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Gray, C. (2003).

Ethical issues for new judges. Key issues in
judicial ethics

. American Judicature Society.

attached is the rubric for the questions that need to be answered.

My topic is going to be
decision making and the applied setting is going to be law.

Three research questions about a contemporary problem related to your topic and applied setting

How do judges make decisions about sentencing in criminal cases?

What factors influence judges when making decisions about plea bargains?

What are the ethical considerations for judges when making decisions about cases?

Final Project Milestone Three
Final Project Milestone Three
Felicia Rzepczynski
Southern New Hampshire University
Final Project Milestone Three
Literature Review
In the article Ethical issues for new judges by Cynthia Gray, the research result and statistical findings in
the article apply to my research about decision-making in law settings by indicating the necessity of new
judges to take legal advice from professionals. This is to help them in having the correct ideas and
concepts on how to serve clients and practice their profession. The strength of the results and findings is
that it offers diverse perspectives of what judges are expected to engage in during legal practice. The
limitations are that the study does not outline the gifts that the judges are not supposed to take from
their clients. I would expand on the research of the article to identify more specific cases where judges
are required to make decisions when practicing law. The authors of the article have a clear
understanding of the rules that govern judges and the actions that can result in their disqualification
from a case. Thus, future research on the topic can help identify the basics of decision-making for
In the article how do judges know what they know by Linda Greenhouse, the research results and
statistical findings of the article show the type of decision-making involved in ruling cases of child rape.
The findings relate to my topic of decision-making in law settings since it applies to the cases of rape and
how they should be ruled. The article has the strength of providing a factual case of Kennedy v.
Louisiana on understanding how to settle cases of child rape. The research can be expanded by
providing more cases and determining the issues of capital punishment in cases of child rape. The
research has a limitation of not outlining how the issue of rape should be considered a capital crime.
Hence, it is important to address future research by providing the facts that guide courts in making
decisions on the punishment involving rape crimes.
In the article the judge as a procedural decision-maker by Anna Sagana and D.A.G van Toor, the article
applies to my research question since it offers an overview of how judges make decisions. It offers the
evaluation of the factors that promote efficiency among judges as they are procedural decision-making.
The strength of the research is that it utilizes diverse methods to attain the results. More so, the article
bridges the gap that exists between legal and social sciences as applicable in law. The limitation is that it
lacks the elaboration of the factors that influence these decisions making in law. However, since the
article focuses on the judge, further studies can be developed to show the functions of other law
practitioners in influencing the decision-making of judges.
In the article Plea decision-making by attorneys and judges by Allison Redlich, Shawn Bushway and
Robert Norris, the results and findings of the article are those plea decisions and discounts occur due to
manipulation of evidence and the criminal history of the offenders. These findings relate to my research
as they elaborate on the factors that influence the decision-making of attorneys and judges in cases of
pleas. The strength of the study is that it incorporated a research study that was over 40 years old,
hence the findings are dependable. However, the study has the limitation of the sample used nonrepresentative, hence the results are generalized. Future research in the study can be incorporated to
improve the understanding of the legal factors and considerations that influence attorneys’ and judges’
decision-making in plea.
Final Project Milestone Three
Final Project Milestone Three
Gray, C. (2003). Ethical issues for new judges. Key issues in judicial ethics. American Judicature
Greenhouse, L. (2010). How do judges know what they know? Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society, 154(3), 286-293.
Redlich, A.D., Bushway, S. D., & Norris, R. J. (2016). Plea decision-making by attorneys and
judges. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 12, 537-561.
Sagana, A. & Toor, D. G. (2020). The judge as a procedural decision-maker. Addressing he
disconnect between legal psychology and legal practice. Journal of psychology, 228(3),

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