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Hello,i have sample question to be done .

you can see the chapters on the attachments file .

discuss Divorce and Remarriage.

How many people do you know that have a family that is touched by divorce? It is very common place these days.

Families and Their Social Worlds
Fourth Edition
Chapter 13
Violence and Abuse
Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Learning Objectives
13.1 Analyze key issues surrounding intimate partner
violence
13.2 Identify risk factors associated with intimate partner
violence
13.3 Evaluate ways that individuals and institutions address
rape and sexual assault
13.4 Identify patterns of child and elder abuse
13.5 Contextualize intimate violence and abuse
13.6 Analyze violence in the context of gender theory
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13.1 Intimate Partner Violence
Objective: Analyze key issues surrounding intimate partner
violence
• Intimate partner violence (IPV) refers to violence between
those who are emotionally or sexually intimate, such as
current or former spouses, partners, or those who are
dating.
• Encompasses several things
• Many abusive situations involve more than one type of
violence.
• Some degree of IPV is found in most cultures.
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13.1.1 How We Define and Measure
Intimate Partner Violence (1 of 2)
Objective: Characterize different forms of Intimate Partner
Violence
• Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) is an instrument used to
measure family violence.
• Different types of responses
– Nonaggressive responses
– Psychologically aggressive responses
– Physically aggressive responses
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13.1.1 How We Define and Measure
Intimate Partner Violence (2 of 2)
• Problems with using the CTS
– Men are more likely to be victims.
– Respondents are asked how they responded to a
conflict or disagreement.
– Violence can take place without a disagreement.
– Women are most likely to experience the most
extreme forms of violence.
– Does not include acts of sexual violence or
aggression, which are usually perpetrated by men.
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13.1.2 Typology of Intimate Partner
Violence
Objective: Differentiate between types of intimate partner
violence
• Johnson draws attention to the importance of making
distinctions among types of violence, motives of perpetrators,
status of both partners, and the cultural context in which the
violence occurs.
• Four patterns of violence
– Common couple violence (CCV)
– Intimate terrorism (IT)
– Violent resistance (VR)
– Mutual violent control (MVC)
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13.1.3 Frequency of Intimate Partner
Violence (1 of 3)
Objective: Identify factors associated with an increased risk
of intimate partner violence
• Two primary sources of data for IPV.
– National Institute of Intimate Partner and Sexual
Violence Survey (NISVS)
– National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
• According to NISVS, 36 percent of women and 34 percent
of men report that they have been victimized by an
intimate partner with physical violence, sexual violence, or
stalking.
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13.1.3 Frequency of Intimate Partner
Violence (2 of 3)
Figure 13-01 Lifetime Prevalence of Physical Violence
Victimization by an Intimate Partner, 2015
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13.1.3 Frequency of Intimate Partner
Violence (3 of 3)
Figure 13-02 Lifetime Prevalence of Contact Sexual Violence,
Physical Violence, and/or Stalking by an Intimate Partner, by
Race/Ethnicity, 2015
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13.1.4 Violence in LGBT Relationships
Objective: Compare violence in LGBT relationships to
violence in heterosexual relationships
• The media has been slow to report issues
surrounding IPV and same-sex couples.
• Rates of abuse in same-sex relationships are similar
to or higher than those for heterosexual couples.
• There are several ways in which IPV in LGBT people
is different from that of heterosexual couples.
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13.1.5 Dating Violence (1 of 2)
Objective: Characterize dating violence and its social response
• According to the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 10 percent
of students surveyed physical dating violence and 11 percent
experienced sexual violence in the past year.
• Dating often starts out as ridiculing and name-calling, but it can
escalate.
• A study of 7th, 9th, and 11th grade students in Toledo, OH,
found that one in four students experienced physical violence,
and half experienced verbal abuse.
• Youth who experience dating violence are at risk of several
problems.
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13.1.5 Dating Violence (2 of 2)
Figure 13-03 Age at First Intimate Partner Violence Among
Female and Male Victims of Lifetime Contact Sexual Violence,
Physical Violence, or Stalking by an Intimate Partner—NISVS
2015
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13.1.6 Stalking and Cyberstalking (1 of 2)
Objective: Summarize current stalking behaviors in the
United States
• Stalking consists of obsessive tactics, contact, or tracking
of another person—attention that is unwanted and causes
a reasonable person to be fearful.
