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I’m working on a sociology multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

1. Tell me about Seneca Village. How large was it in terms of acres? When was it founded, and when was it destroyed? What institutions (churches, schools, etc) were there? How many people lived there, and what do we know about them?

Pages 13 and 14 include this:

“There is no evidence that the City or the State’s decision on the park location was directed by an interest in destroying Seneca Village. However, some journalists and others writing in favor of the Central Park plan did portray the site as a wasteland and those living on the land as impoverished squatters. For the most part, these journalists did not look very closely at the different communities and people living on the land slated for the Park; instead, they sought to create a general sense of the entire area as unpleasant and disorderly and the people living there as worthless. This portrayal likely served to justify the city’s acquisition of so much land for what was an unprecedented purpose and promoted the creation of the Park as the utmost transformation, one of beauty replacing blight. When they did mention particular communities, they typically portrayed them (particularly Irish immigrants) in derogatory terms, reflecting prevailing attitudes toward African-Americans, immigrants, and the poor. “

2. Imagine you are a journalist writing in the 1850s. Your editor believes someone at the paper should argue for Seneca Village’s saving, and has asked you to write a large paragraph (10ish sentences) arguing that Seneca Village should be spared. Submit here what you would submit to your editor.

Discover Seneca Village:
Selected Research Topics
and Resources
OCTOBER 2019
Contents
3
Introduction
4
Seneca Village Overview
5
Research Topics
5
How and why did Seneca Village start?
6
Who lived in Seneca Village?
7 Is there a connection between Seneca Village
and the Underground Railroad?
8 Where else in New York City did
African-Americans live?
9 Why are there no photographs of Seneca Village?
11 What did the landscape of central Manhattan
look like before the Park, and who else lived there?
13 How did the city choose the site for Central Park?
15 What happened when to Seneca Village when
the city acquired the land for Central Park?
16
Recommended Reading
Detail of map showing houses in Seneca Village, 1856. Courtesy of
NYC Municipal Archives.
Cover: Egbert Viele, detail of Map of the lands included in the Central
Park, 1856. Courtesy of NYC Municipal Archives
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
DISCOVER SENECA VILLAGE: SELECTED RESEARCH TOPICS AND RESOURCES 2
Introduction
The Central Park Conservancy has been conducting research on Seneca Village, the predominantly African-American
community that existed from 1825 to 1857, for the past several years. This work builds on the initial research of Roy
Rosenzweig and Elizabeth Blackmar in their book, The Park and the People (1992), as well as the ongoing work of the
Institute for the Exploration of Seneca Village History (IESVH), a group of scholars and archeologists who have been
studying Seneca Village since the 1990s.
While the Conservancy had been aware of Seneca Village since the 1990s and involved in various initiatives to share
and research its history, a more focused effort on Seneca Village began in 2015, as part of planning to rebuild the
two playgrounds located in the Seneca Village site. This work included archival research and archeological testing
that discovered additional information on and artifacts of Seneca Village residents. This work also related to the
Conservancy’s broader interest in pre-Park history — uncovering the history of the land before Central Park, including
its geology and other natural features, settlements, military occupations, and more.
In 2018, the Conservancy decided to look at all the work done on Seneca Village and think about how to better share it
with the public. The Conservancy’s historian, working with the IESVH, created a temporary exhibit of interpretative signs
that were installed in Central Park in October 2019. The signs mark the sites of the Village’s churches and other buildings,
provide information on residents, and point out current features in the landscape that existed in Seneca Village. It was
important to the Conservancy to share this information in the Park, thus allowing visitors to discover the Village and its
people in the place where they actually lived.
The signs are just one way that the Conservancy hopes to share this history and encourage the discovery of Seneca
Village. This guide, which includes selected research topics and suggestions for further research, is not exhaustive but
intended to provide some additional context for the information provided on the signs. It takes the form of a series of
frequently asked questions about Seneca Village, reflecting what we’ve learned that Park visitors and others are most
curious about.
Research into Seneca Village is ongoing; the Conservancy, the IESVH, and others are continuing to investigate Seneca
Village and are working on developing additional resources to help tell the story of this extraordinary community.
