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You are required to analyze the case from the perspective of a consultant to Bill van der Plog.

Your task is to identify the key issues which Bill faces as he considers what to recommend to the Board.  Obviously, specific issues related to the status of the property will be of primary concern.    However, your analysis should include consideration of marketing, human resources, and organizational structure implications as they apply to the property.

You must prepare a report to Bill

INTRODUCTION:
This course seeks to introduce you to the range of issues that arise relating to properties
from the perspective of the general manager.
It does not approach these issues from the
perspective of technical property managers.
Having completed approximately half of the course, you will now know that managers of
hospitality properties (and managers in general), become involved with decisions relating to
the design and maintenance of physical properties.
Indeed, for hospitality managers, the
physical property is a fundamental part of the business they run.
The challenge for them is to accomplish this aspect of their jobs satisfactorily without being
technically trained in property design and maintenance.
In general, hotel managers’
familiarity with this area is gained through courses such as this one and through experience
on the job.
One aspect of this area which becomes clear to them as their careers progress
is that the technical issues are only one part of the challenge in managing their property.
The other, and at times more critical, issues relate to the relationships which exist between
property owners, business managers, technical staff and other managers in the business, all
of which have implications for their management of the property.
The Stonington Beach Hotel case presents such a situation where a hotel manager must
make recommendations to his Board about the property he manages…the type of situation
for which this course will provide you with knowledge and an opportunity to apply that
knowledge.
THE ASSIGNMENT:
You are required to analyze the case from the perspective of a consultant to Bill van der Plog.
Your task is to identify the key issues which Bill faces as he considers what to recommend to
the Board.
Obviously, specific issues related to the status of the property will be of primary
concern.
However, your analysis should include consideration of marketing, human
resources, and organizational structure implications as they apply to the property.
You must prepare a report to Bill which is approximately 4,000 words in length, not including
appendices and tables, which discusses your analysis and recommendations.
ASSESSMENT:
This assignment is worth 30% of the course final grade.
content and 20% for format.
The grade will be assessed 80% for
With respect to format, the test is the extent to which your submission is ‘professional’ and
effectively and comprehensively conveys your key findings and recommendations.
I don’t
have any particular style that I’m looking for…use whatever style you are comfortable with.
BUT be sure it works in terms of the test above.
SBH generic guidelines
As you begin your analysis of the Stonington Beach Hotel case, a range of issues which
relate to the property itself should become apparent. What I hope you are beginning to
realize is that the management of property is not simply a question of understanding, for
example, how A/C works and how to fix it when it breaks. Indeed, I don’t think I know
any hotel managers (including myself) who know how A/C works from a technical
perspective. And the thrust of this course is that it doesn’t matter.
As a manager, you will need to know the importance of A/C, for example, for the success
of your business. You will need to have a rudimentary understanding of how it works so
that when your technical people brief you, you won’t be totally lost. And this knowledge
will help in making decisions about capital improvement to the property, including new
A/C systems. However, your job is to ‘manage’ the property, not fix it. But in order
to ‘manage’ it, you will have to have a rudimentary understanding of systems, buildings,
and property, the level of knowledge which the text provides.
The two case studies that you’ll tackle in this course are designed to allow you to think
creatively about this area of management. I believe you should take both a tactical and
strategic view of the situation in either of the cases. In the case of the SBH, you need to
consider the immediate issues and respond to them (the tactical perspective) but you
must also do this in the context of longer term thinking about the property (the strategic
perspective). Many students make effective use of such tools as SWOT in doing this.
In the SBH case, your job is to advise Bill on the issues that are likely to arise with the
Board. Some will be technical and immediate, some will be strategic. And when a
company or institution is thinking about refurbishing a property, strategic considerations
are very important.
Remember that Bill faces issues related to the operating systems of the Hotel, the
grounds as they impact upon the Hotel. He also operates in an environment populated by
people above, equal and below him in the hierarchy…they have an impact on him and his
management of the property as well. And finally, he operates in a ‘corporate’
environment which may or may not help him in making the Hotel as successful as it could
be.
All of these areas have issues which he needs to consider. And the challenge is for you to
identify and discuss them.
THE STONINGTON BEACH HOTEL
BERMUDA
As he prepared for the September Hotel Management Committee meeting, Bill van der Plog, the
General Manager of the Stonington Beach Hotel, was anxiously waiting for Oliver Hollingsworth to
arrive for their meeting. Oliver was the Director of Physical Plant for Bermuda College. The
College owned the Hotel and managed all of its property services through its College maintenance
facilities.
Bill knew that he would have to work closely with Oliver in the preparation of a report to the
Management Committee regarding the state of the Hotel property. He knew that the Committee
would be particularly interested in the current state of the property and how the arrangement with
the College’s institutional maintenance facilities were working out. He knew also that the
Committee was looking for information regarding the imminent refurbishment of the property since it
would need to incorporate this project into the 1993 annual budget.
THE ISLAND OF BERMUDA
Bermuda College is located on the island of Bermuda situated in the Atlantic Ocean approximately
600 miles east of New York. Since 1620, the island has been a self-governing dependent territory
of the United Kingdom. In the last century, it experienced significant population growth and now
numbers approximately 57,000, about two thirds of whom are Bermudians and the remainder being
expatriate workers, principally in the island’s financial sector.
Being located by the Gulf Stream, Bermuda is blessed with very temperate weather. It never gets
snow and seldom sees temperatures lower than F50º or higher than F90º. It is very humid
throughout the country due to the proximity of all of the country to the ocean. No part of Bermuda is
more than 1½ miles from the sea.
Not surprisingly, Bermuda is also prone to being hit or skirted by many of the hurricanes occurring
during the Atlantic Ocean’s storm season which runs from August through November. In the period
1980 through 1993, three hurricanes hit the island. While these storms did considerable property
damage, there was no loss of life. They did disrupt the tourism sector for a period of time after each
hit, most notably in the week following the storm.
There is no fresh water on the island. The two principal sources of water are collections from
rainfall and a limited amount of brackish water found in low lying pools in the centre of the island.
All buildings in Bermuda, including hotels, collect water from their roofs and store it in cisterns
located under or beside the buildings. Some of the major hotels also buy brackish water which is
piped in and used for non-human consumption purposes.
This case has been prepared solely to provide material for class discussion for BUAD 332 Property
Management at Okanagan University College. The author does not intend to illustrate either
effective or ineffective handling of a management situation. The author has disguised certain
names and other information to protect confidentiality. No form of reproduction, storage or
transmittal of this case without written permission is allowed. Copyright © 2004, Michael Conlin.
The Stonington Beach Hotel
2
Electrical power is generated by a private utility company located on the north side of the capital city
of Hamilton. It is distributed by overhead transmission lines. The company’s generators have
proven to be sufficient to meet all of the island’s demands. Disruption in supply seldom occurs and
is only really effected during hurricanes or serious storms.
