallacy. – What type of persuasive style is the author/narrator using? (Pathos, Logos, Ethos). And explain your answer. The link is to help answer the questions about the podcast. ——– My other assignment is a self evaluation of questions answered based off my essay, i will post the essay and evaluation questions that need to be answered based on the essay.

Self-Evaluation Questionnaire for Researched Argument Essay (Essay 3)
ENGL 1102
Dr. Jordan Dominy
Instructions: You should have a full draft of your research essay finished (yes, all 2,000 words,
or very close to it) before completing this questionnaire. You will use this questionnaire to
carefully and objectively read your essay to help you determine how it can be revised for
improvement prior to submitting the final draft for your grading conference. You should type up
your answers to these questions, and sometimes instructions require that you annotate your draft.
This can be easily accomplished with the reviewing tools (comment, track changes, etc.) in MS
Word if you use that program/app. Submit your completed answers to this questionnaire to
the “4-16 Guided Self- Evaluation of Researched Essay” dropbox by the deadline posted in
Read all questions carefully and thoroughly answer them using complete sentences.
1) The assignment prompt for the researched essay states that your essay should make an
original argument that answers the research question you developed in the inquiry essay and
presents your thesis statement in basic enthymematic form (CLAIM + because + REASON).
a) Underline what you believe to be your thesis statement in your essay. Then compose a
paragraph that answers to these questions:
i) Does your thesis statement make a specific, clear claim that answers your research
question as you developed it? (It is not necessary to state your research question in
your introductory paragraph, but your thesis statement should make clear what your
question is.)
ii) Does your thesis statement use the word because?
iii) Does your thesis statement state reason(s) or support for its claim?
b) How effectively does the introductory paragraph frame the topic that your essay is on?
Did you use any of the strategies discussed in the assigned reading? Is it too choppy?
2) Quickly read through your draft. The assignment prompt for the researched essay states that
your essay must cite at least 5 sources. At least 1 must be a scholarly, peer reviewed source.
At least 3 must have been found using GALILEO (your scholarly peer reviewed source
might be one of these 3). The remaining 2 may be found in any method, but must be deemed
authoritative and trustworthy based on an assessment via the CRAAP test. Then answer these
a) Does the essay meet the source requirements?
b) Is every author that is cited in the essay listed on the works cited page?
c) Are there any authors on your works cited page not cited in your essay?
d) Do you refer to sources in your text ONLY by author name, or do you use titles or
articles or professional titles/degrees to identify sources? You should only use author’s
names, unless you have a good reason for naming a title or speaking to an author’s
e) Note any changes, revisions, or corrections that you need to make.
3) Now carefully reread each one of the body paragraphs in your essay. Answer the following
questions for each one:
a) Does the paragraph have a single, clear main idea? Is it related to or supportive of the
thesis? Why is it?
b) Does the paragraph provide specific, detailed evidence to support the main idea of the
c) Does the paragraph provide a discussion of how that evidence proves the claim in the
paragraph, or is relevant, important, or significant?
d) Does the paragraph have a logical progression, that is, are all the ideas clearly connected
with signposting language or transitional words and phrases?
How is the essay organized? Is the organization effective? Why or why not?
Consider the conclusion paragraph. Does it have a logical progression? Does it use any of the
strategies discussed in the assigned readings? Does it provide a sense of closure? Why do
you think it does?
Go back and look for instances in the essay that quotes or paraphrases your sources for
support. Are there signal phrases used in the essay to cite the author? Consult the brief MLA
8th Edition guide posted in D2L > Content > Textbooks. Explain your answer.
Check your works cited entry for correctness. The models you should be following are in the
MLA 8th Edition Guide in D2L. Is it correct? What did you have to correct if you corrected
Now look at your Originality Report in D2L. In our class page, follow Assessments >
Dropbox. Look at your submissions for the self-evaluation draft for the literature review.
You should see the link to your Originality/GradeMark report with your submission (it’s a
block with a percentage in it that will be color coded blue, green, yellow, orange, or red).
Click on that to access your originality report.
a) Look through it and find places where the report identifies similarities with other
documents. Don’t worry about coincidental similarities, but in places where there is
substantial similarity, consider:
i) Is it a quotation? If so, do you have quotation marks around it? And is the source
cited in the text and on your works cited page?
ii) Are you attempting to paraphrase a source? If so, you likely need to revise the
paraphrase to be more in your own words and sentence structure. Is the source cited
in text and on the works cited page?
Write a paragraph (5-7 sentences) that explains the steps you will take to revise the essay
before you submit it for your grading conference.