Marie Warsh
Historian, Central Park Conservancy
October 2019
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
DISCOVER SENECA VILLAGE: SELECTED RESEARCH TOPICS AND RESOURCES 3
Seneca Village Overview
• Located between 82nd and 89th Streets and Seventh and Eighth Avenues on approximately five acres of land.
• Started in 1825 when African-Americans affiliated with the African Methodist Episcopal Zion church based downtown
began purchasing land in the area.
• People settled in the area over the course of thirty years. By 1855 the estimated population was approximately 230.
Residents lived in fifty-two buildings scattered throughout the area. Most of them were two-story, wood frame houses.
Some people had sheds and barns.
• By 1855 there were three churches: African Episcopal Methodist Zion Church, African Union Church, and
All Angels’ Church.
•A
djacent to African Union Church was a small school, called “Colored School #3,” which was part of the city’s public
school system.
• Majority of the population in 1855, approximately two-thirds, was African-American.
• Irish immigrants began settling in Seneca Village in the 1840s and by 1855 made up one-third of the population.
• Highly significant as a predominantly middle-class African-American community that included a large number of AfricanAmerican property owners.
• I n 1853, the city began the process of acquiring the land to create Central Park using the law of eminent domain.
Residents who owned property were paid for the value of their land. They had to leave by 1857, when the city began to
build the park.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
DISCOVER SENECA VILLAGE: SELECTED RESEARCH TOPICS AND RESOURCES 4
Research Topics
How and why did Seneca
Village start?
Seneca Village began as the result of a series of real
estate transactions. In 1825, a white couple named
John and Elizabeth Whitehead, who owned farmland in
Manhattan’s west 80s and 90s, divided up their land into
individual lots and began to offer them for sale. Andrew
Williams, an African-American who lived downtown, was
the first to purchase three lots. It is not clear how he
heard about this offering. Two other African-Americans,
Epiphany Davis and John Carter, also purchased lots that
same day. Both Williams and Davis were affiliated with
the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, the city’s
first African-American church. A week later, the church
bought seven lots, which they planned to use as a
burial ground.
Although the actual settlement of Seneca Village as a
predominantly African-American community occurred
slowly and overtime, it was set in motion by these
purchases. Other than the church’s practical purchase
for burial space, there is no known documentation of
the intentions of those who first bought the land, whose
distance from the center of the city made it relatively
affordable. However, it is likely that the church and those
affiliated with the church were motivated to develop a
more autonomous and secluded community for AfricanAmericans in the city, where they could escape the racist
climate and crowded and unhealthy conditions of lower
Manhattan. In addition to being involved in the church,
both Davis and Williams were also involved in the New
York African Society for Mutual Relief, formed in 1808
to provide support for African-American individuals and
families as well as institutions such as churches and
schools. Their involvement in this organization was a sign
that they were individuals committed to promoting the
stability and prosperity of African-Americans, something
that moving to a more remote area and owning property
also furthered.
Overtime, the Whiteheads sold fifty lots, approximately
half to African-American families.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
DISCOVER SENECA VILLAGE: SELECTED RESEARCH TOPICS AND RESOURCES 5
Research Topics | Continued
Who lived in Seneca Village?
African-Americans were the first to purchase property
in Seneca Village and began moving there soon after. By
1829 at least nine families lived there. In the 1840s, Irish
immigrants began settling in the village.
Researchers have the clearest sense of who lived in
Seneca Village in 1855 because of various government
documents compiled that year. A census provides
valuable information such as race, age, gender, place of
birth, occupation, and relationships between those in a
household. Also in 1855, the city created a map of the
entire area slated for Central Park that documented who
lived on the land and the types of structures that they
lived in. This map can be compared to the census as well
as also tax records in order to understand who lived in
the village in 1855.
In 2018 and 2019, Seneca Village researchers reexamined
all of the documents — the census, maps, and tax
records — to try and get a more precise number
of residents in Seneca Village in 1855. This was a
challenging endeavor, as documents can be incomplete
or inconsistent, but researchers feel confident in an
estimate of 225 residents, which consisted of roughly
one-third Irish immigrants and two-thirds African Americans.
The population also included a couple of families of
German descent.
These are the surnames for the fifty-one families that
researchers believe lived in Seneca Village in 1855. Those
in bold are African-American family names. In a couple of
cases, indicated with a (/), there were alternate spelling
for the same family.