• People are defined as stalking victims if they experience
multiple stalking tactics or a single stalking tactic multiple
times by the same perpetrator and feared that they or
someone close to them would be harmed or killed.
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13.1.6 Stalking and Cyberstalking (2 of 2)
Figure 13-04 Lifetime Reports of Stalking by Those Who Have
Been Victims, by Type of Tactic Experienced
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13.2 Risk Factors Associated with
Violence
Objective: Identify risk factors associated with intimate partner
violence
• Several factors increase the odds of IPV.
– Youth
– Low Income or Employment Problems
– Drug and Alcohol Use
– Abuse in Family of Orientation
– Poor Parent̰–Child relationships
– Depression, Mental Health Problems, or Physical Traumas
– Specific Personality Traits
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13.2.1 Consequences of Intimate
Partner Violence
Objective: Describe consequences of experiencing intimate
partner violence
• IPV accounts for 12 million injuries and 2,000 deaths in the
United States each year.
• IPV and chronic stress wreak havoc on the immune and
endocrine systems.
• Physical violence is often accompanied by emotional abuse.
• IPV victims are more likely to engage in high-risk behavior.
• Many women, especially minority women, have difficulty getting
care.
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13.2.2 Coping with Violence and Abuse
Objective: Summarize the ways in which women cope with
intimate partner violence
• A primary way to cope with IPV is to report it to the authorities.
• There are many reasons for not reporting the violence.
• Why do women stay in abusive situations?
– Most women leave abusive situations.
– Leaving is often a process and not a single event.
• Many control processes that prevent a person from having
command of his or her life.
• Even with restrainers, the abuser can repeat the assault.
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13.3 Rape and Sexual Assault (1 of 2)
Objective: Evaluate ways that individuals and institutions
address rape and sexual assault
• Rape is defined as any completed or attempted vaginal,
oral, or anal penetration through the use of physical force
or threats of physical harm.
• Sexual assault, also referred to as sexual violence, may
include rape, but it also includes other forms of contact.
– Unwanted sexual contact
– Non-contact unwanted sexual experiences
– Other harassing behaviors
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13.3 Rape and Sexual Assault (2 of 2)
Figure 13-05 Lifetime Reports of Rape and Assault, by Type of
Perpetrator
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13.3.1 The #MeToo Movement
Objective: Contextualize the #MeToo movement
• Sexual harassment has a long history but received new
attention in 2017 when the behavior of many prominent
men was exposed.
– Fox News Bill O’Reilly
– Comedian Bill Cosby
– Presidential candidate Donald Trump
– Motion picture mogul Harvey Weinstein
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13.3.2 The College Environment
Objective: Analyze the relationship between the college
environment and sexual assault
• As a society, we fail to see the linkages between everyday
sexism in the culture and sexual assault.
• Somewhere between 20 and 25 percent of college-age
women have been raped at some time during their college
careers.
• The Obama administration opened civil rights
investigations of more than 110 colleges and universities
for their handling of sexual violence complaints.
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13.3.3 Date Rape Drugs
Objective: Analyze policy responses to the use of date
rape drugs
• Alcohol and other drugs are often used in sexual assault.
• Colleges and universities have implemented programs
and workshops clarifying issues around sexual coercion
and sexual assault.
• Critics say these programs can perpetuate the rape
culture.
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13.4 Child and Elder Abuse
Objective: Identify patterns of child and elder abuse
• Child abuse is an attack on a child that results in an injury
and violates social norms.
• Norms can be ambiguous.
– Many believe spanking is acceptable
– Spanking can cause adverse reactions.
• In 2015, 683,000 children were determined to be victims
of abuse or neglect.
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13.4.1 Types of Child Abuse
Objective: Define child abuse
• There are different types of child abuse.
• Abuse occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic
groups and in all types of communities.
• Female victims outnumber male victims.
• Most people who abuse children are biological family
members.
• Mothers are the primary abusers.
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13.4.2 Risk Factors Contributing to
Child Abuse
Objective: Identify risk factors associated with child abuse
• Complex combinations of social, cultural, and personal
factors explain child abuse.
