+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

Assignment 5
The following is the input to the round 1 Byte Substitution
Layer in AES.
1111100111101001110010011110000111011001111011
0100111001111000001110000110000001100000011111
111111111001111110011110000111101111
1. What will be the output to the Byte Substitution
Layer?
2. What will be the output to the ShiftRows Layer?
For Byte Subtituition, please use the table posted below
S-Box: The s-box is designed to be resistant to known cryptanalytic attacks.
Therefore, the same byte should not ne substituted by itself and the sum of
two bytes X and Y should mot be substituted with Sub(X)+Sub(Y).
How to read S-Box: Each column and row entry is a 4 bit HEX number.
One Column Entry and one Row Entry together make one byte (8-bit). In
addition, each cell entry is a byte, represented in HEX.
Replace a “Byte” formed by a pair of “Column Entry-Row Entry” with the
corresponding “Cell Entry.” For instance: “71” is replaced by “A3”; in binary
01110001 is substituted with 10100011.
Understanding Cryptography
by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
www.crypto-textbook.com
Chapter 4 – The Advanced Encryption
Standard (AES)
ver. October 28, 2009
These slides were prepared by Daehyun Strobel, Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Some legal stuff (sorry): Terms of Use
• The slides can used free of charge. All copyrights for the slides remain with
Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl.
• The title of the accompanying book “Understanding Cryptography” by
Springer and the author’s names must remain on each slide.
• If the slides are modified, appropriate credits to the book authors and the
book title must remain within the slides.
• It is not permitted to reproduce parts or all of the slides in printed form
whatsoever without written consent by the authors.
2/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Content of this Chapter
• Overview of the AES algorithm
• Internal structure of AES
• Byte Substitution layer
• Diffusion layer
• Key Addition layer
• Key schedule
• Decryption
• Practical issues
3/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Content of this Chapter
• Overview of the AES algorithm
• Internal structure of AES
• Byte Substitution layer
• Diffusion layer
• Key Addition layer
• Key schedule
• Decryption
• Practical issues
4/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Some Basic Facts
• AES is the most widely used symmetric cipher today
• The algorithm for AES was chosen by the US National Institute of Standards
and Technology (NIST) in a multi-year selection process
• The requirements for all AES candidate submissions were:
• Block cipher with 128-bit block size
• Three supported key lengths: 128, 192 and 256 bit
• Security relative to other submitted algorithms
• Efficiency in software and hardware
5/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Chronology of the AES Selection
• The need for a new block cipher announced by NIST in January, 1997
• 15 candidates algorithms accepted in August, 1998
• 5 finalists announced in August, 1999:
• Mars – IBM Corporation
• RC6 – RSA Laboratories
• Rijndael – J. Daemen & V. Rijmen
• Serpent – Eli Biham et al.
• Twofish – B. Schneier et al.
• In October 2000, Rijndael was chosen as the AES
• AES was formally approved as a US federal standard in November 2001
6/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
AES: Overview
The number of rounds depends on the chosen key length:
7/28
Key length (bits)
Number of rounds
128
10
192
12
256
14
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
AES: Overview
• Iterated cipher with 10/12/14 rounds
• Each round consists of “Layers”
8/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Content of this Chapter
• Overview of the AES algorithm
• Internal structure of AES
• Byte Substitution layer
• Diffusion layer
• Key Addition layer
• Key schedule
• Decryption
• Practical issues
9/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Internal Structure of AES
• AES is a byte-oriented cipher
• The state A (i.e., the 128-bit data path) can be arranged in a 4×4 matrix:
A0
A4
A8
A12
A1
A5
A9
A13
A2
A6
A10 A14
A3
A7
A11
A15
with A0,…, A15 denoting the 16-byte input of AES
10/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Internal Structure of AES
• Round function for rounds 1,2,…,nr-1:
• Note: In the last round, the MixColumn tansformation is omitted
11/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Byte Substitution Layer
• The Byte Substitution layer consists of 16 S-Boxes with the
following properties:
The S-Boxes are
• identical
• the only nonlinear elements of AES, i.e.,
ByteSub(Ai) + ByteSub(Aj) ≠ ByteSub(Ai + Aj), for i,j = 0,…,15
• bijective, i.e., there exists a one-to-one mapping of input and
output bytes
⇒ S-Box can be uniquely reversed
• In software implementations, the S-Box is usually realized as a
lookup table
12/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Diffusion Layer
The Diffusion layer
• provides diffusion over all input state bits
• consists of two sublayers:
• ShiftRows Sublayer: Permutation of the data on a byte level
• MixColumn Sublayer: Matrix operation which combines (“mixes”) blocks of
four bytes
• performs a linear operation on state matrices A, B, i.e.,
DIFF(A) + DIFF(B) = DIFF(A + B)
13/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
ShiftRows Sublayer
• Rows of the state matrix are shifted cyclically:
Input matrix
Output matrix
14/28
B0
B4
B8
B12
B1
B5
B9
B13
B2
B6
B10 B14
B3
B7
B11
B15
B0
B4
B8
B12
B5
B9
B13 B1
no shift
← one position left shift
B10 B14 B2
B6
← two positions left shift
B15 B3
B11
← three positions left shift
B7
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
MixColumn Sublayer
• Linear transformation which mixes each column of the
state matrix
• Each 4-byte column is considered as a vector and multiplied
by a fixed 4×4 matrix, e.g.,
 C0   02
  