Allen, Allen, Barlow, Benson, Berry, Butler, Casey,
Casey, Davis, Dunn, Foley, Gallagher, Garnet, Geary,
Germond, Glynn, Green, Haff, Hale, Hamilton, Harrison,
Hicks, Hinson, Hutchins, Jackson, Jimmerson, Landen,
Lane, Mathews, McCollin, McClancey, McFarlane,
Meyers, Morgan, Pease, Phillips, Renahan, Riley,
Scudder, Sisco/Cisco, Smith, Snowden, Sylvan/Silver,
Thomson, Wallace, Webster, White, White, Williams,
Wilson, Wilson.
Detail of 1855 census, showing the Wilson and Benson families. From the collection of the NYC Municipal Archives.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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Research Topics | Continued
Is there a connection between
Seneca Village and the
Underground Railroad?
Researchers have not found any evidence that Seneca
Village was a stop on the Underground Railroad. However,
the village’s location was far from the centers of population
downtown and in a much less developed area, conditions
that could have been helpful for hiding fugitives.
The only documented connection between Seneca
Village and abolitionism is through Albro Lyons and his
family. Lyons operated a boarding house for sailors
downtown that was a noted stop on the Underground
Railroad. He also owned property in Seneca Village,
which he had inherited from his wife’s family, but maps
and other records show that there was no building on the
land and that no one lived there. Lyons and in family lived
in several locations downtown. His family fled the city in
1863 after their home and boardinghouse was destroyed
during the draft riots in 1863.
Research is currently underway to determine any
possible connections between Seneca Village and the
abolitionist movement.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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Research Topics | Continued
Where else in New York City
did African-Americans live?
During the nineteenth century, the city’s African-American
population was concentrated downtown, in the fifth,
sixth, and eighth wards. (Today these are roughly the
neighborhoods of Soho, Tribeca, the West Village, and
Chinatown). The sixth ward was where the notorious
Five Points neighborhood was located.
Free and enslaved blacks had a long presence in the
area, dating back to the Dutch settlement. The discovery
of the African Burial Ground in 1991, which had long been
hidden under layers of concrete and asphalt, shed light
on the history of enslaved Africans who lived downtown,
a history of which many people were unaware.
Historian Leslie Harris explains, “Before the completion
of emancipation in 1827, New York City contained the
largest urban slave population outside of the South. After
1827, the city was home to one of the largest free black
communities in the North.”
Although the abolishment of slavery in 1827 in New York
State inspired great hope for many African-American
New Yorkers, many aspects of their daily life were still
severely limited by discrimination. They were unable
to access public transportation and barred from many
jobs; they faced harassment of many forms, often
violent. One way to try and counteract this oppression
and create a sense of safety was to create their own
communities, and form neighborhoods with institutions
such as churches, newspapers, businesses, and aid
organizations.
Pictured here are some of the buildings from Weeksville dating to the
mid-19th century that are preserved at the Weeksville Heritage Center.
Photo by Marie Warsh.
Located in present-day Crown Heights, Weeksville was
formed beginning in 1838 when African-Americans
began buying property in an area of eastern Brooklyn
that was made more accessible by the opening of a train
line. Weeksville grew quickly; by 1850, the population
was over 500 people, including many residents from
the south. Similar to Seneca Village and other AfricanAmerican communities, Weeksville had not just homes
but institutions, including several churches, a cemetery,
and a school, as well as a newspaper, an orphan asylum,
and its own baseball team. Also similar to Seneca Village,
for African-Americans in Weeksville, land ownership and
investment was a cornerstone to stability and prosperity.
African-Americans formed enclaves in small pockets of
downtown, such as the area known as “Little Africa,”
which was south of Washington Square, near what is
now Minetta Lane and Minetta Street. Institutions in this
area included churches, branches of the Freedman’s
Saving and Trust Company (established after the Civil
War), and a school for African-American children.
Seneca Village was one of several communities located
outside of the urban core in the nineteenth century.
Other important examples include Weeksville in Brooklyn,
Sandy Ground in Staten Island, and Newtown in Queens.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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Research Topics | Continued
Why are there no photographs
of Seneca Village?