• Few abusers are mentally ill.
• There are several risk factors associated with child abuse.
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13.4.3 Consequences of Child Abuse
Objective: Describe the consequences of child abuse
• Child abuse has numerous physical ,cognitive, and
emotional consequences for children.
• Negative consequences continue into adulthood for many
victims.
• Emotional scars also occur.
• Children who are abused may have difficult relationships
with their own children.
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13.4.4 Elder Abuse
Objective: Summarize patterns of elder abuse
• Elder abuse refers to any knowing, intentional, or failure
to act by a caregiver or any other person that causes
harm or a serious risk to someone aged 60 and older.
• Several types of elder abuse
• Most common abusers are adult children who have
personal problems.
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13.5 Explanations for Violence and
Abuse Among Intimates
Objective: Contextualize intimate violence and abuse
• Causes of violence between intimates has both micro- and
macro-level causes.
– Micro-level causes focus on individuals.
– Macro-level causes focus on societal and cultural
factors.
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13.5.1 Micro-Level Individual Causes
Objective: Summarize micro-level causes of family violence
• Intergenerational transmission of violence—Bandura
– Adults who abuse spouses, partners, or children were
abused themselves.
• Stress
– The more stress there is in a relationship, the higher
the risk of abuse.
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13.5.2 Macro-Level Societal and
Cultural Causes (1 of 4)
Objective: Identify sociocultural causes of intimate partner
violence
• Social and cultural attitudes perpetuate violence as a
result of stressors.
• Attitudes come from several sources.
– Patriarchy
– Cultural norms
– Norms of family privacy
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13.5.2 Macro-Level Societal and
Cultural Causes (2 of 4)
• In many cultures, violence against women is supported.
• Surveys of several countries showed acceptance of wifebeating ranged from 29 percent to 57 percent.
• Women often support patriarchy because they are raised
in the same system.
• In Western cultures, men are taught that toughness,
competitiveness, and controlling behavior are masculine
attributes.
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13.5.2 Macro-Level Societal and
Cultural Causes (3 of 4)
• Some cultures are more tolerant of violence in general
than others.
• In the United States, many types of violence are
condoned.
• Many adults in the United States think it is okay to hit their
children.
• 52 countries completely prohibit hitting children.
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13.5.2 Macro-Level Societal and
Cultural Causes (4 of 4)
• What goes on in families in the United States is believed
to be a private matter.
• Extended families are rare. Some people live thousands
of miles away from their kin.
• In urban areas, families may not know their neighbors
well.
• Violence is more likely to occur in families that are
socially isolated.
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13.5.3 Power and Control Synthesis (1 of 3)
Objective: Relate the need to dominate others to intimate
partner violence
• A focus on power and control synthesizes micro-and
macro-level causes of intimate partner violence.
• The Power and Control Wheel depicts behaviors and
privileges that batterers use to control their partners and
children.
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13.5.3 Power and Control Synthesis (2 of 3)
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13.5.3 Power and Control Synthesis (3 of 3)
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13.6 Social Policy and Family
Resilience—Gender-Based Violence
Objective: Analyze violence in the context of gender theory
• Violence against women and girls is common.
• There are many types of gender-based violence.
• Many countries have very poor records of addressing
violence against women and girls.
• Abuse of women and girls is often tolerated in the legal
system.
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13.6.1 Trafficking
Objective: Contextualize the practices and experiences of
sex trafficking
• Trafficking is the illegal business of recruitment, transport,
or sale of human beings into forced labor and servitude. It
is big business.
• Girls are often sought because people believe they are
less likely to be HIV positive.
• Sex trafficking results from poverty, inequality, and
economic crises.
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13.6.2 Zero Tolerance in the Legal and
Criminal Justice Systems
Objective: Explain the function of zero tolerance laws
• Zero tolerance is a growing movement that emphasizes
tougher laws, more stringent enforcement, training for
those who work with victims and offenders, and services
and protections for victims.
• Interventions are orchestrated at the misdemeanor level.
• Emphasizes system-wide coordination.
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Chapter Review (1 of 6)
13.1 Defining Intimate Partner Violence
• Intimate partner violence (IPV) refers to violence between those
who are emotionally or sexually intimate.