Because of its location, Bermuda’s main economic activity for most of the 20th century had been
tourism. Beginning in the late 1970’s, financial management began to grow in significance and the
end of the century, had surpassed tourism as the dominant economic sector. However, as of the
early 1990’s, it was still unclear that this would turn out to be the case. Indeed, the tourism and
finance sectors were engaged in a battle for dominance, including appeal to the Bermudian
population in terms of career development.
BERMUDA COLLEGE
Early History
The College had been established by the Bermuda Government in 1975. Its general mission was to
provide general and technical education for the island’s high school leavers in the areas of trades,
secretarial science, and business administration and hotel operations. For the first five years, the
College was housed in a group of former British military buildings dating back to the 1860’s. The
buildings were located on Prospect Hill, 1 mile northeast of the city of Hamilton. These facilities
were less than adequate in a number of ways, not the least of which was their deteriorating physical
condition.
Oliver Hollingsworth had been hired when the College was created and charged with making the
buildings usable by students, teachers and administrators. Although he did not have any formal
management or engineering education, he had been involved in the building trades for about 20
years. After his first five years with the College, it was generally considered that he’d done a good
job in keeping the old buildings safe and usable.
In that first five year period, enrolments at the College had grown to more than 1,000 students, quite
a large number considering that the population of the island was only about 50,000. The
Department of Hotel Technology represented one of the largest groups of students at the College,
numbering around 150 in five programs, including hotel reception, housekeeping, culinary
preparation, bartending and food service. In the 1980’s, the tourism industry represented
approximately 50% of the island economy. Virtually all of the College’s graduates took jobs in the
island’s wide range of hotels and resorts.
With the growth in enrolments and the importance of the tourism industry, the Bermuda
Government agreed that a new campus should be built to accommodate the growing number of
students and in particular, those enrolling in hospitality programs. As part of its commitment, the
Government acquired a large piece of land on the island’s South Shore, right beside the famous
Elbow Beach Hotel. This property was located in the parish of Paget, about 4 miles southwest of
Hamilton. The strategic plan called for a phased development consisting initially of a Hotel
Department teaching and laboratory building and a small, beach front commercially operated resort
hotel.
Governance
The College’s enabling legislation, The Bermuda College Act, stipulated that the College would be
guided by a Board of Governors consisting of nine persons appointed by the Government. Since its
inception, the Board had consisted of prominent Bermudian business people and professionals,
each of whom brought particular skills to bear on the challenges and problems of a new and
growing public institution. In particular, the Board had always had at least two Governors appointed
from the leadership of the island’s tourism industry.
The Stonington Beach Hotel
3
In 1992, the two tourism Governors were Stuart Gaskill, the owner and operator of the island’s most
successful cottage colony, and Paul Vinicombe, another owner and operator of one of the island’s
oldest cottage colonies. Both of these men had many years of experience managing small, luxury
resorts located on beaches. They were generally considered to be two of the island’s best hotel
operators.
The Board had created the Hotel Management Committee in the late 1970’s to oversee the
development and construction of the Stonington Beach Hotel. By the early 1990’s, the Committee
consisted of three Governors; Dr Archibald, the College President; Tom Vincent, the Dean of the
Faculty of Hotel and Business Administration; and Bill van der Plog, the Hotel General Manager.
Stuart Gaskill was the Chairman of the Committee. He was very supportive of the College and its
mission and particularly of the Hotel. He had championed the planned refurbishment with the Board
and the Government which would have to provide the funding.
THE STONINGTON CAMPUS
The First Development Phase: 1975-1980
In the period 1975 through to 1980, work commenced on the new campus with the construction of
both the Department of Hotel Technology teaching building and the Hotel. Named the Stonington
Beach Hotel after the stretch of beach on which it was built, the Hotel opened in August, 1980. It
consisted of four accommodation blocks with a total of 64 rooms all facing the Atlantic Ocean and a
central building housing the Hotel’s public areas including:
•
a 100 seat fine dining room which was named The Norwood Room after Robert Norwood, the
original surveyor of the island in the 1700s. The Norwood Room, like most fine dining rooms on
the island, specialized in guerdon and flame silver service;
•
a fully equipped commercial kitchen which supplied The Norwood Room, special functions at
the Hotel, and limited room service. The kitchen also served as a training facility for senior
culinary students at the College;
•
guest reception and administration facilities. The Hotel Assistant Manager and Controller,
Rosemary Phelan, had her office in this wing of the central building;
•
a small guest Library with a wood burning fireplace;
•
a 20 seat Boardroom which was used by College managers and Governors. It was also rented
out to the public;
•
and on the ocean side of the central building, a freshwater pool and a patio capable of
accommodating approximately 200 guests.
The grounds around the Hotel were landscaped in the traditional Bermuda style with grass and
planted palm trees. There was also a paved pathway from the central building leading to the four
accommodation wings and down to Stonington Beach. The Beach was approximately 30 feet
below the Hotel and its surrounding grounds and was often washed away during the winter season.
In the spring, land crabs infested the coastal areas of the island, a phenomena unique to Bermuda,
but one which resulted in the Hotel grounds being riddled with holes dug by the crabs.
Bermuda was considered to be one of the most prestigious tourism destinations in the world. Over
90% of the island’s visitors came from the Northeastern United States, had an average age of 55
and average family income which placed them in the top 10% of Americans. Very importantly from
The Stonington Beach Hotel
4
the perspective of the hotel industry, over 60% of tourists were repeat visitors with many having
come to Bermuda once or twice a year for decades.
The Hotel opened to considerable public acclaim and was a commercial success almost from the
day it opened. Exhibit 1 provides some performance data. Exhibit 2 shows the College’s
Organizational Chart and the position of Bill’s Hotel in that structure.
Bill van der Plog was the Hotel’s first General Manager and by 1993 was considered by the
College’s Board to be a key element of the Hotel’s success. Bill came to the Stonington with 20
years of extensive experience managing resort properties in Bermuda, Jamaica and the Bahamas,
culminating with his appointment as General Manager of the famous Paradise Island Resort and
Casino in Nassau. He had been educated in hotel operations and management in Europe and was
a graduate of the prestigious Ecole Hoteliere de Lausanne in Switzerland.
The Hotel Technology building was a large structure with two training kitchens, a student cafeteria,
a simulated fine dining restaurant open to the public, six classrooms, male and female locker rooms
including showers, a small library and Departmental offices.
The Second Development Phase: 1975-1990
By 1990, the Stonington Campus was about 80% completed. Since the opening of the Hotel and
the Hotel Technology teaching building in 1980, five more buildings had been constructed including:
•
The Administration Building which housed the College’s senior management, accounting and
personnel functions, Adult and Continuing Education, and the information technology
department;
•
The Student Centre which housed the College cafeteria, student support services and a large
atrium used for public meetings. This building was attached to the Hotel Technology building
and the Department’s training kitchens served the College cafeteria;
•
The Arts and Sciences Building which housed classrooms, a 120 seat auditorium, foreign
language labs, and study halls used primarily by students enrolled in Arts and Sciences
programs;
•
The Bermuda College Library;
•
and The Faculty Office Building which provided office space for the College’s Deans and
teaching faculty.