Researchers have not found any photographs of the village
or the people who lived there. When people started
buying property in Seneca Village in 1825, photography
had not yet been invented. Photography was invented in
Europe around 1839, and while it quickly spread around
the world, it was not widely accessible until the end of
the nineteenth century. The technology was complex and
cumbersome, consisting of large wooden cameras and
glass-plate negatives. This made it much easier to work
in a studio setting and to focus on formal portraits. By
1850, there were over seventy portrait studios in New
York City, which charged the present-day equivalent of
around $20 for a portrait, a cost that was prohibitive for
many New Yorkers at that time.
One of the most well-known photography studios in New
York City was run by Mathew Brady. The administrators
for Central Park hired Brady to document the existing
conditions of the land that would become the Park.
Frederick Olmsted and Calvert Vaux included these
photographs in their presentation of their design for the
Park, called “Greensward.” They paired a photo of the
existing landscape with a small painting of what they
envisioned the Park would look like. (Brady went on to
become even more famous for his photographs of the
Civil War.)
The Lyons’ family portraits are the only known images of
African-Americans who were associated with Seneca
Village. The Lyons family owned property in the village
but did not live there. They lived in lower Manhattan,
where they also owned property, and near to their
business and parish, St. Phillip’s Church. In ca. 1860,
the family posed for studio portraits, which are in the
collection of the Schomburg Center for Research in
Black Culture.
While we do not know of any photographs of Seneca
Village, there are photographs from the 1850s that show
dwellings in the area and depict the landscape before it
was transformed into Central Park, some of which gives
us a sense of what Seneca Village might have looked like.
Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, Greensward Plan
Presentation Board No.5, view southwest from Vista Rock, 1858.
Accompanying Olmsted and Vaux’s original plan for Central Park
were these illustrations, which included a photograph of the existing
landscape and a painting depicting its transformation. From the
collection of the NYC Municipal Archives.
Double ambrotype portraits of Maritcha Lyons, her younger sister Pauline, and their parents Albro Lyons, Sr. and Mary Joseph Lyons. From the
Harry A. Williamson Photography Collection at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the New York Public Library.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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Research Topics | Continued
Detail from Greensward Plan Presentation Board No.5 showing a building on the Park site. This photograph gives us a sense of what buildings in
Seneca Village may have looked like. From the collection of the NYC Municipal Archives.
Another photographer, Victor Prevost, took photographs
of New York City beginning in 1853 using a new and more
portable technology: paper negatives. He documented
the Park in 1862, while it was still under construction.
His photographs give us some sense of what the
landscape originally looked like, as well as the intensive
work involved in building the Park.
Victor Prevost, view of the Park while under construction in 1862.
From the collection of the New York Public Library.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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Research Topics | Continued
What did the landscape of central
Manhattan look like before the
Park, and who else lived there?
In the 1850s, central and upper Manhattan was still
sparsely settled. Most of the city’s streets and avenues
had not yet been laid out very far north, though some
like Eighth Avenue and some other major roads were in
existence. Although it wasn’t totally developed, it also
wasn’t the country. Originally Manhattan Island was 80%
forest, but by the 1800s most of it was gone. Except for
a few areas at the very northern end of the island, most
of it was cut down by the British during their occupation
of Manhattan.
Much of the area slated for Central Park was farmland
that was sparsely settled. The area had several natural
springs, a source of fresh water for those who lived
in the area. The landscape was varied, with many hills
and low-lying swampy areas. There were innumerable
outcrops of Manhattan schist.
Approximately 1,600 people lived on the land that the city
acquired for Central Park through the process of eminent
domain. Seneca Village was the most densely populated
section of the then 779-acre site. (The site was expanded
to 110th Street in 1863, making the total area of the park
843 acres, which is the current acreage.) People lived
scattered throughout, but there were a few areas with
larger concentrations of residents, such as Seneca
Village. In the southern part of the Park site was a small
settlement of Irish and German immigrants, some of
whom had small gardens and raised livestock. In this
area were also some small industries including tanneries
and a bone-boiling establishment, which were located in
this less-crowded area because they had more space
and fewer neighbors to bother with their fumes and
other pollutants.