• The Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) is used to measure responses
to a conflict.
• Johnson says it is important to consider the types of violence,
motives of perpetrators, status of partners, and the cultural
context.
• Four patterns of violence include common couple violence,
intimate terrorism, violent resistance, and mutual violent control.
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Chapter Review (2 of 6)
13.2 Risks and Consequences Associated with Intimate
Partner Violence
• Several characteristics increase the odds of IPV, including
youth, low income, drug or alcohol use, abuse in family of
orientation, poor parent̰–child relationships, depression and
other mental health problems, and personality traits.
• Many victims of IPV experience some form of physical injury.
Many people also experience mental health effects.
• Many acts of IPV are unreported because the violence was
perceived as minor, there is shame and embarrassment, fear of
reprisal, feelings the police can’t do anything, etc.
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Chapter Review (3 of 6)
13.3 Rape and Sexual Assault
• Rape is defined as any completed or attempted penetration
through the use of physical forces or threats of physical force.
• Sexual assault may include rape, but it also includes unwanted
sexual contact or non-contact unwanted sexual experiences.
• Rape, sexual assault, and sexual harassment have caught
public awareness as well-known people are indicted for crimes.
• The United States has been criticized for having a rape culture.
The rape culture can be seen on many college campuses.
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Chapter Review (4 of 6)
13.4 Child and Elder Abuse
• Forms of child abuse include neglect, physical abuse, sexual
abuse, psychological maltreatment, and medical neglect.
• Family members—especially mothers are the most likely
perpetrators.
• Risk factors include family stress, social isolation, learned
behavior, unrealistic parental expectations, and various
demographic characteristics.
• Elder abuse includes physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial
abuse, sexual abuse, financial exploitation, and abandonment.
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Chapter Review (5 of 6)
13.5 Explanation for Violence and Abuse Among
Intimates
• Micro-level causes include the intergenerational
transmission of violence and the stress explanation.
• Macro-level causes include patriarchy, cultural norms that
support violence, and norms of family privacy.
• A focus on power and control synthesizes micro- and
macro-level explanations. This perspective holds that
those who assault their partners are exerting domination,
power, and control.
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Chapter Review (6 of 6)
13.6 Social Policy and Family Resilience—Gender-Based
Violence
• Women and girls are frequent victims of violence.
• Gender-based violence includes intimate partner violence,
sexual abuse, forced prostitution, female genital mutilation,
rape, honor killings, and female infanticide.
• The United Nations and other organizations report that many
countries have horrendous records on addressing violence
against women and girls. Some countries are trying to take a
tougher stand on gender-based violence.
• Trafficking is one example of this abuse.
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Families and Their Social Worlds
Fourth Edition
Chapter 14
Divorce, Repartnering, and
Remarriage
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Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
14.1 Interpret measurements of global trends in divorce
14.2 Identify circumstances that influence divorce rates
14.3 Analyze the ways in which divorce affects a family and
its individuals
14.4 Evaluate the impacts of divorce on children
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Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
14.5 Analyze the process of repartnering
14.6 Contextualize stepfamily relationships
14.7 Evaluate the role of government as a divorce
gatekeeper
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14.1 Divorce Rates
Objective: Interpret measurements of global trends in
divorce
• People in the United States place a high value on
marriage.
• The United States has one of the highest divorce rates in
the world.
• Since about 1980, the divorce rate has declined in the
United States.
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14.1.1 Measuring Divorce
Objective: Describe methods used to measure divorce
• Crude divorce rate examines the frequency of divorce per
1,000 people.
• The refined divorce rate measures the number of divorces
that occur out of every 1,000 married women.
• Both of these measurements are cross-sectional, meaning
that they only reflect rates at a specific point in time.
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14.1.2 Cross-Cultural Comparisons
Objective: Identify factors that influence divorce rates
• Divorce rates are related to several factors.
– Socioeconomic development
– Dominant religion
– Patriarchy
• Laws for child custody and spousal support are designed
to perpetuate make dominance.
• Divorce rates are higher in countries where women have
greater access to economic resources.
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14.1.3 Historical Trends in the United
States (1 of 2)
Objective: Outline the history of divorce in the United
States
• Divorce has been common throughout U.S. history.