Shatravia Whatley
Rough Draft of Argument Research paper
The Importance of Free Birth Control
Birth control entails the process of preventing child conception before it occurs. The
conception process occurs when the sperms fuse with the ovum inside a female’s fallopian tube.
Therefore, birth controls aim at preventing sperms from accessing the ovum. They exist in
several forms. Birth control implants are an example of techniques for birth control. The implant
is a small and relatively thin rod, the Nexplanon. Often, the physician inserts the tiny rod into a
lady’s arm. It releases the progestin hormone, which prevents a woman from becoming pregnant.
Control happens in two ways using this technique. First, the progestin hormone thickens the
cervix’s mucus disabling sperms from swimming to the ovum. It also prevents the egg from
exiting the ovaries. The technique works for approximately five years. The second most common
method of birth control is the pill. These pills are often medicinal and also contain hormones.
Often, they appear in a pack, and a female takes one pill at scheduled periods. It gets considered
a practical, affordable, and safe method provided that it gets consumed at the right moment. They
work by preventing the sperm from reaching the ovum to avoid fertilization. There are many
techniques for birth control with different levels of effectiveness. The process is essential for
ensuring family planning and evading early pregnancies for sexually active women.
Despite the growing costs of health insurance, birth control should be free and accessible for
all women. It is essential because it presents couples’ options and works well to eliminate harsh
consequences for confused women for instance, free birth control helps reduce abortion rates. In
America, unplanned pregnancies emerge amongst the most significant challenges. Therefore,
most females result in aborting unborn children. Research explains that approximately 90% of
the target population abort due to early and unplanned pregnancies (Williams, 2016). Often,
conception results from young people not using contraceptives during intercourse, wrong or
incorrect use of birth control techniques, or a total lack of awareness on methods of birth control.
If birth control gets provided for free, it will encourage both men and women to partake, which
reduces the pregnancy chances and minimize the abortion rates. Although some communities
and individuals approve of abortion, the act carries along some dangerous risks for women. After
the procedure, the woman experiences bleeding episodes for as long as fourteen to twenty-one
days. Excessive bleeding can cause death for the victim (Williams, 2016). Other immediate
disadvantages include destruction and infection of the uterus and cervical walls. More so,
abortion causes future issues for women. It leads to the cervix’s weakening, which escalates
future complications such as premature birth (Williams, 2016). Babies born prematurely have
fewer chances of growing to adulthood, while the survivors develop other disabilities and
conditions such as autism and psychological disorders. It emerges that accessible birth controls
would help avoid all these problems.
In reducing abortion rates in America, a research study was conducted to discover new birth
control methods. Approximately 9,000 adolescents and women presented themselves for the
study taken between 2007 and 2011. Their ages ranged between fourteen and forty-five years
with the risk of unplanned pregnancies (Williams, 2016). Participants had two birth-control
choices, including long-term techniques like implants and intrauterine devices, or short-term
methods including control pills, rings, or patches. Researchers also created awareness amongst
the women by highlighting the various ways of control, their effectiveness levels, and their
benefits. It appeared that more than 70% of the women preferred long-term control methods, the
IUDs and implants, over short-term birth-control strategies. The study revealed that between the
years 2008 and 2010, the yearly abortion rates among participants lay between 4 and 7.6 in 1000
ladies. It appeared as a 60% to 70% drop compared to the national annual rates that amount to an
average of 19 women aborting out of 1000 (Voelker, 2019). The significant reduction in women
aborting got attributed to the free training sessions and the availability of birth control. It proves
that free childbirth control works well to reduce the abortion rates and be accessible to many
The inclusion of free birth control in health insurance plans emerges as a common grievance
among American citizens. It should get included as preventive care in the insurance covers. The
regular use of the control measures makes it a priority for the insurance cover. More than 90% of
sexually active and experienced women have encountered contraceptives in the experiences. The
regular use in multitudes makes it a necessity. After the Affordable Care Act got passed in 2010,
most insurance companies seem required to cater to birth controls without co-payments in these
plans (Snyder, Weisman, Liu, Leslie & Chuang, 2018). However, the challenge emerges with
anti-birth control politicians running the campaigns. Often, they base their argument on the issue
of morality and ethics. In the real sense, there does not exist a clear identification for what
appears moral or immoral. Ethics dictate how humans should live without quarrel, while morals
differentiate between good and evil. If the consequences determine the morality entailed in birth
control methods, perhaps the benefits associated with the procedures, such as reducing abortion
rates, explain the importance and convince the anti-birth control, political leaders, and believers.
More than 50% of the American voters favor the Affordable Care Act coverage on birth control.
