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The final benchmark paper should be a noticeably revised update of the three drafts submitted in Topics 5-7, incorporating instructor comments and personal revising.

Create an essay consisting of the revised versions of the essays in Topics 3, 5 and 6. This section should be 2,250-3,000 words.

Write a conclusion of 350-400 words, explaining how the social institution you chose contributes to the social stratification of the United States for better and for worse. (Comp. 3.5)

You should note the References for parts I-III along with the conclusion at the end of the paper.

Utilize the GCU Library to locate a minimum of three scholarly sources to support your conclusion.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide

Running head: SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART III: GENDER
Social Stratification Part III: Gender
Melissa DaSilva
Grand Canyon University
March 21, 2021
1
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART III: GENDER
2
Social Stratification Part III: Gender
The societal class generates from the differences in people’s groups by aggregating
their income level, educational status, occupations, and cultural values. The differences arise
due to social stratification that creates layers of rankings within the society. According to
Meeussen et al., (2016), social stratification results from inequalities in society that progress
over time and social institutions. Living in a patriarchal dominated society, gender
stratification among the family social institution continues to exist. The issues lead to
disregard of intersectionality that empowers all genders creating radical gender segregation.
In families, gender stratification occurs when men get praise by delegating greater privileges
and power over women. The other issues are gender-non-conforming ideologies among
families and transgender issues, and how families appreciate such differences (Kerbo, 2017).
Gender issues may create segregation among genders in families, and in instances of
patriarchal and feminist dominance, issues like divorce are evident.
The existing discriminatory social processes in society determine the gender
differentiation aspects that people accord. Most families with patriarchal ideologies
acknowledge that men should be the sole providers in the family and should perform
masculine family chores. The family also shows that women need to undertake feminist
chores in the homestead, including taking care of children and household affairs. According
to McGinn & Oh (2017), the functionalist perspective on gender roles and responsibilities in
society recommends that gender maximizes social efficiency and distinguishes different
genders’ ability to perform different roles. The social functionalist perspective identifies the
family institution as a multifaceted system that promotes equality and universal appreciation.
Gender differences or gender acknowledgment and appreciation in society create a
macro-level orientation with an extensive focus on the existing social edifices and social
functions. The daily interactions in families reinforce the appreciation of gender differences
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART III: GENDER
3
and other issues in the family. According to Kerbo (2017), people in families act towards
appreciation of each other or neglect each other depending on their parents’ terms towards
other people in the family. The concept of the “looking-glass-self” creates an individual’s
perception of family roles depending on what society perceives about their gender and their
functions. The above norms create issues like “doing gender” that determine the notion of
masculinity and feminism in family institutions.
Gender norms have an impact on communicating compatibility amidst families and
workplace identities. The above aspect does not apply to universal families but applies to
occupational families. According to McGinn & Oh (2017), gender norms in families create
normative identities about gender roles among men and women in families. The normative
perceptions also create the roles that men should perform if they are in dominant occupations
and men’s appreciation in less dominant occupations. For example, a family man who is a
doctor or a lawyer earns respect in the family set-ups, and rarely will his wife rarely focuses
on role sharing. On the contrary, a man in regular occupations will easily have conversations
about gender roles in the family.
Prejudice and transphobia issues are common in gender-non-conforming family setups and families with transgender individuals. There are different ideologies among families
on how they appreciate children or members with transgender capabilities. According to
McGinn & Oh (2017), stringent family set-ups create inappropriate handling of members
with gender-non-conforming and transgender disabilities. The above causes difficulties in
children, and their development into adulthood tends to deteriorate. Gender identities in the
family should be equal irrespective of the differences in their body physique. There is the
need for families to appreciate gender differences and accord them as the normative social
equality structures.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART III: GENDER
4
A classic case of gender inequality in the family institution is ownership inequality
among families. Ownership inequality exists in patricidal family structures where men get
property and wealth that they delegate as an inheritance to their male children. According to
Lambert et al., (2014), property ownership and means of livelihood or production rests with
the male in families, specifically in patriarchal societies. The law of inheritance in most
families provides the rights of ownership to male children in case of a parent’s demise. The
legal heir of all family property is the male child, which raises cases of domestic violence and
gender-based violence in set-ups where there is no male child. The inheritance inequality in
the family institution creates incapability and deprives family members the unity due to
property ownership. Social imbalances from inheritance and property ownership distort
family development creating poverty or social regression among members.
