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Each student will submit a two-page double-spaced summary of a health behavior theory that could be used to develop a health education intervention related to your group’s health topic (which is type 2 diabetes). Theories to consider: TTM or PAPM, Social Cognitive Theory, or TRA/TPB, or HBM. Duplication of this assignment is NOT acceptable-each student must submit their own unique ideas.

The summary should include:

Explain why the theory selected would be ideal for your intervention (citing appropriate sources of previous studies using the theory is required!);

Identify 3 constructs from the theory and discuss how each

construct

would be *applied* to your group’s intervention. Provide specific details on what program strategy AND activities you would use; this is supported by literature of previous program activities pertaining to your health topic (cite appropriately!). *This is a GREAT time to use a systematic review to support your constructs 🙂

Theory Constructs

Describe three (3) theoretical constructs you will use to develop your intervention activities. All three (3) constructs can come from the same theory or different theories. *You are limited to only using one (1) construct from the HBM. Consider TTM, PAPM, SCT, TRA/TPB etc.

Briefly explain why this construct would be ideal for your target population (what did you find in the PRE that makes you identify the need for Intra/Inter/Community level theoretical constructs? What success have similar interventions found using these constructs either with this population or this health topic or both?

Identify and cite relevant interventions (at least three (3) distinct and reliable references) that support the use of this theory or constructs with similar populations or health topic.

Program Activities

Describe what strategy you are using and the programmatic activities you will use that specifically address your theoretical constructs. The strategy and activities selected should derive from your theoretical framework. That is, use theory to inform and develop your intervention. *A common mistake is that people begin with an intervention and try to construct a theory or framework after the fact! Identify and cite relevant interventions and literature

ALSO she said also one intervention that comes from a journal article

and choosing 3 constructs

1
Theory Application
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course
Professor
Due Date
2
Statement of Problem:
According to healthcare reports, the United Kingdom diagnoses over 200,000 people
with type 2 diabetes annually (Caleyachetty et al., 2021). Similarly, England diagnoses over 3.5
million people with type 2 diabetes every year, with a majority being older people above age 45.
The increasing number of type 2 diabetes patients is alarming to healthcare systems worldwide.
Type 2 diabetes causes lower limb amputation, kidney failure, sight loss, stroke, and heart attack.
The treatment of type 2 diabetes patients costs ranges approximately 6 billion yearly. Nowadays,
approximately for each patient in six patients in different hospitals, a case of diabetes is present.
From 2000 until 2016, reports indicated an increase of 5% in diabetes mortality rates in America.
By 2019, diabetes was reported by WHO as one of the leading diseases causing deaths, with
approximately 1.5 million people dying from diabetes country-wide (Bommer et al., 2018).
Therefore, a global diabetes compact program is being developed to reduce diabetes cases and
mortality rates among aged adults in America and England to address this issue.
Theoretical Constructs and Activities:
The strategy mainly aims to provide type 2 diabetes prevention measures, develop
standards and norms for diabetes care and diagnosis, and conduct diabetes risk factors among
American and England older adults who will teach young generations preventive measures for
diabetes. The strategy of the program was developed after centers for disease control programs.
The evidence demonstrates success in reducing diabetes mortality rates in America and England.
The global diabetes compact program uses theoretical constructs to reduce challenges hindering
achieving diabetes care and prevention and social norms. Self-efficacy, social support, and
outcome expectancies constructs were found efficient in influencing the lifestyle behavior in
America and England (Shin, 2018).
3
Self-efficacy can be defined as a person’s behavior to help achieve a specific goal (Shin,
2018). A social cognitive theory predicts how a person may learn to practice behavior. A positive
self-efficacy on chefs and people, in general, is an essential factor in predicting the use of sugar
in foods. The study indicated that changing lifestyle and taking low sugar levels among
Americans and England Citizens reduces levels of getting type 2 diabetes (Izadirad et al., 2021).
Creating awareness on the best measures of preventing diabetes activity will create a good
lifestyle practice such as coping with stress and being physically active among Americans and
England citizens. Additionally, the activity will enhance people’s confidence to live a healthy
lifestyle. Furthermore, the global diabetes compact program will build self-efficacy by making
healthier choices and skipping many fad diets.
Social support from cognitive theory can be defined as emotional or informational,
aiming to reduce the likelihood of diabetes mortality. A study indicates that social support
enhances better baseline cognitive performance. However, there exists a significant gap in
learning its role. Social interactions help enact developmental acts (Izadirad et al., 2021). The
program planners will use free classes and lessons to prevent diabetes cases. The activity will
enhance interaction skills among American and England citizens. Thus, practicing their
interaction skills makes them physically active.
Outcome expectancies from social cognitive theory are defined as value assignment to
behavior change results. Self-monitoring and regulating an individual behavior reduce the cases
of type 2 diabetes among Americans and England citizens. Research shows that individuals’
consumption of healthy plant foods lowers the chances of acquiring type 2 diabetes among
Americans (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). Regulating ones’ behavior by consuming healthy fats
4
and constant exercise reduces sugar levels in the body, reducing the chances of acquiring
diabetes. The program participants will consume low levels of glucose and healthy plant foods.
5
References
Bommer, C., Sagalova, V., Heesemann, E., Manne-Goehler, J., Atun, R., Bärnighausen, T., … &
Vollmer, S. (2018). Global economic burden of diabetes in adults: projections from 2015
to 2030. Diabetes care, 41(5), 963-970.
Caleyachetty, R., Littlejohns, T., Lacey, B., Bešević, J., Conroy, M., Collins, R., & Allen, N.
(2021). United Kingdom Biobank (UK Biobank) JACC Focus Seminar 6/8. Journal of
the American College of Cardiology, 78(1), 56-65.
Izadirad, H., Zareban, I., Niknami, S., & Atashpanjeh, A. (2021). Factors affecting pregnancy
care and birth weight among pregnant women in Baluchestan, Iran: an application of the
social cognitive theory. Women & Health, 61(6), 510-519.
Schunk, D. H., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2020). Motivation and social cognitive
theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101832.
Shin, M. H. (2018). Effects of Project-Based Learning on Students’ Motivation and SelfEfficacy. English Teaching, 73(1), 95-114.
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aiming to reduce the likelihood of diabetes mortality. A study indicates that social support
Tanya Wicks
enhances better baseline cognitive performance. However, there exists a significant gap in
learning its role. Social interactions help enact developmental acts (Izadirad et al., 2021). The
program planners will use free classes and lessons to prevent diabetes cases. The activity will
the activity they use to build self-
efficacy is “Wurdinger and
others(2007), note the following
definition of project-based learning, a
teaching method whereby student: […]
enhance interaction skills among American and England citizens. Thus, practicing their
interaction skills makes them physically active.
Outcome expectancies from social cognitive theory are defined as value assignment to
Tanya Wicks
behavior change results. Self-monitoring and regulating an individual behavior reduce the cases
Kind of a big leap
of type 2 diabetes among Americans and England citizens. Research shows that individuals’
2
consumption of healthy plant foods lowers the chances of acquiring type 2 diabetes among
Tanya Wicks
Americans (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). Regulating ones’ behavior by consuming healthy fats
(Bandura, 1986)
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