The Administration Building, the College Library and the Faculty Office Building incorporated
elevators. All the other buildings on the Stonington Campus were single or two story structures and
did not have elevators. Because of cost cutting in the construction of all the buildings, only parts of
some buildings were airconditioned.
The main road into the Stonington Campus served both the academic buildings and the Hotel. As a
result, the landscaping for the entire campus was a primary consideration. Hotel guests got their
first impression of the resort from the academic buildings as they drove down toward the beach.
The Third Development Phase: 1990 onwards
By the early 1990’s, most of the College’s programs were taught and delivered at facilities located
on the Stonington Campus. However, the technical and automotive trades where still located on
the Prospect Campus in facilities housed in the old military buildings. Enrolment in these programs
was approximately 150 students or about 10% of the College’s overall enrolment of 1,500.
The Stonington Beach Hotel
5
The final building to be constructed on the Stonington Campus was the Trades Building which
would house classrooms, garages, workshops and other facilities relevant to teaching and training
in the trades. The building was expected to be ready for use by 1994, at which time, equipment
would be moved from Prospect down to the Stonington Campus. In the meantime, full support,
including property maintenance services, would continue to be needed at Prospect.
With the completion of the Trades Building projected to open in 1994, the entire Stonington Campus
development plan would be completed. The College did not have any plans for further development
on the site. There had been some consideration at Board level about building student residence
halls but this was still at the discussion stage. Any action in this area would start no sooner than the
late 1990’s.
BERMUDA TOURISM
History
Tourism in Bermuda dated back to the mid 1800’s. Initially, it was a winter retreat for very wealthy
Americans and Europeans, many of whom stayed on the island for several months at a time. In the
late 1800’s, several luxury hotels were built to accommodate this rather exclusive class of visitors,
the most famous being the Hamilton Princess, now managed by the Canadian Fairmont Hotel
group. Beach and ocean front activities were non-existent, in keeping with the fashion norms of that
time.
By the early 1900’s, some properties were built on beaches as more tourists came to the island and
the interest in ‘sand, surf and sun’ activities began to develop. Because of the exclusive nature of
the clientele, the uniquely Bermudian ‘cottage colony’ concept grew in popularity. These resorts
were almost all built on beaches and provided guests with individual accommodation in ‘cottages’
usually located around a central building housing food and beverage services. Indeed, Paul
Vinicombe’s property, which he inherited from his family. was one of the first such resorts built in
Bermuda, dating back to the 1920’s.
After World War II, with the building of the airport by the United States Air Force and the advent of
public airplane travel, tourism increased dramatically. The exclusivity of the clientele diminished
somewhat and the focus of touristic activity on the island increasingly became centred on waterfront
activities. Responding to this increase, a large number of hotels and cottage colonies were built
around the island’s coast and by the mid-1970’s, tourism had become the dominant force in the
island’s economy.
Tourism in the 1990’s
By the mid-1980’s, visitors to the island began to exceed 500,000 annually. This contributed to the
expansion of the island’s tourism infrastructure with more and more hotels and resorts being
constructed. This in turn created enormous pressure on hoteliers in terms of increased competition
for both clients and employees. As a result, profitability from hotel properties began to fall. After 10
years of operation, the Stonington Beach Hotel was also beginning to feel the pressure on
profitability.
And then in the early 1990’s, the First Iraqi War broke out and tourism to Bermuda took a serious
downturn. By 1993, the industry was showing signs of recover but had not yet regained the heady
levels of a decade earlier. Just as concerning, profit margins had not recovered to the levels of the
early 1980’s.
The Stonington Beach Hotel
6
THE HOTEL MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE
It was in this competitive environment that the Hotel Management Committee began in mid-1993 to
consider its alternatives for responding to the changes in the market and their impact on the Hotel.
As it began its deliberations, the Committee also took into consideration that the Hotel hadn’t
received any refurbishment since opening in 1980. The industry standard for major refurbishments
was usually based on 10 year cycles.
The Committee’s first step was to ask Bill van der Plog for an assessment of the Hotel’s current
state in terms of the physical plant and the current arrangements for property management. The
Committee also wanted input regarding the implications for a refurbishment from a marketing
perspective.
As he waited for Oliver to arrive, Bill began to list in his mind all the elements he would need to
consider in order to meet the Committee’s request. In addition, he was conscious of some of the
issues which the Governors on the Board might have a particular interest in. For example, he knew
that when Stuart Gaskill first took over the management of his cottage colony about 10 years
earlier, he battled an outbreak of salmonella poisoning that almost killed several of his guests and
took over six months to eradicate.
As part of his report, Bill would have to make as assessment as to whether the current provision of
property services was workable and effective. At times, emergency maintenance for the Hotel was
delayed due to demands placed on Oliver’s department by other parts of the College, both at the
Stonington and Prospect Campuses. Regular maintenance procedures were scheduled well in
advance and for the most part, were performed on time.
He would also have to indicate to the Committee how important refurbishment of the property was
for the Hotel’s economic performance and what features were needed if the Hotel were to become
more competitive. Nothing specific came to mind but he knew that his competitors were planning
on new and innovative developments such as spas and health club facilities.
He also knew that the Committee would need to know when the refurbishments should be done.
Clearly, any refurbishment of a hotel property results in disturbance for guests and even the loss of
revenue through the closing of rooms or public areas. Bill knew the Committee would be keen to
minimize any revenue loss.
Oliver’s role in his report would be very important. Much of the assessment of the current status of
the property would be carried out by Oliver. The Committee would also value any input which
Oliver made concerning the overall issue of property services management. Finally, Oliver would
likely become the project manager for the refurbishment. Bill had an effective working relationship
with Oliver but had on occasion, gone over Oliver’s head to the President Archibald when he felt the
Hotel wasn’t getting the attention it deserved. How this would affect their relationship in the future,
Bill did not know.
As Bill continued to think about the job ahead of him, he realized that far from being a simple
matter, the assessment that the Committee had asked him to make was very complex with far
reaching consequences for the Hotel. He knew that the first job was to list all the issues that
needed his attention in this assessment and to be prepared to make recommendations to the
Committee.