Several methods of birth control often increase the quality of health in women. Doctors
recommended their use and advised their inclusion in the Affordable Care Act. Contraceptives
have health benefits for women and their children. Approximately 600000 mothers die annually
due to pregnancy-induced reasons, and the majority of these cases are due to a lack of childbirth
use and awareness. It also ensures that mental health gets upheld. It is probable for women to
develop Psychological disorders after unplanned pregnancies and births. The conditions include
postpartum depressions and anxiety, deterioration of physical health, mood swings, and
powerlessness (Williams, 2016). Childbirth controls are also helpful for infants. It allows parents
to regulate the time and intervals between which children get born. In return, it reduces child
mortality rates and enables adequate growth and development for babies born in a gap of two to
four years. Often unplanned infants get born with medical issues such as below minimum birth
weights compared to babies whose parents planned. Although uncommon, there are chances that
parents may develop unhealthy relationships with children they bore unplanned, which might
lead to negligence and would affect the child’s physical and psychological development.
Therefore, free and accessible birth control for willing women enhances their health benefits and
their children’s and improves chances for quality relationships between parents and their babies.
Families would also get regulated (Williams, 2016). Fewer children in a family would mean that
most children get good opportunities such as education chances and helpful bonding with their
parents, which are essential aspects of a child’s development. It implies that accessible birth
controls for the target population make life easier and sustainable for the citizens and the
The academic journal, “Sterilizations, IUDs, And Mandatory Birth Control: The CCP’s
Campaign to Suppress Uyghur Birth-rates in Xinjiang (Zenz, 2020),” indulges the measure taken
in Xinjiang, China, in controlling the fast-rising population. These techniques included
mandatory family planning and birth control. The authors begin by explaining the situation in
this city. ICD’s, enforced family separations, and sterilizations appeared rampant in Xinjiang,
transforming it into a police state. It shows that the situation entailing controlling the population
was urgent and escalated in this city, with mass internment policies getting enforced in 2017 by
the Chinese Communist Party (Zenz, 2020). The article presents an example of a woman held in
intermittent care for having three instead of the required two children. After her release, she paid
a fine, and the government offered free sterilization. It appears harsh, especially for mothers who
bear triplets. It is a natural phenomenon and is uncontrollable. Most women claim that they got
injected with unknown drugs in the refinements, which caused loss of menstrual cycles and
irregular bleeding. The item described the forceful administration of birth controls in Xinjiang.
For instance, a mother with four children got fitted with an IUD, forcibly, in a mandatory process
before her internment. The article clearly shows that the government does not understand that
birth control should be voluntary. Some of the techniques have hazardous side effects on the
victims. The solution for this is making the procedures free for every woman of any age in the
country. They should also lead effective awareness campaigns on family planning’s importance
and the dangers of family planning. However, the study revealed that despite the cruel treatment,
the process had positive outcomes. The population growth in Xinjiang declined proportionally.
Unfortunately, there emerged an increase in unnatural deaths related to the medications given
during the confinements.
The second academic article, “Birth Control Device Essure Is Still Under the Microscope
(Voelker, 2019),” focuses on evaluating Birth control device Essure and its use in America. It
seems like a necessary step even though the technique is no longer used in America. Evaluation
of birth control techniques and the health hazards involved is essential to ensure that when the
procedures are free and readily accessible for every woman in the country, harsh consequences
do not emerge. In this article, the author explains that many complaints emerged, including acute
pains, irregular menstrual cycles, headaches, and worse case scenarios, death. The complications
arose due to Essure, and since its introduction to the market, approximately 26773 cases have
been reported (Voelker, 2019). Therefore, a 3-years comprehensive study was conducted to
perform a follow-up on the adversities. It shall provide extensive data and information on the
risks associated with Essure and other birth control methods similar. According to the article,
physicians came up with a method to follow up on patients and help with the recovery journey
from opioid use. The reset-O app got incorporated. It helps to deliver therapy sessions on
Cognitive behavior. Victims can download the app on their smartphones after physicians
prescribe its use.
The two articles show a difference in perception on birth control between the two
countries, China and the United States of America. In Xinjiang, the procedures are mandatory
and offered for free by the government. However, the state is not careful to examine the negative
impacts of victims’ repellants on some methods. It led to several adversities such as irregular
bleeding and future consequences such as unnatural death. It serves as a crucial lesson for other
countries like the United States. It is essential to ensure free birth control to minimize
overpopulation, leading to occurrences similar to China’s. The second article explains that
contraceptives have harmful effects on patients, such as pains, bleeding, sudden deaths.
Therefore, the birth control techniques must get accessed to ensure that they are safe for
consumption and application. The article also shows that the American government minds their
population’s safety and adheres to the fact that the procedures should be voluntary.