The glass ceiling theory is instrumental in eradicating radical inheritance ideologies in
families. According to Lambert et al., (2014), the theory advocates for promoting and
supporting demographic groups in society that either promote masculinity or decentralize
feminism ideologies. The glass ceiling theory also relies on the Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD) ideologies that males should earn more pay and
equitable property ownership than the female counterparts. The interactionist theory also
portrays that individuals in society act in the perception that society creates in terms of
normative adherence. The interactionist’s ideologies believe that gender stratification exists
because people have different perceptions towards each other depending on ideologies that
society has created. The interactions in the community exist because of mutual adaptations
between family members. The inheritance inequality in family institutions creates
hierarchical dominance that either promotes one gender or demises the other and gender and
if evident, it leads to hostility between children.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART III: GENDER
5
Family institutions need to focus on symbolic interactions in families since it aims to
understand human behavior and foster human interactions among members of the same unit
in society. Symbolic interactions create ideologies that diminish feminism and masculinity
perspectives among parents in terms of inheritance. Sociologists need to sensitize families on
conflict resolution to regulate prejudice among family members. According to Lambert et al.,
(2014), the family institution needs to focus on the self-esteem hypothesis to empower female
children to ensure they feel part of the family’s inheritance line. Family institutions need to
incorporate teachings from the cooperation hypothesis that promotes the elimination of
prejudice in inheritance and boosts appreciating children in the family line as unique and
equal. The final solution is developing a legal hypothesis by establishing a legal process of
inheritance by sharing estates equally among children irrespective of gender. Legal adherence
has the possibility of significantly reducing inheritance inequality in patriarchal societies.
Social stratification results from inequalities in society that progress over time and
social institutions. Living in a patriarchal dominated society, gender stratification among the
family social institution continues to exist. The societal class generates from the differences
in people’s groups by aggregating their income level, educational status, occupations, and
cultural values. The differences arise due to social stratification that creates layers of rankings
within the society. The issues lead to disregard of intersectionality that empowers all genders
creating radical gender segregation.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART III: GENDER
6
Reference
Kerbo, H. (2017). Social stratification. The Wiley‐Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory,
1-4.
https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1064&context=ssci_f
ac
Lambert, S., Ravallion, M., & Van de Walle, D. (2014). Intergenerational mobility and
interpersonal inequality in an African economy. Journal of Development
Economics, 110, 327-344.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304387814000716
McGinn, K. L., & Oh, E. (2017). Gender, social class, and women’s employment. Current
Opinion in Psychology, 18, 84-88.
https://www.hbs.edu/ris/Publication%20Files/McGinnOh_GenderSocialClass_COPS
YC_495_201708001331892896_75165458-c7d9-495a-b87b-cc77fe85ded1.pdf
Meeussen, L., Veldman, J., & Van Laar, C. (2016). Combining gender, work, and family
identities: the cross-over and spill-over of gender norms into young adults’ work and
family aspirations. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1781.
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01781/full#B17
Running head: SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART II: RACE
Social Stratification Part II: Race
Melissa Da Silva
Grand Canyon University
03/14/2021
1
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART II: RACE
2
Social Stratification Part II: Race
The smallest unit in sociology is the family institution and creates the sense of linage
and kinship. The family institution includes nuclear and extended families that make sense of
identity and connection with individuals (Peyvandi et al., 2018). According to Peyvandi et al.,
(2018), social stratification elements in society shape the different perceptions that people
apprehend. Racial factors are expected to flounder family relationships where segregation is
appreciated. Family attachments like marriage, inter-family relationships, and associations
are influenced by racial stratification. Racial attributes that family members might uphold
create two dimensions in terms of relationships. Individuals with stringent racial segregation
attributes may despise relationships with family members of a different race. Individuals who
appreciate equal relationships are harmoniously advocating for equal family relationships.
Overt racial aspects have an impact on how family members appreciate each other
under all circumstances. The racial affiliations create discrimination and marginalization
since radical racial-centric individuals focus on associating and recognizing better races.
According to Cliffnotes (n.d), upward mobility and appreciation in society depend on ethnicracial affiliations. For example, families in professional scope like lawyers and doctors might
associate very closely with consumers of the same race but have negative associations with
individuals of the other race. Families who are considered a minority in terms of their race
encompass challenging issues in social, economic allocations, and opportunities in the
society.