The Stonington Beach Hotel
7
EXHIBIT ONE
Stonington Beach Hotel
Performance and Selected Data
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jly
Aug
Spt
Oct
Nov
Dec
Monthly
Occupancy
(% of
Rooms
Rented)
20
32
40
75
85
99
99
99
80
65
40
65
Average
Daily
Rate/Room
(US$)
289
292
350
360
410
410
420
425
390
350
295
305
College
Teaching
Terms
Winter
Winter
Winter
Winter
Fall
Fall
Fall
Fall
The Stonington Beach Hotel
8
EXHIBIT TWO
Bermuda College Organizational Chart
Board of Governors
Hotel Management
Committee
Office of the President
Stonington Beach
Hotel
Department of
Administrative
Services
Department of
Academic
Services
General Manager
Physical Plant
Faculty of Arts and
Science
Head Chef
Financial Services
Faculty of Technology
Controller
Information Technology
Faculty of Hotel &
Business Administration
Building Structure, Finishes
and Site
• There are three major areas:
– Exterior Building Structure
– Building Interiors
– Exterior Facilities
• All of them are important and must be
consistent in their level of design and
maintenance if they are to convey the
appropriate impression to guests
Exterior Systems and Design
• From a GM’s perspective, the building exterior
and grounds are a critical area of concern
• They are the client’s ‘first impression’
• They are critical to positioning the product
• They are critical to the company’s branding
• They can be the source of liability in terms of
injury and security issues
• They may offer opportunity for expansion of
revenue generation and capital appreciation
Building and Exterior Components
• Building Components
– Roof
– Exterior walls
– Windows and doors
– Structural frame
– Foundation
– Elevators and stair wells
• Exterior Facilities
– Signage
– Parking areas
– Storm water drainage systems
– Utilities supply systems
– Landscaping and grounds
Building Components
• Roofs are ‘out of sight – out of mind’ – ignored
until they leak – preventative maintenance is
highly recommended
• Walls are susceptible to deteriorationpreventative maintenance is necessary
(painting, cleaning, regular inspections)
• Structural frame problems are serious – inspect
regularly for cracks, deformities, broken welds,
loose fasteners)
• Foundations are hard to inspect but look for
cracks, water accumulation, crumbling concrete
and moisture penetration inside
Exterior Systems – Roofs
• Roofs are critical:
– They can be a critical part of a building’s appearance;
– Roof failure is very expensive for a number of reasons;
• The damage from leaks is usually extensive
• The cost of repairs, both to the roof itself and the building, is very
high
• There is loss of revenue due to closure of rooms
• Roofs generally have a lifespan of 20 years or more:
– The length of time is determined by:
• The design of the roof system
• The quality of the materials used in the roof’s construction
• The effectiveness of the property’s preventative maintenance
program
• And the impact of nature and other unforeseen elements, eg, hail
storms, fires, etc
Exterior Systems – Roofs (cont)
• Roof systems are structures which are relatively
similar, consisting of two principal components:
– The deck or roof foundation, made of wood, concrete,
or metal
– The covering, ie, what we see on top of a building,
made of asphalt, wood, tile, steel, or aluminum
• Roof systems are one of two designs:
– Layered roofs consisting of multiple layers of
overlapping material designed to keep water out and
to provide insulation for the building
– Single ply roof systems which are constructed in one
piece and attached to the deck…usually used for flat
roofs
Exterior Systems – Roofs (cont)
• Roof systems are predominantly impacted by weather
and age
• However, there are other impacts:
– The quality of installation of equipment that pierces a roof
– The extent to which the roof is used for mounting equipment
– The extent to which maintenance people walk on a roof to clean
it, maintain it, or service equipment
• Roof systems preventative maintenance should include:
– Periodic inspections, especially after climate season changes
– Cleaning of debris and drainage systems
– Repair of flashings…the structures around piercing that prevent
leaks
– Keep a record of what is done and why…this may assist with
long-term repairs or replacement
Exterior Systems – Walls
• Walls are also critical for the same reasons roofs
are:
– They are a critical part of a buildings appearance
– Their failure can be catastrophic
• Fortunately, walls seldom fail in developed
countries with appropriate building codes
• Depending on the quality of their construction,
walls should last virtually for the lifetime of a
building
• There are two types of walls:
– Load bearing walls which support other parts of the
building such as the roof or another floor
– Non-load bearing walls which are used to create
rooms and other space, both inside and outside the
principal load bearing walls
Exterior Systems – Walls (cont)
• Preventative maintenance is key to ensuring the
durability of a wall and to ensure it’s appearance is
consistent with the property’s mission:
– Painting is the fundamental form of maintenance and determines
a wall’s appearance and the quality of painting depends on a
range of factors:
• The quality and appropriateness of the paint used
• The preparation of walls for painting, eg, removal of old paint and
contaminants
• The skill of the painters
– Cleaning is important but challenging:
• Cleaning removes contaminants that negatively impact on the
appearance and life of a wall
• But cleaning materials and the way they are used can damage a
wall
– Inspections are important:
• They will identify areas that need attention
• They will identify areas that may signal ongoing deterioration and
more extensive problems, eg, widening cracks, etc
Exterior Systems
Openings, Frame and Foundations
• Openings consist of doors, windows and other features,
eg, solariums
• Frames are a building’s ‘skeleton’ and can be steel,
concrete or wood
• Foundations are the structures that buildings sit on and
are usually concrete
• Preventative maintenance is important to ensure that
any problems are corrected and to determine if there are
any longer-term and potentially dangerous defects
developing
• Common signs of problems include:
– Warping or bending of components
– Cracks in foundations walls and basement walls
– Leaks or persistent staining
Interior Systems – Elevators
• Virtually any multi-floor building constructed now
will include an elevator of some sort
• Elevators are expensive to install and require
regular professional maintenance
• There are several types of elevators:
– Cable operated elevators operate using cables and
counterweights and are normally used in buildings
with four or more floors
– Hydraulic elevators use a piston mechanism that
raises and lowers the elevator car…these can only be
used in buildings with six or less floors
– Handicap access elevators are smaller hydraulic or
chain driven devices which are usually retrofitted into
buildings
Interior Systems – Floor Coverings
• Hotels use a variety of floor coverings
– Tile
– Wood
– Carpeting
• Most hotels use carpeting in guest rooms and the
majority of restaurants, bars and lounges use carpeting
• Tiles are used almost exclusively in bathrooms or other
areas where water is present
• Wood is used normally in bars and other public areas, in
many cases to create a particular ambiance
• The choice of floor coverings is also heavily influenced
by the climate which the property operates in, eg, high
humidity favors tile and wood as opposed to carpeting
Interior Systems – Carpeting
• Carpeting is used for several reasons
– It acts as a sound deadening agent
– Prevents slipping
– It is easier to maintain
– It creates ambiance and ‘warmth’ in a room
• Hotels use commercial grade carpeting which is
more durable than household grade carpeting
• Approximately 90% of carpeting used in hotels is
synthetic and of that, 80% is made from nylon
fibers
Exterior Facilities – Parking Lots
• Parking areas are generally concrete – cracks,
leaching, spalls are common and can be
minimized with sealants
• Asphalt deterioration requires cleaning of
cracks, removal of plant growth, filling cracks
and subsidence
• Construction should address load and weight
projections – GMs should indicate:
– Types of vehicles
– Number of vehicles of each type
– Typical vehicle loads