The northernmost section of the Park site was the most
rural but had a number of notable buildings and features,
as well as dramatic, hilly topography. One of the city’s
oldest roads, called the Eastern Post Road, ran through
This color lithograph from 1854 shows the area slated for Central Park, just beyond the built-up part of New York City. John Bornet, Panorama of
Manhattan Island (detail), from the collection of the New York Public Library.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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This illustration depicts the view from what is now the Great Hill. It shows the convent on the left and a tavern on the right. Published as part of
Egbert Viele’s survey of the Park in First Annual Report on the Improvement of the Central Park, 1857.
the northeastern part of the Park site. As a result, there
were a couple of taverns in the area. Some of the hills in
the north had been the site of fortifications during both
the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. On another
hill stood a convent and school, the Academy of Mount
St. Vincent, established in 1847 by the Sisters of Charity
of St. Vincent de Paul. When the city built the Park, the
nuns and their students were also forced to move. They
relocated the school to the Bronx, where it still exists
today. The city purchased the building and included it in
the Park as a restaurant and museum. It burned in a fire
in 1881.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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Research Topics | Continued
How did the city choose the site
for Central Park?
In the 1840s, some civic-minded New Yorkers began to
write editorials in newspapers about the importance of
setting aside public open space for the rapidly growing
city. The commentaries were a response to a number
of widespread concerns about urban growth. Many
worried about public health in the aftermath of numerous
disease outbreaks, the lack of space for recreation, as
well as the alarming rate at which the city had begun to
sell off public lands for private development. Between
1845 and 1855, the city’s population doubled — and this
made even more clear that the existing collection of
small public squares, the city’s only open spaces, was
inadequate. These early advocates believed that a large
open space would provide an escape from the city — a
place for New Yorkers to congregate, breath fresh air,
and experience nature. They also hoped that a large
public park would be a unique expression of American
democracy while also becoming a cultural attraction that
would rival those in European cities.
Public squares, parks, and places in the City of New York¸ from
1852, illustrating the city’s collection of small parks and squares. From
the Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division of the New York
Public Library.
The choice of location for this unprecedented public space
was not without controversy. William Cullen Bryant,
the poet and editor of The Evening Post, suggested a
privately owned area along the East River known as
Detail of 1849 City & county map of New-York, Brooklyn, Williamsburgh, Jersey City & the adjacent waters showing the two park sites under
consideration. From the Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division of the New York Public Library.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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Research Topics | Continued
Jones’ Woods that was largely undeveloped. As plans for
this location began to take shape, some park advocates
argued that the 150-acre space was not big enough, nor
central enough; others pointed out that those promoting
this location were landowners in the area that would
benefit financially from the presence of a park.
The city began to consider a larger tract of land in
the center of the island that encompassed the Croton
Receiving Reservoir, an important piece of the city’s
system for delivery of fresh water. This was a somewhat
rugged landscape with several swamps and numerous
rock outcrops, which made it difficult to develop as real
estate. This area also encompassed many acres that
were already public lands (meaning they were already
owned by the city), making the endeavor less expensive
per acre. Debate continued, for almost three years,
before the city decided on this central location.
An illustration from the 1870s. From the collection of the New York
Public Library. This is a typical and generalized depiction of the
pre-Park area. It’s unclear if this depicts a particular location or
settlement.
There is no evidence that the City or the State’s decision
on the park location was directed by an interest in
destroying Seneca Village. However, some journalists
and others writing in favor of the Central Park plan did
portray the site as a wasteland and those living on the
land as impoverished squatters. For the most part,
these journalists did not look very closely at the different
communities and people living on the land slated for the
Park; instead, they sought to create a general sense of
the entire area as unpleasant and disorderly and the
people living there as worthless. This portrayal likely
served to justify the city’s acquisition of so much land
for what was an unprecedented purpose and promoted
the creation of the Park as the utmost transformation,
one of beauty replacing blight. When they did mention
particular communities, they typically portrayed them
(particularly Irish immigrants) in derogatory terms,
reflecting prevailing attitudes toward African-Americans,
immigrants, and the poor.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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Research Topics | Continued
What happened to Seneca Village
when the city acquired the land
for Central Park?
Through eminent domain, the power of the government
to take private property for public use, the city bought
the land for Central Park. The Fifth Amendment of the
U.S. Constitution provides that the government may only
exercise this power if it provides “just compensation”
to the property owners. All those who owned land
slated for the Park were financially compensated for
their property before they were made to leave. Central
Park was not the first municipal improvement to apply
the rule of eminent domain. With the growth of cities in
the nineteenth century, many citizens had to cede their
private property to the government for a range of uses,
including for military uses, avenues and streets, schools,
hospitals, and urban infrastructure.