– The colonies recognized adultery, desertion, and
violence as grounds for divorce.
• Early feminists spoke of making divorce more available
to women as a way of improving women’s rights and
position in marriage.
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14.1.3 Historical Trends in the United
States (2 of 2)
Figure 14-01 Crude and Refined Divorce Rates: 1940–2017
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14.2 Factors Associated with Divorce
Objective: Identify circumstances that influence divorce
rates
• Most reasons focus on individual attributes or personal
problems.
• Family scholars are interested in social patterns.
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14.2.1 Macro-Level Factors (1 of 2)
Objective: Explain macro-level factors that affect divorce
trends
• Changes in divorce laws
• Changes in women’s employment
• Sociocultural attitudes
• Cultural norms
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14.2.1 Macro-Level Factors (2 of 2)
Figure 14-02 Percent Agreeing with the Statement: “Divorce is
usually the best solution when a couple can’t seem to work out
their marriage problems”
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14.2.2 Micro-Level Factors
Objective: Explain micro-level factors that impact divorce trends
• Several micro-level factors influence divorce rates.
– Parental Divorce
– Age at Marriage
– Parental Status
– Nonmarital childbearing
– Race and Ethnicity
– Education
– Income
– Degree of similarity between spouses
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14.3 The Dimensions of the Divorce
Experience
Objective: Analyze the ways in which divorce affects a
family and its individuals
• Divorce is a process that is rarely quick or easy.
– Not all couples are sure they want to divorce.
• There are many reasons for choosing divorce.
• Divorce alters or severs many personal and legal ties.
– Relationships may end with family members, friends,
neighbors, and community members.
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14.3.1 The Emotional Dimension
Objective: Identify factors that increase the emotional strain
of a divorce
• The emotional aspects of a divorce begin long before any
legal steps are taken and may end long afterward.
• Symbolic interaction theory tells us how the interpretation
of an event is attached to its meaning.
• Many factors influence the emotional strain of a divorce.
• Feminist theory reminds us that society offers men and
women different opportunities and constraints.
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14.3.2 The Legal Dimension
Objective: Summarize the legal costs of divorce
• The government intervenes to mandate or restrict hoe
family members act toward one another or to define rights
and privileges.
• The state is also involved in the dividing up of assets and
property.
– Some assets cannot be divided easily.
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14.3.3 The Parental Dimension
Objective: Relate divorce to parenting experiences and
expectations
• Legal custody refers to who has legal authority to make
decisions regarding the children.
• Physical custody refers to the place where the children
actually reside.
• Some families and courts are deciding on joint physical
custody.
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14.3.4 The Economic Dimension (1 of 3)
Objective: Explain economic challenges associated with
divorce
• Divorce tends to reduce the income of women and
children.
• Married couple households are least likely to be in
poverty.
• Single parent households, especially single-mother
households have higher poverty rates.
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14.3.4 The Economic Dimension (2 of 3)
Figure 14-03 Reasons No Legal Child Support Agreement
Established for Custodial Parents: 2016
Only about half of custodial parents have some type of agreement
establishing child support from the noncustodial parent.
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14.3.4 The Economic Dimension (3 of 3)
• Alimony is defined as post-divorce support for a former
spouse.
• Judges consider several factors when deciding to award
alimony.
• Different types of alimony
– Permanent alimony
– Gross alimony
– Limited duration alimony
– Rehabilitative alimony
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14.3.5 The Community Dimension
Objective: Describe the impacts of divorce on social and
personal life.
• Divorce breaks up networks of families and friends.
• Two-thirds of divorced mothers move within a year of the
divorce.
• Divorce also affects extended families.
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14.3.6 The Psychic Dimension
Objective: Describe the challenges of adjusting to divorce.
• Ex-wives and ex-husbands must learn to distance
themselves from the still-loved and still-hated aspects of
the spouse.
• It often takes years to achieve forgiveness.
• As time moves on, most people adjust to separation and
divorce.
• There is no set timeframe for this to occur.
• Most people who divorce eventually remarry.
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14.4 Consequences of Divorce for
Children
Objective: Evaluate the impacts of divorce on children
• About half of all divorce cases involve couples with
children.