– Total vehicle usage on a daily basis
Exterior Facilities – Parking Lots (cont)
• Layout issues should have GM input and include:
– Parking dimensions and compliance with minimum standards
– Compliance with disabled parking requirements – size, access,
number
– Other features – expectant mothers, valet parking, passenger
loading zones
– Defining travel lanes and segregation of vehicles by type
– Entrance and exit layouts – locality regulations, etc
– Separate entrances/exits and travel lanes for heavy vehicles, eg,
garbage trucks
• Maintenance is essential to achieve 15-20 year projected
life expectancy
– Surface cleaning – daily
– Drainage, parking control elements, waterproofing, repair cracks
– monthly
– Snow removal – as needed
Exterior Systems – Signage
• Four basic categories:
– Identification
– Directional
– Informational
– Regulatory
• Signage is critical because it is normally the ‘first
impression’ in what is a guest’s exposure to a property
– It reinforces the property’s branding and positioning
– Creates an appropriate ‘sense’ of the property
– Makes guests feel comfortable and ‘at home’
– Assists in regulating guest behavior
• Maintenance is critical – neglected signage dilutes most
of the effort made in terms of marketing and sales – and
can contribute to significant guest dissatisfaction
Other Exterior Components
• Storm water drainage systems are transportation
networks for water that doesn’t seep into the
ground
– ’sheet’ flows across parking lots, etc
– open channels, eg, gutters and ditches
– catchments leading to underground drainage
• Maintenance is, again, the key to effectiveness
and longevity – cleaning, patching, repairs to
grates and covers
• Utilities distribution systems include water,
sewage, oil, gas, electricity, steam, telephone
and cable television – inspection and cleaning
can be done in-house – major work should be
left to suppliers or out-sourced
Other Exterior Systems
• In addition to the functional exterior
systems, most hotels also have exterior
systems that impact on the functional ones
– Swimming pools
– Tennis courts
– Putting greens
– Water park facilities
– Marinas and docks
– Exterior restaurants and bars
Infinity Pool
(Balinese Resort)
Landscaping and Grounds
• Critical in establishing ‘curb appeal’ for the
property
• Issues include:
– Fit with surroundings, eg, ‘too much’, ‘too little’
– Consistent with company branding
– Ease of maintenance
– Irrigation and types of plantings
Malaspina University-College
Nanaimo, BC
Use of Ramps
Malaspina University-College
Jumeirah Beach Hotel
Dubai, UAE
The Sheraton Laguna Resort and Spa
Nusa Dua, Bali
LODGING PLANNING
AND DESIGN
Chapter 12
No matter the segment, new hotels must look
– and feel – special.
Location is always a buzzword in hotels.
Developers of new hotels have a new one –
design. Whether it’s the business-oriented
Wingate Inn, the road warrior’s Motel 6,
extended-stay Staybridge Suites or exotic
resorts, the goals are always distinctiveness
and freshness.
Carlo Wolff
Lodging Planning & Design
• Can be broken into two major
elements:
– The development process
– The planning and design process
• The development process includes:
– The feasibility study
– The space allocation program
– Construction and engineering criteria
– The project budget
– The preliminary schedule
Lodging Planning & Design (cont)
• The planning and design process includes:
– Site planning
– Hotel planning
– Guestrooms and suites
– Lobby
– F&B outlets
– Function space
– Recreational facilities
– Administration offices
– Food production facilities
– Back-of-house areas
The Development Process
• Usually begins with an idea on the part of
the owner
• This idea is refined through discussion
with professionals in terms of both
financial and engineering feasibility
• It is at this stage of a hotel’s life that real
creativity may play a big role
• The pre-design process involves the
owners, the property managers and the
architects – all of whom have a range of
roles as listed in the next slide
The Feasibility Study
• Normally done by consulting firms
specializing in this work (eg, Horvath), the
study
– Analyzes the local area in terms of sustainability
for the project
– Assesses the current and future demand for
lodging, F&B and other revenue generators
– Recommends a mix of revenue producing areas
relative to the competition
– Produces pro forma financial statements for a
range of periods up to 10 years
• The consultant must be a neutral party,
something particularly important to potential
lenders
Space Allocation
• All relevant parties are normally part of this decision
making process
• The major issue is the ratio between guestrooms and
public areas
• Obviously, different types of hotels use different
ratios – the space for luxury and suite properties is
quite different than budget properties
• The other major issue is the number of guestrooms –
again, there is normally a big difference between
budget and luxury properties
• However, there is a trend towards smaller luxury
properties, usually called boutique or specialty
hotels
Operational Criteria
• In addition to guestrooms, the other spaces
in hotels must be considered in the design
process, including:
– The design of the front desk and the impact of
technology
– The need for luggage handling and storage
– The role of F&B in the property
– The requirements of maintenance and operational
activities such as receiving and storage
– Issues related to environmentally sound
management and waste disposal and removal
Construction and Engineering Criteria
• Consideration should be given to the
types of materials to be used and the
‘look’ they achieve
• All zoning impacts must be considered
and incorporated into planning
• And any other impacts such as
legislation dealing with access (eg,
Canadians with Disabilities Act) need to
be incorporated into the design
Budget and Preliminary Schedule
• Establish a preliminary budget realizing
that changes will occur as the
development process moves ahead
• The key elements in the budget are the
building (60-65%), FF&E (15-18%) and
development costs (8-12%)
• Establish a preliminary schedule which
identifies key tasks and those which
are prerequisites
The Planning and Design Process
• There are up to 10 areas which this process
must address, including
– Site planning
– Hotel planning
– Guestrooms and suites
– The lobby
– F&B outlets and culinary prep areas
– Function space
– Recreational facilities
– Administrative offices and space
– Other ‘back of the house’ areas
Site Planning
• Issues related to the site are varied and
include
– The local neighborhood and its character
– Surface conditions including any
constraints
– Subsurface conditions and constraints
– Regulatory restrictions and zoning
– Orientation and climate
– Adaptability and potential for expansion
Hotel Planning
• A key issue at this stage is the balance
between the proposed building, the
companies objectives and vision, and the
hotel’s setting
• With respect to guestrooms, the industry has
a fairly standard approach upon which there
are endless variations
• The following PPTs illustrate types of
building and guestroom layouts
Double loaded slab
Tower plan
Atrium plan
Back-of-house areas
• Laundry
• Receiving
• Employee facilities
– Lockers
– Dining
– Change rooms and showers
• Mechanical facilities
• Storage areas
Renovations and Capital Projects
• Hospitality renovation is big business… in
excess of US$7 billion annually in 2005 and
around 850,000 rooms in the US alone
• Renovations are work that has multi-year
benefits, including:
– Replacement of FF&E, eg, furniture
– Replacement of building systems, eg, A/C
– Upgrades to comply with regulations and codes
– Upgrades and change to reposition a property in
terms of changing market trends and demands
– Adoption of new technologies and support
systems
Why Renovate?
• There are a host of reasons including:
– Building systems, elements and equipment reach their
usable lifetime
– Changes in the marketplace which dictate new facilities, a
different ‘look’, and reconfigured space
– Changes in usage to capitalize on new opportunities, eg,
retail concourses
– Recovering from previous owner neglect
– As an alternative to new construction
– New technology, regulations or codes
• The three major tests for successful renovations are:
– Did they improve the ongoing business, ie, profitability?