In conclusion, birth controls should be given for free to every willing woman in the country.
The procedure presents many benefits. For instance, they are effective for family planning and
ensure adequate proportionality in families. In return, overpopulation problems get evaded, and
every child gets adequate opportunities in life, including quality education, good medical
benefits, and enhanced relations with parents. Birth controls also have health benefits for
mothers and children. For instance, they prevent unwanted pregnancies, which lead to abortions,
development of mental disorders due to stress and anxieties resulting from unplanned
pregnancies. Babies born of unwanted pregnancies often emerge with complications such as low
weight and other related challenges. Providing free birth control procedures shall emerge
influential in motivating couples to practice family planning. Creating awareness should also be
a priority to ensure that the population realizes the importance.
Work Cited
Snyder, A., Weisman, C., Liu, G., Leslie, D., & Chuang, C. (2018). The Impact of the Affordable
Care Act on Contraceptive Use and Costs among Privately Insured Women. Women’s Health
Issues, 28(3), 219-223. Doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2018.01.005
Voelker, R. (2019). Birth Control Device Essure Is Still Under the Microscope. JAMA, 321(5),
444. Doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.21897
Williams, D. (2016). Access to free birth control reduces abortion rates | Washington University
School of Medicine in St. Louis. Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.
Retrieved 11 April 2021, from
Zenz, A. (2020). Mandatory Birth Control: The CCP’s Campaign to Suppress Uyghur Birthrates
in Xinjiang. Retrieved 11 April 2021, from
Racial Covenants and the Segregation in Housing
Shatravia Whatley
Critical Thinking and Communications 07
Professor DeCloux
April 11, 2021
Whatley 1
Racial disparities are a common occurrence in American history. Over time, segregation
according to ethnic and racial groups emerged rampant, with the African-Americans and other
minority groups not white suffering in-depth discrimination and sidelining by the American
government. A good example is redlining and separation in real estate and housing. It was visible
that black people got sidelined and forced to live in poor conditions such as unconducive
buildings and poor infrastructure. On the other hand, white people lived in the better parts of the
real estate with excellent housing, plenty of infrastructures, job opportunities. In an interview in
Jim Crow of the North video on “Redlining and Racial Covenants,” a lady tells of her
grandparents’ real-life experience. They were immigrants from Sweden but worked hard and had
a privilege to live in the real estates’ better part (TPT Originals). She said that her grandparents
admitted that these were the most conducive places for young children to grow and develop.
Better schools were leading to college access, safer parks to play in, and ample security.
However, African-Americans were never allowed to live in these places regardless of their
status. The homes were made for white people only.
Racial discrimination had extended to structures and buildings. The racial covenant is
competent evidence for this claim. They got instituted in the twentieth century, where racially
restrictive deeds became a critical part of the transactions. Covenants got included in every
property deed to prevent non-white people from accessing the real estates’ better parts. It ensured
that African-Americans never bought or occupied land. The most common covenant was in
Minneapolis. It stated that “these premises cannot at any instance get sold, leased, sublet, or
conveyed by anyone or group of persons who do not appear to have full blood of the white or
Caucasian ethnicity.” The first covenant in Minneapolis was in the year 1910 when Leonara
Scott and her husband, Henry, sold their property, and the deed in the transaction stated with
emphasis that “the property shall not get mortgaged, leased, or conveyed to anyone of Japanese,
Chinese, Turkish, Moorish, Mongolian, African, or Negro identity (University of Minnesota 3).”
Later, Henry became the president for a real estate development company and ensured the same
deeds developed across several cities. Several public officials embraced the acts and cited them
as enthusiastic means to promote stability across neighborhoods. As the realtors continued the
segregation practice, the lenders joined in the racial profiling. It emerged that these covenants
presented an excellent rationale for determining who had access to loans. The banks stipulated
that they could not offer loans for property in non-white neighborhoods. It was known as
redlining, which denied them the opportunity for financial growth. The estates were divided into
four zones, red, yellow, blue, and green.
Consequently, the red zone was considered hazardous and constituted African-Americans and
other minority groups. Yellow represented the declining areas while blue represented the still
desirable zones. The green zone was regarded as the best and only available for white people.
These zones represented the people’s value (University of Minnesota 5). Racial discrimination
had spread to real estate and denied crucial life opportunities for the minority
Whatley 2
groups. It became worse during the redlining, and banks refused loans for the racially segregated
and led to poor growth and development for the target population.