• Children have no choice in divorce.
• Very few children want their parents to divorce.
• There are macro-level and micro-level consequences to
divorce.
• It may be difficult to distinguish between short- and longterm effects.
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14.4.1 Short-Term Effects (1 of 4)
Objective: Explain short-term effects of divorce on children
• The first couple of years can be difficult for children and
adults.
• Parents may be distracted by their own grief.
• Children grieve the loss of an intact family.
• Children have new feelings and fears.
• Children must deal with a variety of new things.
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14.4.1 Short-Term Effects (2 of 4)
• Parental conflict is not always harmful for children.
– What is more important is the type and duration of the
conflict.
• Children do not do well when verbal and physical conflict
occur.
• Parents may communicate their anger and hostility toward
their spouse to the children.
• All of these behaviors negatively affect a child’s sense of
safety and emotional security.
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14.4.1 Short-Term Effects (3 of 4)
• Many children do not see their noncustodial parent for long
periods.
• Role of fathers is extremely important in children’s lives.
• Many noncustodial fathers do not see their children
regularly.
• Those who do are less likely to have children with
behavioral problems.
• The residential parent is usually the gatekeeper and may
interfere with the noncustodial parent’s visits.
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14.4.1 Short-Term Effects (4 of 4)
• The standard of living for children and their mothers drops
after a divorce.
• Items and activities that were once affordable may no
longer be.
• Teenagers sometimes have to work.
• Custodial parent may have to sell the home.
• Parents are both likely to resume dating.
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14.4.2 Long-Term Effects
Objective: Describe long-term effects of divorce on children
• Some children an be plagued by depression, fear of
commitment, behavioral problems, and lower educational
achievement for years after a divorce.
• There are many other long-term problems, including
unwanted pregnancy, dropping out of school, alcohol and
drug abuse, unemployment or underemployment.
• Marital conflict appears to erode children’s emotional
bonds with their mothers.
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14.4.3 The Million-Dollar Question
Objective: Determine the elements that help or harm
children in divorced families
• Are children better off when their unhappily married
parents remain married, or are children better off when
their parents divorce?
• Children in families with high marital conflict did better if
the parents divorced.
• Children in families with low marital conflict did worse if
the parents divorced.
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14.5 Repartnering and Remarriage
Objective: Analyze the process of repartnering
• For many people divorce provides an opportunity to start
over.
• The majority of divorced individuals do find another life
partner.
• Finding a new partner is the most important factor in
improving life satisfaction for both men and women.
• Remarried individuals have lower rates of economic and
psychological distress and depression.
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14.5.1 Cohabitation and Repartnering
Objective: Characterize cohabitation after divorce
• Over half of remarried persons have cohabitated with
someone prior to remarriage.
• Children are present in about half of these cohabitating
relationships.
• Divorced people who cohabit may view the arrangement
as an extension of serious dating.
• For other divorced people, cohabitation replaces
marriage.
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14.5.2 Remarriage
Objective: Evaluate trends in remarriage
• Remarriage has always been a feature of family life in
the United States.
• Most people remarry quickly following a divorce.
• Cultural norms make it more difficult for women to
remarry.
• Subsequent marriages are more likely to end in divorce
than first marriages.
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14.6 Stepfamily Relationships
Objective: Contextualize stepfamily relationships
• Stepfamilies are families in which one or both parents
has at least one child, residing with them or elsewhere.
• Most children enter a stepfamily through their parents’
cohabitation, rather than through marriage.
• Stepfamilies can create many complex relationships.
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14.6.1 Challenges, Positives, and
Misconceptions about Stepfamilies
Objective: Characterize stepfamilies in the United States
• Positive: Satisfaction with family life; children may enjoy
a higher standard of living; children are exposed to new
behaviors and lifestyles, stepfamily adoptions are the
most common adoptions.
• Negative: Ambiguous expectations, rules obligations,
and relationships.
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14.6.2 Adults in Stepfamilies
Objective: Identify the challenges adults face in stepfamilies
• Men and women will need to make significant adjustments
of stepchildren are involved.
• Presence of stepchildren means there is probably an exspouse, which may create tension.
• Stepmothers and stepfathers have different situations.