– Did they increase the property value, ie, capital
appreciation?
– Did they contribute to the company’s overall business
strategy?
The Hotel/Restaurant Life Cycle
New or Renovated Property
Respond to
Current Needs
Improved
Performance
New Competition
Decision to
Dispose or Rehab
Functional
Obsolescence
Decline in Revenue
Market Changes
Types of Renovations
• There are four types of renovations:
– Minor renovations are replacement of soft goods
(carpets, drapes, etc) and ‘touchups’, eg, painting
– every 5+ years
– Major renovations involve minor renovation
activities plus changes to building systems and
design, eg, new restaurants, reconfigured rooms
– every 10+ years
– Restorations are fundamental ‘rebuilding’ of
properties, especially important for historical or
heritage buildings – decades apart
– Special projects are specific improvements or
additions to a property usually related to
improved efficiencies or new technology
When to Make the Renovations
• One of the major challenges for hoteliers planning
renovations or major projects is when to undertake
the work
• The two options are to close or leave open the
property
• Close the property
– Usually results in faster construction
– Construction costs are lower
– Possibility of better quality…no start/stop, may attract top
sub-contractors
– No problems with dissatisfied guests
– Hotel looses income during construction
– Possible loss of goodwill and marketplace profile
– What do you do with the employees?
When to Make the Renovations
(cont)
• Leave the property open
– Consistent with repeat client expectations
– Less disruption to the employees
– Continued (but potentially reduced) stream of
revenue
– Real possibility of disgruntled guests and loss of
future business
• This is a much easier issue for properties which
have significant low or shoulder seasons
The Planning Phase
• The following steps form the planning
phase for hotel renovations
• A strategic review
• Hotel’s current market position (S&Ws)
• Current trends (T&Os)
• What you want to achieve (mission & goals)
• Preliminary project list
• Identify areas that require updating or
renovation
• Identify areas that would benefit from
upgrading
The Planning Phase (cont)
• Estimate project costs and build the
business plan
• Order of magnitude or ‘ballpark’ estimates
• Estimates based on industry benchmarks, eg,
occupancy
• Estimates based on actual system costs, eg, A/C
• Actual costing based on each element
• Benefits are either directly related to the project/s or
support the operation of the property…in either case, the
projections are subject to variation, embellishment and
uncertainty
• Identify other indirect costs, eg, closure and loss of
revenue
• Benefits can be assessed on two criteria
• Those that impact revenue, eg, a renovated spa
• Those that support revenue, eg, a new roof
• Determine priorities and finalize the
renovation plan
The Implementation Plan
• The design phase is important
– Documentation delineating the project/s
– It is a synopsis of the owner’s vision for the
property
– It provides the basis for securing licenses and
building permits
– Sets out the scope of the work for all parties
involved, eg, the contractors
– Provides a list of necessary purchases
• Assembling the design team
– Consist usually of design professionals,
purchasers, contractors, property representatives
and possibly professional support, eg, lawyers
The Implementation Plan
• The design phase normally consists of
four phases:
– Conceptual design, ie, themes, color
schemes
– Schematic design, eg, location of design
elements
– Design development drawings which set
out in detail the renovation plans
– Construction or working documents that
provide construction, purchasing and
guidelines and regulatory requirements
The Implementation Plan
• The construction phase
– Contract includes all relevant information:
• Full description of everything to be done
• The role of each party…owner, managers, etc
• The schedule for work to be done and completed
• What defines completion of the contract
• What the costs and payment schedules are
– There are variations on the normal owner/builder
agreements
• Design/Build contracts where the builder is the designer
• Guaranteed Maximum Price contracts where a cap is put
on the overall cost but savings are shared between the
contractor and owner
• Owner as contractor is useful for smaller renovations
where the owner has expertise
The Implementation Plan
• The construction phase
– Managing the construction phase in
renovations includes
• Ensuring the work is done
• While maintaining any business operations
successfully
– Always get changes, etc, in writing
• Approval of materials, colors, etc
• Interpretation of drawings
• Minutes of any meetings
• Documented phone and other conversations
• Any changes to the original plans
Criteria for Successful Projects
• Clearly defined project goals
• Clearly defined scope of work to be done
• A realistic budget
• A frank and fearless survey of initial
conditions
• Continuous and effective communication
with all parties…managers, guests,
contractors, other professionals
• Ensure a safe and secure environment for
the project
• Constantly monitor the work being done
Mistakes to Avoid
• There are three ways in which
renovations can be negatively affected
– Not using professionals may result in bad
or inappropriate themes and designs and
hinder the planning process
– Using unqualified contractors either
because they are cheaper or because you
don’t do appropriate due diligence
– Reducing the scope of the renovation to
save costs but effectively negating any
positive impact the renovation may have
Hospitality Facilities
Management Tools, Techniques
and Trends
Chapter 2
Chapter 2 – Hospitality Facilities
Management Tools & Techniques
“One of the greatest weaknesses in the American
hotel system is the manager’s failure to work
more closely with the man who is responsible for
the ‘Heart of the House’. In order to do so it is
not necessary that he know all there is to know
about different types of heating systems,
refrigerating units, and ventilators. But he can
learn the highlights about these in a few hours of
study.”