Issues like racial profiling have a significant influence on family relationships. How
families relate or share ideologies about others is an aspect of racial profiling which might
raise a family that appreciates racial differences or a family unit with stringent racial
attributes. Race in families creates three segmentation, which endorses a bond or poor
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART II: RACE
3
relationships. According to ( ), family ideologies about race create three levels of racism that
affect how members appreciate each race or despise other races. The doctrines include the
expression of racism, structural racism, and individual-level racism. The three ideologies
create structural racism affiliations in families that determine associations and relationships.
For example, children who come from inter-racial family structures will grow up appreciating
relatives of the race that their parents consider superior, thus segmenting all their associates
in terms of race.
Racial attributes in families also create prejudice and stereotypic forms that structure
equality or inequality in society. Beck et al., (2020) note that social relationships are created
with an individual’s appreciation of others. Prejudice is common in situations where people of
different cultural norms exist in one unit. Most of the time, people have negative ideologies
about others. Prejudice begins as a form of stereotype and is created in the family unit
through racial discussions or relationships. Prejudicial treatment of people is based on their
membership of the stringent association to specific people or groups in the society. Exclusive
mutual relationships in society embrace how mutual relationships are created depending on
racial ideologies.
A racial inequality issue associated with the family institution includes discrimination
and prejudice. Discrimination and prejudice create segmentation in a society where
unjustified and unprecedented associations create differing attitudes towards a specific race.
The above leads to problematic child development and growth, rising racial segregation in
society. According to Sigurdson et al., (2018), in environments where the family institution
promotes prejudice, there is a possibility of ethnocentric ideologies that limit socialization on
common grounds. The confronting theories in society indicate that people can create
assumptions about the situation they find themselves. Prejudice and discrimination in the
family institution generate the pressure to conform families or associates as formidable.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART II: RACE
4
People who appreciate prejudice and discriminatory ideologies focus on raising
authoritarian personalities. According to Sigurdson et al., (2018), authoritarian personalities
are rigid. Such people develop stereotypical thinking to conform to people’s superiority or
inferiority with whom they closely associate within their norms. In families, parents who
consciously or unconsciously talk with stringent prejudice points-of-view create racial
segregation environments amidst their children. Authoritarian personality traits instill rigid
ideologies and perceptions towards racial segmentation in society. The other issue is group
closure, which refers to the creation of boundaries between societies. The above determine
how families relate with their acquaintances versus how they connect with others in society.
Group closure is created in societies that endorse strict ideologies about others in terms of
race.
During times of economic stress, individuals create dramatic pressures that increase
racial prejudice due to stress. Prejudice exists in the family institution in environments where
competition is stiff. For example, in families where race is associated with professional
success, society will foster inequality and equality. The above raises ideologies about conflict
and distinctive social status and power under the distinctive theory of conflict. The
conflicting theory also brings in concepts of privileges depending on societal attributes.
According to Sigurdson et al., (2018), the conflicting theory focuses on norms like radical
behaviors and war since people with strong ideologies will necessitate steps to advocate and
fight for their rights.
There are several ways that sociologists have fostered to facilitate the elimination of
conflicts and radical prejudicial ideologies. The family institution needs to focus on the selfesteem hypothesis where through sensitization and more knowledge, people will eradicate
prejudiced ideologies. The next strategy will be decussating individual ideologies and the
contact hypothesis theory. According to Peyvandi et al., (2018), the contact hypothesis theory
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART II: RACE
5
is the best solution for prejudice and discrimination. The contact hypothesis theory involves
bringing groups with stringent ideologies towards each other to settle on common grounds
and appreciate each other’s backgrounds and experiences. The other hypothesis is the
cooperation hypothesis that promotes individual differences and eliminates stringent
prejudicial ideologies in society. The final solution is developing legal hypotheses by creating
conflict resolution ideologies. Enforcing regulations and laws that discourage discrimination
will significantly reduce radicalization in societies.
Individuals who appreciate equal relationships are harmoniously advocating for
similar family relationships. The family institution includes nuclear and extended families
that create a sense of identity and connection with individuals. Racial factors are expected to
flounder family relationships where segregation is appreciated. Social stratification elements
in society shape the different perceptions that people apprehend. Family attachments like
marriage, inter-family relationships, and associations are influenced by racial stratification.