 C1   01
 C  =  01
 2  
 C3   03
03 01 01  B0 

 
02 03 01  B5 
⋅

01 02 03 B10 

 
01 01 02   B15 
where 01, 02 and 03 are given in hexadecimal notation
• All arithmetic is done in the Galois field GF(28) (for more information see
Chapter 4.3 in Understanding Cryptography)
15/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Key Addition Layer
• Inputs:
• 16-byte state matrix C
• 16-byte subkey ki
• Output: C ⊕ ki
• The subkeys are generated in the key schedule
16/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Key Schedule
• Subkeys are derived recursively from the original 128/192/256-bit input key
• Each round has 1 subkey, plus 1 subkey at the beginning of AES
Key length (bits)
Number of subkeys
128
11
192
13
256
15
• Key whitening: Subkey is used both at the input and output of AES
⇒ # subkeys = # rounds + 1
• There are different key schedules for the different key sizes
17/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Key Schedule
Example: Key schedule for 128-bit key AES
• Word-oriented: 1 word = 32 bits
• 11 subkeys are stored in W[0]…W[3],
W[4]…W[7], … , W[40]…W[43]
• First subkey W[0]…W[3] is the original
AES key
18/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Key Schedule
• Function g rotates its four input bytes and performs a bytewise S-Box substitution
⇒ nonlinearity
• The round coefficient RC is only added to the leftmost
byte and varies from round to round:
RC[1] = x0 = (00000001)2
RC[2] = x1 = (00000010)2
RC[3] = x2 = (00000100)2

RC[10] = x9 = (00110110)2
• xi represents an element in a Galois field
(again, cf. Chapter 4.3 of Understanding Cryptography)
19/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Content of this Chapter
• Overview of the AES algorithm
• Internal structure of AES
• Byte Substitution layer
• Diffusion layer
• Key Addition layer
• Key schedule
• Decryption
• Practical issues
20/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Decryption
• AES is not based on a Feistel network
⇒ All layers must be inverted for decryption:
• MixColumn layer → Inv MixColumn layer
• ShiftRows layer→ Inv ShiftRows layer
• Byte Substitution layer → Inv Byte
Substitution layer
• Key Addition layer is its own inverse
21/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Decryption
• Inv MixColumn layer:
• To reverse the MixColumn operation, each column of the state matrix C
must be multiplied with the inverse of the 4×4 matrix, e.g.,
 B0   0E 0B 0D 09   C0 
  
  
B
09
0
E
0
B
0
D
 1 
  C1 
 B  =  0D 09 0E 0B  ⋅  C 
 2  
  2 
 B3   0B 0D 09 0E   C3 
where 09, 0B, 0D and 0E are given in hexadecimal notation
• Again, all arithmetic is done in the Galois field GF(28) (for more information
see Chapter 4.3 in Understanding Cryptography)
22/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Decryption
• Inv ShiftRows layer:
• All rows of the state matrix B are shifted to the opposite direction:
Input matrix
Output matrix
B0
B4
B8
B12
B1
B5
B9
B13
B2
B6
B10 B14
B3
B7
B11
B15
B0
B4
B8
B12
B13 B1
B5
B9
→ one position right shift
B10 B14 B2
B6
→ two positions right shift
B7
23/28
B11
B15 B3
no shift
→ three positions right shift
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Decryption
• Inv Byte Substitution layer:
• Since the S-Box is bijective, it is possible to construct an inverse, such that
Ai = S-1(Bi) = S-1(S(Ai))
⇒ The inverse S-Box is used for decryption. It is usually realized as a lookup
table
• Decryption key schedule:
• Subkeys are needed in reversed order (compared to encryption)
• In practice, for encryption and decryption, the same key schedule is used.
This requires that all subkeys must be computed before the encryption of the
first block can begin
24/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Content of this Chapter
• Overview of the AES algorithm
• Internal structure of AES
• Byte Substitution layer
• Diffusion layer
• Key Addition layer
• Key schedule
• Decryption
• Practical issues
25/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Implementation in Software
• One requirement of AES was the possibility of an efficient software implementation
• Straightforward implementation is well suited for 8-bit processors (e.g., smart cards),
but inefficient on 32-bit or 64-bit processors
• A more sophisticated approach: Merge all round functions (except the key addition)
into one table look-up
• This results in four tables with 256 entries, where each entry is 32 bits wide
• One round can be computed with 16 table look-ups
• Typical SW speeds are more than 1.6 Gbit/s on modern 64-bit processors
26/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Security
• Brute-force attack: Due to the key length of 128, 192 or 256
bits, a brute-force attack is not possible
• Analytical attacks: There is no analytical attack known that is
better than brute-force
• Side-channel attacks:
• Several side-channel attacks have been published
• Note that side-channel attacks do not attack the underlying
algorithm but the implementation of it
27/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl
Lessons Learned
• AES is a modern block cipher which supports three key lengths of 128, 192 and 256 bit. It
provides excellent long-term security against brute-force attacks.
• AES has been studied intensively since the late 1990s and no attacks have been found that
are better than brute-force.
• AES is not based on Feistel networks. Its basic operations use Galois field arithmetic and
provide strong diffusion and confusion.
• AES is part of numerous open standards such as IPsec or TLS, in addition to being the
mandatory encryption algorithm for US government applications. It seems likely that the
cipher will be the dominant encryption algorithm for many years to come.
• AES is efficient in software and hardware.
28/28
Chapter 4 of Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!