The aggravated levels of racial profiling through the racial covenants and redlining were
destructive for the minority groups. These included the African-Americans, Hispanic, Japanese,
Chinese, and Latinas. For instance, in the video “City Rising,” the orator Anthony Iton explains
how the minority groups were considered less valuable with lower life expectancies with fewer
rights and privileges (PBS). They had little to no opportunities with access to fewer resources
such as education and medical covers. It led to low life expectancies amongst their demography.
He explains that in the red zones entailing Oakland, the expectancy ranged between 68 to 70
years, while the green zone had an expectancy between 85 to 88 years. It was a bad era for the
unprivileged minority groups, and the racial segregation by the real estate and housing
department made it worse.
Fortunately, the American Supreme Court abolished the racial covenants in the year 1948, and
the legislature illegalized them in the year 1953. More so, members of Congress banned the
deeds as part of the fair housing act of 1968. Although these covenants were harsh for
humankind, they are essential for reminiscing on the atrocious past. Americans should reflect on
the harm that these covenants revealed. According to race, they separated cities in the North like
Minneapolis, which denied access to essential resources for the disadvantaged people and
determined which people could buy property. The covenants are the basis for the provision of
equal opportunities across the racial spectrum. Wealth gaps emerging in these times are
reducing, although racial segregation still exists in subliminal amounts. People did not wish for
racial covenants, but they are essential for harnessing a better future for minority groups through
the cruel history they entail.
Although the covenants had made the situation worse, there exist some solutions to these
issues. It was evident that segregation emerged due to racial discrimination, especially when
Henry declared that his property could not get sold to people without Caucasian blood. He later
became president of a Real Estate company and enhanced them all over. Therefore, the first step
is eradicating the racist mentality among crucial leaders. Leadership ensures control. It is easier
to replace them with leaders that realize the negative impacts associated with racial segregation.
It applies to real estate companies, banks, education institutions, and medical centers. More so,
more campaigns should be held to ascertain that people are aware of its discrimination. These
highlight some apt solutions to ending racial segregation in the important centers for the
country’s resources.
Racial covenants and redlining by the banks had a significant and negative impact on the
African-Americans and the other minority groups in America. The spread of Racial
discrimination to real estate and housing worked well to deny crucial life opportunities for the
minority groups. It became worse during the redlining when banks refused loans for the racially
segregated, leading to poor growth and development for the target population and low life
expectancy. It was not a biological or genetic factor determining the levels of expectancy. The
opportunities provided to the
Whatley 3
two sets of people described their eventualities. For example, banks used redlining to deny
people of color loans to mortgaging their houses. It led to poor housing conditions for the
minority groups who already could not afford quality living due to lack of job opportunities and
quality education denied by the educational institutions.
Annotated Bibliography
Lewis, Jason. “Los Angeles County Housing Covenants.” Vol 75, no. 8, 2009,
https://search.proquest.com/docview/369315844?accountid=13713. Accessed 10 Apr
The academic aims to elaborate on the topic of racial covenants, especially in Los
Angeles. The authors in this source explain that landlords in the white areas did not consider
black people for renting or purchasing houses. Racial covenants in Los Angeles dictated that
houses in the white neighborhood were accessible only by whites, and white people sold houses
to Caucasians (Lewis 1). It stands out as a valuable source for demonstrating how the covenants
had upheld racism and racial segregation. Writers begin by explaining that Black people moved
to the North to evade racial segregation and from the South only to find it in abundance in the
North. The article’s strength lies in its emphasis on the black people’s historical experience with
racial segregation in real estate.
Melo, Frederick. “Realtors Say Segregated Housing in Twin Cities Was No
Accident.” 2019,
https://search.proquest.com/docview/2268458227?accountid=13713. Accessed 10
Apr 2021.
This article also dwells on racial covenants and segregated housing. The authors focus on
the twin cities explaining that racial segregation was not an accident. It was legally orchestrated
through racial covenants ensuring that black people did not receive quality housing and living
Whatley 4
conditions than white people (Melo 3). The item’s strength lies in the author’s emphasis on
realtors’ role, evolution, and acceptance of the covenants in the twin cities. It is an essential
article for displaying how racial segregation evolved, the covenants’ impact on society, and steps
taken to eradicate the vice.
The University of Minnesota. “Mapping Prejudice.” Mappingprejudice.Umn. Edu,
2021, https://mappingprejudice.umn.edu/what-are-covenants/.
The academic article from the Minnesota university was resourceful in explaining the
racial covenants and the map prejudice relating to racial segregation. Its authors go in-depth to
explain these covenants’ concept of how they emerged and their negative impacts on the minority
groups in America. Any reader or researcher using this source would find it helpful in explaining
the topic of racial covenants. In my perspective, it was an informative item and assisted in having
extensive knowledge of the topic.

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