Racial attributes that family members might uphold create two dimensions in terms of
relationships. Individuals with stringent racial segregation attributes may despise
relationships with family members of a different race.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PART II: RACE
6
References
Beck, A. F., Edwards, E. M., Horbar, J. D., Howell, E. A., McCormick, M. C., & Pursley, D.
M. (2020). The color of health: how racism, segregation, and inequality affect the
health and well-being of preterm infants and their families. Pediatric Research, 87(2),
227-234. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41390-019-0513-6
Cliffnotes (n.d). “Prejudice And Discrimination.” Cliffsnotes.Com, 2020,
https://www.cliffsnotes.com/study-guides/sociology/race-and-ethnicity/prejudice-anddiscrimination.
Peyvandi, S., Baer, R. J., Moon‐Grady, A. J., Oltman, S. P., Chambers, C. D., Norton, M. E.,
… & Steurer, M. A. (2018). Socioeconomic mediators of racial and ethnic disparities
in congenital heart disease outcomes: a population‐based study in California. Journal
of the American Heart Association, 7(20), e010342.
https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/JAHA.118.010342
Sigurdson, K., Morton, C., Mitchell, B., & Profit, J. (2018). Disparities in NICU quality of
care: a qualitative study of family and clinician accounts. Journal of
Perinatology, 38(5), 600-607. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41372-018-0057-3
Running head: SOCIAL STRATIFICATION REGARDING INEQUALITY & CLASS
Analysis on Social Stratification Regarding Inequality and Class
Melissa Da Silva
Grand Canyon University
February 28,2021
1
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION REGARDING INEQUALITY & CLASS
2
Analysis on Social Stratification Regarding Inequality and Class
Family is the smallest unit in sociology and determines the sense of belonging to a
linage or kinship. The family institution is the initial social aspect of exposure to society.
According to Goldthorpe (2012), the family institution includes nuclear and extended
families that create a sense of identity and connection with individuals. Sociology has diverse
ways of teaching about stratification and inequality issues. Stratification elements include
power, property, and prestige, as mentioned by (Miller et al., 2011). Power is the individual’s
ability and prowess to impose their will on others. Property is the sum of total ownership or
possessions of properties. Property in class differentiation goes beyond active income but the
ability to create wealth and own more possessions. Prestige is one’s reputation as per the
societal class primarily through careers, business prowess, and political elite or family
dynasty. For example, occupations like lawyers and doctors create prestige compared to
janitors and riders.
An individual standing in the community or position in the social hierarchy plays a
significant role in social interactions. Social functions are primarily associated with social
immobility, and at times people focus on mobility through acquiring wealth to change their
roles. Social roles are perceived values that people bring to the family institution. According
to Miller et al., (2011), social roles foster the creation of specific interaction groups like
resource interaction that promote mass interrelation. Social roles in the family institution also
ascertain the associations that each member of the family will create towards the others. For
example, a family with divorce cases might be considered unlucky and given a poor
reputation. The other case might be children from wealthy families and children from
economically unstable families. In wealthy families, children are associated with success and
prowess in their life, while their counterparts are associated with struggles and the need to
strain to attain social class change.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION REGARDING INEQUALITY & CLASS
3
Position is the individual’s social position in society, for instance, priests, teachers, or
social workers. Social positions in the family institution influence social status, as noted by
(Khadzhi-Murzaevna & Otdelkina, 2015). How people interact amidst families is also
influenced by their positions. Positions that family members hold ascertain social interaction
and interrelation perspectives in the family. Position that family members hold also
determines the business in families and interaction between intimate couples on day-to-day
discussions to settle on common goals and inclusive understanding of situations. For
example, a family that boasts on social class interaction might have difficulties settling on
common objectives due to conflict and poor relations. Position in the family institution
cultivates class ethnocentrism since it, directly and indirectly, develops stereotypes and
prejudices among family members.
Class status is the interaction of people who possess similar socioeconomic status.
According to Goldthorpe (2012), to group members of a specific institution in aspects of their
social capabilities or the stratification elements is the social class differentiation. In families,
class status acts as sub-cultures and influences personality development in children in terms
of socialization and interaction. In families, class status also determines individual
opportunities in life. Wealth and high income confer power creating the elite class and the
lower class family members. The class status also affects life-adjustments patterns in
families. For example, low-class families tend to be radical on political and economic matters
but conservative in social changes. Class status also defines conventional morality in society.