Gaston Lauryssen, 1929
Maintenance and Repair
The goal of POM is keep the property and it’s systems
functioning at a level which compliments the business
objectives of the property – and the owners
• Maintenance is work done to maintain equipment or
building systems in operable condition
• Repair is work that is done when equipment or a
building system fails
• The ideal situation is to manage the property from a
maintenance perspective and reduce the incidents of
repairs
– It minimizes disruption to guests and employees
– It minimizes the possibility of a guest being
dissatisfied
– And in so doing, makes a greater contribution to the
potential profitability of the property
•
Maintenance and Repair (cont)
• There are seven types of maintenance
and repair including:
– Routine maintenance
• Work done on a recurring basis, eg, lawn cutting
– Preventative maintenance
• Work done on a scheduled basis, eg, oiling
equipment
– Guestroom maintenance
• A form of preventative maintenance focusing on
the systems and equipment in guestrooms, eg,
change filter in A/C units
Maintenance and Repair (cont)
– Scheduled maintenance
• Major work done on equipment and systems, eg,
winterizing pools, draining cooling towers and
changing defective windows
– Predictive maintenance
• Usually major work identified by the use of new
technology that can alert managers to potential
equipment or system failures, eg, computerized
system monitoring of things like vibration in
motors
– Emergency maintenance
• Unscheduled work that usually results in lost
revenue through closed rooms or facilities that
can’t produce outcomes
– Contract maintenance
• Outsourced work, eg, elevator maintenance
Maintenance Management Systems
• The goal of these systems is:
– Ensure proper maintenance is done
– Record relevant and essential information
– Establish maintenance standards
– Provide feedback to measure performance
• These systems are normally paper based
and consist of a range of forms
• Increasingly, properties are adopting
computerized systems but they are based
essentially on the paper based systems
discussed in the text
The Various Systems
• Work or repair orders…normally result from
comments, complaints, guest room
inspections and housekeeping
• Equipment data cards…record of all major
pieces of equipment, age, specifications,
maintenance needs
• Maintenance logs…record of all maintenance
work performed on pieces of equipment
• Guest room data cards…inventory of FF&E in
rooms and maintenance required in
guestrooms
The Various Systems (cont)
• Inventory record…record of replacement
equipment, parts, etc, held in stock to support
maintenance
• Preventative and scheduled maintenance
schedules
– Identifies those critical elements which need service
– Ensures that the preventative or scheduled
maintenance is done
– Ensures that the maintenance is performed in a way
to ensure minimal guest disruption and maximizes
staff efficiency
Key Elements in Maintenance Contracts
Certain types of maintenance, eg, landscaping, and
certain equipment, eg, elevators, is generally performed
by external contractors
• The contract is critical and should stipulate:
– that the contractor have adequate and valid
insurance
– the term…don’t allow for automatic renewals
– how cancellation can be achieved
– that the contractor is not an employee or agent
– that there be no assignment of the contract
– in detail what work should be done and when
– in detail, the charges for the work
• Develop standard contracts for routine work and ensure
they have been approved by the company’s lawyers
•
Computerized Facilities
Management/Maintenance Systems
Computerized Facilities Management Systems (CFMS)
tend to be part of larger overall management systems
• Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CFMS)
are stand-alone systems focusing specifically on
maintenance activities
• These systems:
– Enhance the productivity of workers
– Generate and store vital information more effectively
and efficiently than paper based systems
– Allow information to be sourced and used more
effectively in measuring performance, setting
schedules, etc
– Allow managers to control multiple sites remotely
– Result in more efficient use of properties through
remote monitoring & automatic adjustment of systems
•
Budgeting for POM and Utilities
Valid budgeting and the management of that budget
is very important…the example in the text of the 485
room hotel totals $2.3 million (p63)…an overrun of
10% = almost a quarter of a million dollars and the
converse is true in terms of savings
• Many properties simply use last year’s budget and
increase it by a small percentage to cover increases in
salaries, energy and supplies
• More sophisticated properties isolate the various cost
categories and attempt to make more accurate
projections on costs based on various sources of
information, eg, utility company estimates, and any
impact from planned changes to the property
•
Financial Measurement Issues
One of the more challenging aspects of measuring the
internal financial performance of departments in
hotels is the issue of ‘matching’, an issue for many
businesses
• Various accounting jurisdictions have developed
standard accounting frameworks which, if used, allow
for comparison and accurate measurement of
performance
• The use of contracted services by various
departments is one example where there is now fairly
universal commonality in accounting treatment, ie, all
departments have to show this expense against the
department’s revenues
•
CapEx Management
The two key elements are:
– Planning and budgeting
– Execution
• Planning and budgeting must consider:
– The anticipated lifetime of equipment
– The durability of equipment
– The level of maintenance planned
– The degree of usage
– The degree of abuse
– The over-arching issue of property image
• Both planning and execution may involve:
– The facilities manager
– The general manager
– The regional Vice-President (if applicable)
– The company’s asset/investment/project manager/s
•
CapEx Scheduling
• When it’s done, properties usually have
short/medium term plans (up to 5 years) and
long term plans (10 years and on)
• These plans are consistent with industry
practice relating to renovation and
refurbishment
• Note that the $10 million CapEx budget for
the 485 room property takes into account the
neglect by previous owners and the changing
demands of the marketplace
Benchmarking
• Benchmarking, ie, setting budgets and
measuring performance through
comparison with like operations, is
increasing in usage
• It’s important to note what basis for
comparison properties use to ensure that
you are comparing ‘apples with apples’
• It’s also important to take into account, the
impact of local variations in costs, weather,
usage, etc
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Hospitality Facilities Management
and Design, Fourth Edition
Author: David M. Stipanuk ISBN: 978-0-86612-476-8
Preface…………………………………………………………………. xi
Capital Expenditure (CapEx) Management……………………. 59
About the Author……………………………………………………………. xiv
Facilities Benchmarking…………………………………………………. 61
Part I – Introduction………………………………………………. 1
1 The Role, Cost, and Management of
Hospitality Facilities……………………………………………… 3
The Role of Facilities in the Hospitality Industry……………. 4
Personnel Management in Facilities………………………………. 63
Costs Associated with Hospitality Facilities…………………… 6
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions,
Internet Sites………………………………………………………………….. 66
The Costs of Development and Construction
The Costs of Operation
The Costs of Renovation and Modernization
The Impact of Facility Design on Facility Management… 11
Training and Certification………………………………………………. 64
Building Certification
Case Study:
How Many Calls Does It Take to Change a Light Bulb?… 70
Components and Layout
Materials, and Quality and Types of Construction
Equipment • Systems
Case Study:
To Certify or Not to Certify?………………………………………….. 73
Management’s Responsibilities……………………………………… 16
Chapter Appendix:
Sample Preventive Maintenance Procedures………………… 75
Management Contracts and Franchise Agreements
Responsibilities of the Facilities Department………………… 20
3 Environmental and Sustainability Management….. 83
Motivations for Environmental Concern……………………….. 85
Facilities Managers in Lodging Operations……………………. 24
Economic Considerations • Regulatory Issues • Market Factors
The Social Responsibility Dimension
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….. 26
Waste Minimization and Management………………………….. 88
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions,
Internet Sites………………………………………………………………….. 26
Energy Conservation and Management………………………… 92
Case Study: Drifting Toward the Storm…………………………. 29
2 Hospitality Facilities Management Tools,
Techniques, and Trends………………………………………… 33