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14.6.3 Children in Stepfamilies
Objective: Explain why children in stepfamilies have an
increased chance of negative outcomes
• The well-being of children in stepfamilies is not
significantly better than the well-being of children in
divorced, single-parent families.
• Compared to two-parent biological families, children in
stepfamilies have more problems.
• There are several potential causes of this.
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14.7 Social Policy and Family Resilience—
Divorce, Happiness, and Government Incentives
Objective: Evaluate the role of government as a
divorce gatekeeper
• In many countries, the popular sentiment is that
divorce is wrong if children are involved.
• In some countries, people feel couples should stay
together even if children are not involved.
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14.7.1 Divorce and Its Social
Consequences (1 of 2)
Objective: Explain why governments might think of divorce as a
social negative
• The public recognizes that the consequences of divorces are
complex, and divorce should be undertaken with great care.
Figure 14-05 Percent That Believe That Married Couples Who No
Longer Want a Romantic Relationship Should Definitely Get a Divorce
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14.7.1 Divorce and Its Social
Consequences (2 of 2)
• Research showed that a significant number of people
regretted getting a divorce.
Figure 14-06 Sense of Regret Among Men and Women Who
Have Divorced
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14.7.2 Public Divorce Initiatives
Objective: Describe public divorce initiatives
• Some organizations advocate for marriage education
programs, longer waiting periods for divorce, and a
greater understanding children and adults face during
divorce.
• Some states have introduced bills that encourage
couples to try reconciliation first.
• Other states have proposed allowing no-fault divorces
only if both parties consent and no children are involved.
• Not everyone supports these levels of government
intrusion.
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Chapter Review (1 of 7)
14.1 Divorce Rates
• The United States has one of the highest divorce rates
in the world.
• The refined divorce rate is the number of divorces that
occur per 1,000 married women.
• Divorce rates around the world are related to a number
of factors, including, socioeconomic development, the
dominant religion, and level of patriarchy.
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Chapter Review (2 of 7)
14.2 Factors Associated with Divorce
• Family scholars look at structural factors and personal
explanations to understand why people divorce.
• Macro-level factors include laws, women’s employment,
attitudes toward divorce, and cultural norms.
• Micro-level factors include whether one’s parents have
divorced, age at marriage, parental status, having a child
outside of marriage, race and ethnicity, level of education,
income, and degree of similarity between spouses.
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Chapter Review (3 of 7)
14.3 Dimensions of the Divorce Experience
• Divorce involves more than ending the relationship
between two people.
• It alters and severs many personal and legal ties.
• Dimensions of the divorce experience include emotional,
legal, parental, economic, community, and psychic
dimensions.
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Chapter Review (4 of 7)
14.4 Consequences of Divorce for Children
• The first couple of years after a divorce can be hard for adults
and children.
• Children must adjust to many situations, including: handling
parental conflict; weakening parental bonds; coping with a
reduced standard of living; adjusting to transitions.
• Most children adjust, but others are plagued by depression,
fear of commitment, or behavioral problems.
• People ask whether it is better for parents to stay married if
there is conflict. The answer mostly depends on the severity of
the conflict.
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Chapter Review (5 of 7)
14.5 Repartnering and Remarriage
• Most divorced people do find another partner.
• Finding a new partner is considered to be the most
important factor in improving life satisfaction for both men
and women.
• Remarried persons have lower rates of economic and
psychological distress and depression.
• Remarriages aren’t better than first marriages and often
have a higher rate of divorce.
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Chapter Review (6 of 7)
14.6 Stepfamily Relationships
• Stepfamilies are families in which one or both adult
partners have at least one child.
• Stepfamilies create many complex relationships,
including siblings, stepsiblings, half siblings, mutual
children, residential stepchildren, and nonresidential
stepchildren.
• Both adults and children in stepfamilies face challenges.
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Chapter Review (7 of 7)
14.7 Social Policy and Family Resilience—Divorce,
Happiness, and Government Incentives
• Opinions diverge around the world about the costs and
benefits of divorce.
• In many countries, the sentiment is that divorce is wrong
if there are children are involved. Many people in the
United States share that view.
• About one-third of couples are not really any happier after
a divorce.
• Some advocate for eliminating no-fault divorce.
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