For Central Park, the process began with the creation
of a map in 1855 that identified all of the residents and
owners of the land, the sizes of their property, and the
types of houses they lived in, as well as other buildings
such as sheds and barns. This map was created in order
to determine who to pay for their property and how
much to pay. As a rule, corner lots and those on avenues
were more valuable; size and quality of the structures
and size of the land were also considered. This map,
called the Central Park Condemnation Map, documents
the entire area, and is a key source of information about
Seneca Village and all those who were living on the land.
After residents left, most buildings were razed, and the
wood recycled for other uses. Based on discoveries
during archaeological investigations it appears that
those clearing the land collapsed building foundations
and chimneys and covered them with soil. Some of the
larger homes that had been purchased through eminent
domain, as well as the State Arsenal, were utilized as
space for park operations and employees. All Angels’
Church in Seneca Village actually moved their building to
a new location on 11th Avenue between 80th and
81st Street.
Researchers are currently trying to trace where
residents went after leaving Seneca Village. Andrew
Williams is one resident that researchers have
successfully rediscovered. After leaving Seneca Village,
he moved his family to Queens, where he was able to
reinvest the money he had received in the compensation
for his property in a new home. William Wilson, who lived
in Seneca Village, had been the sexton for All Angels’
Church moved with his family to the Upper West Side,
near the new location of the church.
Being forced to leave one’s home was undoubtedly
traumatic. Many residents protested the valuation of
their property, asserting in letters that the value deemed
by the State was too low. Researchers have not found
many records of other forms of protest. There are
records of Archibald Watt, a wealthy man who owned
many acres of land and wanted to hold on to it; he
insisted that the area was not a good place for a park.
A couple of newspaper articles suggest that violence
would need to be used to remove people from the land
but there are no accounts of what actually happened and
how residents responded.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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Recommended Reading
Seneca Village
Urban History and Archaeology
New-York Historical Society. Seneca Village: A Teacher’s
Guide to Using Primary Sources in the Classroom.
Second edition, 2010.
Ballon, Hillary, editor. The Greatest Grid: The Master Plan
of Manhattan, 1811-2011. New York: Columbia University
Press, 2012.
Available here: https://www.nyhistory.org/sites/default/
files/Seneca_Village_NYHS.pdf
Cantwell, Anne-Marie and Diana diZerega Wall.
Unearthing Gotham: The Archeology of New York City.
New Haven, Yale University Press, 2001.
Rosenzweig, Roy and Elizabeth Blackmar. The Park and
The People. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992.
Wall, Diana diZerega, Nan A Rothschild, Cynthia
Copeland. “Seneca Village and Little Africa: Two African
American Communities in Antebellum New York City,” in
Historical Archaeology, Vol. 42, No. 1 (2008), p. 97-107.
Schulyer, David. The New Urban Landscape: The
Redefinition of City Form in Nineteenth-Century America.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
Wall, Diana diZerega, Nan A. Rothschild, Meredith B.
Linn, and Cynthia Copland. Seneca Village, A Forgotten
Community: Report on the 2011 Excavation. Unpublished
report submitted to the NYC Landmarks Preservation
Commission, the Central Park Conservancy, and the
NYC Department of Parks and Recreation. 2018.
Available here: https://www1.nyc.gov/site/lpc/about/
archaeology-reports.page
African-American history in New York
Berlin, Ira and Leslie M. Harris. Slavery in New York. New
York: New Press, 2005.
Frohne, Andrea. The African Burial Ground in New York
City: Memory, Spirituality, and Space. Syracuse, New
York: Syracuse University Press, 2015.
Foner, Eric. Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History
of the Underground Railroad. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 2015.
Harris, Leslie M. In the Shadow of Slavery, 1626-1863.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Peterson, Carla. Black Gotham. A Family History of
African Americans in Nineteenth Century New York City.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.
Wellman, Judith. Brooklyn’s Promised Land: The Free
Black Community of Weeksville, New York. New York:
New York University Press, 2014.
CENTRAL PARK CONSERVANCY
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