Facilities Maintenance and Repair…………………………………. 34
Maintenance Management Systems……………………………… 36
Contract Services and Outsourcing
Management of Fresh Water Resources……………………….. 95
Wastewater Management……………………………………………… 97
Hazardous Substances…………………………………………………… 97
Transport………………………………………………………………………… 99
Land-Use Planning and Management…………………………… 100
Computerized and Internet-Based
Facilities Management…………………………………………………… 52
Budgeting for POM and Utilities……………………………………. 53
Contract Services, Responsibility Accounting,
and Facilities Costs………………………………………………………… 56
Involving Staff, Customers, and Communities……………… 101
Design for Sustainability………………………………………………… 101
Partnerships for Sustainable Development…………………… 106
Measurement Tools……………………………………………………….. 108
Page 1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Hospitality Facilities Management
and Design, Fourth Edition
Author: David M. Stipanuk ISBN: 978-0-86612-476-8
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….. 110
Water for Entertainment and Recreation………………………. 188
Swimming Pool Water Systems
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions, Internet Sites.. 110
Case Study:
Greening the Excelsior…………………………………………………… 115
Chapter Appendix:
Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry…………….. 117
Part II – Facility Systems………………………………………… 123
4 Safety and Security Systems……………………………….. 125
Safety and the Hospitality Industry………………………………… 126
Building Design, Maintenance, and Safety…………………….. 132
Safety in the Guest Bath………………………………………………… 132
Water Conservation……………………………………………………….. 192
Helpful Resources
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions,
Internet Sites………………………………………………………………….. 195
Chapter Appendix:
Water Conservation Checklist……………………………………….. 199
6 Electrical Systems………………………………………………. 203
A Brief Introduction to Electrical Systems…………………….. 204
System Design and Operating Standards………………………. 207
System and Equipment Maintenance……………………………. 208
Fire Safety……………………………………………………………………….. 136
Electrical Plans • Training in Operating and Safety Procedures
Fire Prevention • Fire Detection • Fire Notification • Fire
Suppression • Fire Control
System Components……………………………………………………… 215
Evacuation Plans……………………………………………………………. 152
Egress
Security…………………………………………………………………………… 155
Key Control • Electronic Locks
Terrorism and Other Extraordinary Events……………………. 164
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions, Internet Sites.. 164
Case Study:
We’re in Hot Water Now………………………………………………… 168
5 Water and Wastewater Systems………………………….. 173
Water Usage in the Lodging Industry…………………………….. 174
Water Systems……………………………………………………………….. 176
Water Quality…………………………………………………………………. 181
Discharge/Sewage Water • Legionnaires’ Disease
Fuses and Circuit Breakers • Distribution Panels and Wiring
Electric Motors, Controls, and Drive Elements
Electronic Equipment • Emergency Power Systems
Electrical Maintenance Equipment
Electric Utility Billing and Building Operations……………… 226
Reading Electrical Utility Meters • Checking the Bill for Errors
Choosing the Best Rate Schedule
Electric Utility Deregulation…………………………………………… 234
Telecommunications Systems………………………………………. 236
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions,
Internet Sites………………………………………………………………….. 239
Case Study:
When Darkness Falls………………………………………………………. 241
Chapter Appendix:
Sample Electric Utility Rate Sheets………………………………… 243
Water Heating Options
7 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
Systems………………………………………………………………… 247
Factors Influencing Building Comfort…………………………… 248
Water System Maintenance Concerns………………………….. 187
Building Loads and Comfort • Indoor Air Quality
Water Heating………………………………………………………………… 184
Heating Sources and Equipment…………………………………… 255
Heat Sources • Furnace and Boiler Operation and Maintenance
Page 2
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Hospitality Facilities Management
and Design, Fourth Edition
Author: David M. Stipanuk ISBN: 978-0-86612-476-8
Cooling Sources and Equipment…………………………………… 259
Laundry Design………………………………………………………………. 345
The Refrigeration Cycle
Cooling Systems Operation and Maintenance
CFCs, HCFCs, and the Environment
Principles of Laundry Design and Equipment Selection
Guestroom HVAC System Types…………………………………… 264
Emerging Trends in Laundry Operations………………………. 356
Centralized Systems • Decentralized Systems • Other Systems
Guestroom Ventilation • Guestroom HVAC Occupancy Control
Guestroom HVAC Maintenance
HVAC Systems for Other Building Areas……………………….. 275
Laundry Maintenance…………………………………………………….. 354
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions,
Internet Sites………………………………………………………………….. 358
System Types and Configurations • Maintenance Needs
10 Building Structure, Finishes, and Site………………… 363
Exterior Building Structure…………………………………………….. 363
Other HVAC Components…………………………………………….. 279
Foundation • Structural Frame • Exterior Walls • Windows and
Doors • Roof
Controls • Cooling Towers • HVAC Thermal Storage
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….. 285
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions,
Internet Sites………………………………………………………………….. 285
Chapter Appendix:
Psychrometrics and Human Comfort…………………………… 290
8 Lighting Systems………………………………………………… 307
Basic Definitions…………………………………………………………….. 307
Light Sources………………………………………………………………….. 308
Natural Light • Artificial Light
Lighting System Design…………………………………………………. 317
Design Factors
Building Interiors……………………………………………………………. 370
Ceilings and Wall Coverings • Carpet Materials
Hard Surface Flooring • Elevators
Exterior Facilities…………………………………………………………….. 378
Parking Areas • Storm Water Drainage Systems • Utilities
Landscaping and Grounds
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions,
Internet Sites………………………………………………………………….. 398
Part III – Facility Design………………………………………………….. 403
11 Lodging Planning and Design……………………………. 405
The Development Process…………………………………………….. 406
The Feasibility Study • The Program • Operational Criteria
Construction and Engineering Criteria • The Project Budget
The Preliminary Schedule
Lighting System Maintenance……………………………………….. 322
Cleaning Luminaires and Lamps • Replacing Lamps
Energy Conservation Opportunities……………………………… 326
Life Cycle Cost Estimating
The Planning and Design Process…………………………………. 416
Site Planning • Hotel Planning • Guestrooms and Suites
The Lobby • Food and Beverage Outlets • Function Space
Recreational Facilities • Administration Offices
Food Production Areas • Other Back-of-the-House Areas
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions,
Internet Sites………………………………………………………………….. 327
Key Terms, Review Questions……………………………………….. 441
Chapter Appendix:
Energy-Efficient Interior Light Bulbs……………………………… 331
12 Renovation and Capital Projects……………………….. 445
Hotel Renovation…………………………………………………………… 447
9 Laundry Systems………………………………………………… 335
Laundry Equipment……………………………………………………….. 336
Laundry Transport Equipment • Washers • Extractors • Dryers
Flatwork Finishers • Valet Equipment
Reasons to Renovate • The Life Cycle of a Hotel
Types of Renovation
Creating the Renovation Plan………………………………………… 451
The Planning Phase
Implementing the Renovation Plan……………………………….. 462
The Design Phase • The Construction Phase
Page 3
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Hospitality Facilities Management
and Design, Fourth Edition
Author: David M. Stipanuk ISBN: 978-0-86612-476-8
After the Renovation………………………………………………………. 475
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….. 477
Endnotes, Key Terms, Review Questions,
Internet Sites………………………………………………………………….. 477
Case Study:
A Renovation in Retrospect…………………………………………… 479
Chapter Appendix:
Renovation Cost Guidelines………………………………………….. 484
Appendix:
Engineering Principles……………………………………………………. 489
Request a review copy
of Hospitality Facilities
Management and Design,
Fourth Edition at
www.AHLEI.org/desk-copy
Index…………………………………………………………………….. 511
The
American
Hotel & Lodging
Educational
Institute (AHLEI)
has
been
a
leader
in
hospitality
education,
training
and
certification for more than 65 years.
AHLEI’s hospitality management textbooks
(available in print and eBook formats)
create a bridge between classroom and
industry by focusing on the knowledge
hospitality professionals have identified
as important. Every AHLEI course comes
with a final exam that leads to an academic
certificate of completion; students can
also earn professional certifications from
the American Hotel & Lodging Association,
giving them marketable credentials as they
begin their careers. Visit www.ahlei.org for
more information.
Page 4
American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute
www.AHLEI.org

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