Class differentiation creates differences in judgments and etiquette; how family members
behave in settling for decisions or opinions is greatly influenced by social classes.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION REGARDING INEQUALITY & CLASS
4
Permeability between work scope attributes and family creates a work-family conflict.
The conflict arises from unequal involvement between the two genders in household chores
and responsibilities. The societal ideologies that women should perform domestic chores
compared to their male counterparts create marital conflicts. According to Cerrato & Cifre
(2018), women are subjected to workplace stress and still have to perform exemplary
household chores. The above inequality needs to be eradicated through role differentiation in
families and men’s domestic affairs inclusion. The family institution also creates domestic
responsibilities that are gender bias. In poor social structures and conformity environments,
there is the likelihood of conflicts and hostile marital interactions.
A recent study on gender inequality in households indicated that, on an average scale,
the involvement of women in domestic chores is double that of their male partners (Cerrato &
Cifre, 2018). The symbolic interaction perspective ascertains that men often associate with
masculine domestic chores like home maintenance and repairs. Women are often involved in
traditional feminine chores that are more than the male chores. Men’s involvement in
domestic and household chores rarely affects their workplace performance. However, women
are expected to strike a balance between workplace productivity and satisfactory completion
of domestic chores and children management. Partner involvement in specific household
chores is dominant in society. The created masculine and feminine ideologies spur the
conflict (Khadzhi-Murzaevna & Otdelkina, 2015). There is a need for gender mainstreaming
in the basic societal units to eradicate gender inequalities in society.
Gender mainstreaming initiatives will assist in the creation of unified family
institutions. There is the need to facilitate equality in domestic affairs; household
responsibilities and children’s care are adults’ responsibilities. The above advocates for the
reduction of the work overload that women undertake in household issues. The patriarchal
society needs to support mothers and women in all endeavors. The above will reduce
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION REGARDING INEQUALITY & CLASS
5
household conflicts that at times escalate to domestic violence and divorce. Society needs to
reject chauvinism and abolish societal differentiations that are gender bias. According to
Stephen et al., (2014), society should focus on legitimate heuristic ideologies that promote
group generalization to improve families’ interrelationships.
Family institutions should promote women’s growth and empowerment. Women
should be allocated more time and resources so that they easily get to power and
sustainability. Society should also focus on eradicating factors as feminism and masculinity
in the day-to-day social conversations. Prejudice exists in our families, and involved parties
need to acknowledge that as a fact and create programs to discourage prejudice. Family
members need to listen and reflect on the consequences of the specified acts from their
counterparts. The above will ensure they eliminate bigoted solutions and focus on inclusivity.
There is also the need to stimulate diversity discussions. The education system should have
gender-centered curricular activities and seminars that would create an equality-centered
society in the future (Cerrato & Cifre, 2018). There should be proper valuation to women’s
work from men to eradicate gender issues in families. Appreciating women’s responsibilities
is a sense of appreciation and accordance with respect to women.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION REGARDING INEQUALITY & CLASS
6
References
Cerrato, J. & Cifre, E. (2018). Gender Inequality in Household Chores and Work-Family
Conflict. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01330/full#h5
Goldthorpe, J. (2012). Back to class and status: Or why a sociological view of social
inequality should be reasserted. Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas
(REIS), 137(1), 201-215.
https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/cis/reis/2012/00000137/00000001/art00
013?crawler=true&mimetype=application/pdf
Khadzhi-Murzaevna, Z. S., & Otdelkina, T. N. (2015). The Analysis of theoreticalmethodological Approaches to the Study of Family Institution. Mediterranean Journal
of Social Sciences, 6(6 S1), 407-407.
http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/download/8035/7700
Miller, D., Le Breton‐Miller, I., & Lester, R. H. (2011). Family and lone founder ownership
and strategic behaviour: Social context, identity, and institutional logics. Journal of
management studies, 48(1), 1-25.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00896.x
Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Phillips, L. T. (2014). Social class culture cycles: How
three gateway contexts shape selves and fuel inequality. Annual review of
psychology, 65, 611-634.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1046.9595&rep=rep1&type
=pdf

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