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Question 1: Explain the 4 steps of Strategic Planning and Management.

Question 2: Prepare a list of three essential steps to remember when building and supporting ongoing stakeholder engagement in an organisation’s strategic planning and implementation process.

Question 3: Explain the quality assurance steps that you would implement when deploying quality policies and processes in organisational learning?

Question 4:  List the various components that should be included in the organisational learning strategy.

Question 5: How do you analyse and plan technological and systems requirements for an organisational learning strategy?

Question 6: What are the various methods of evaluation used to analyse and align an organisational learning strategy with human resources and learning requirements and plans?

Question 7: Explain the purpose of an organisational learning strategy. What are the four (4) elements of an organisational learning strategy?

Question 8: Define Performance Support Tools (PSTs). What are the benefits of using Performance Support Tools?

Question 9: Differentiate between Accredited courses or Non-accredited courses?

Question 10: Prepare a list of key guidelines that should be followed when developing organisational learning strategies?

Question 11: Explain the purpose of learning and assessment strategies. What information should be included in learning and assessment strategies?

Question 12: Briefly explain the following forecasting methods/techniques:

Judgemental/ Quantitative Technique

Mathematical/ Qualitative/ Statistical Technique

Question 13: Differentiate between a quantitative and qualitative approach to risk analysis?

Question 14: Explain the four (4) rules of evidence that must be adhered to, to ensure that an assessment is compliant.

Question 15: Define Procurement and Supply Chain.

Question 16: What do Action Plans specify?

Question 17: Why is it important to validate an organisation’s assessment methods and assessment tools and ensure they are consistent with learning and wider operational needs?

Question 18: Why is it important to review and update policies and procedures?

Question 19: Prepare a list of the three (3) basic stages of a strategic change process.

Question 20: What are the key features of the Fair Work system?

Question 21: What are the four (4) levels of evaluation in the implementation of an organisational learning strategy?

Question 22: Prepare a list of individual issues that can be addressed using a SWOT analysis.

Question 23: Prepare a list of relevant staff that may require notification of a change recommendations.

Class Activities:

Activity 1:

This activity requires student to participate in learning strategies formation. In a group, students are required to conduct online research and document the following:

Models and approaches for organisational learning to support strategic requirements.

Contribution of organisational learning to competitiveness.

Options for deploying quality policies and processes in organisational learning.

Requirements for an organisational learning strategy to support organisational strategic and policy requirements.

The importance of aligning an organisational learning strategy with human resources and learning requirements and plans.

Models and approaches to organisational learning to support strategic requirements

Contribution of organisational learning to competitiveness

Options for deploying quality policies and processes in organisational learning

Requirements for an organisational learning strategy to support organisational strategic and policy requirements

The importance of aligning the organisational learning strategy with human resources and learning requirements and plans

Activity 2: This activity is a continuing activity from the previous activity

In this activity, your manager has asked you to prepare a form for internal staff to survey job satisfactions and opportunities for improvement.

You need to ask a range of open-ended and closed questions.

Activity 3: This activity is a continuing activity from the previous activity.

You need to collect feedback from three staff related to work satisfaction and improvements.

Your classmates can act as staff members.

Activity 4: This activity is a continuing activity from the previous activity.

In the previous activity, you collected surveys from internal staff. In this activity, you need to analyse the surveys and prepare a one-page report outlining the survey outcomes.

CLASS ACTIVITIES – STUDENT
BSBLED802
Lead learning strategy implementation
Class Activities: Version 3.0
Effective Date:
01/07/2019
All printed copies of this Document are considered ‘Uncontrolled Copies’. Printed copies are only valid for the day printed .
Review Date:
01/11/2022
Page 1 of 6
BSBLED802 – Lead learning strategy implementation
Class discussion questions:
Question 1: Explain the 4 steps of Strategic Planning and Management.
Question 2: Prepare a list of three essential steps to remember when building and supporting ongoing
stakeholder engagement in an organisation’s strategic planning and implementation process.
Question 3: Explain the quality assurance steps that you would implement when deploying quality
policies and processes in organisational learning?
Question 4: List the various components that should be included in the organisational learning
strategy.
Question 5: How do you analyse and plan technological and systems requirements for an
organisational learning strategy?
Question 6: What are the various methods of evaluation used to analyse and align an organisational
learning strategy with human resources and learning requirements and plans?
Question 7: Explain the purpose of an organisational learning strategy. What are the four (4) elements
of an organisational learning strategy?
Question 8: Define Performance Support Tools (PSTs). What are the benefits of using Performance
Support Tools?
Question 9: Differentiate between Accredited courses or Non-accredited courses?
Question 10: Prepare a list of key guidelines that should be followed when developing organisational
learning strategies?
Question 11: Explain the purpose of learning and assessment strategies. What information should be
included in learning and assessment strategies?
Question 12: Briefly explain the following forecasting methods/techniques:
a. Judgemental/ Quantitative Technique
b. Mathematical/ Qualitative/ Statistical Technique
Question 13: Differentiate between a quantitative and qualitative approach to risk analysis?
Question 14: Explain the four (4) rules of evidence that must be adhered to, to ensure that an
assessment is compliant.
Question 15: Define Procurement and Supply Chain.
Question 16: What do Action Plans specify?
Question 17: Why is it important to validate an organisation’s assessment methods and assessment
tools and ensure they are consistent with learning and wider operational needs?
Question 18: Why is it important to review and update policies and procedures?
Question 19: Prepare a list of the three (3) basic stages of a strategic change process.
Question 20: What are the key features of the Fair Work system?
Class Activities: Version 3.0
Effective Date:
01/07/2019
All printed copies of this Document are considered ‘Uncontrolled Copies’. Printed copies are only valid for the day printed .
Review Date:
01/11/2022
Page 2 of 6
Question 21: What are the four (4) levels of evaluation in the implementation of an organisational
learning strategy?
Question 22: Prepare a list of individual issues that can be addressed using a SWOT analysis.
Question 23: Prepare a list of relevant staff that may require notification of a change
recommendations.
Class Activities: Version 3.0
Effective Date:
01/07/2019
All printed copies of this Document are considered ‘Uncontrolled Copies’. Printed copies are only valid for the day printed .
Review Date:
01/11/2022
Page 3 of 6
Class Activities:
Activity 1:
This activity requires student to participate in learning strategies formation. In a group, students are
required to conduct online research and document the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Models and approaches for organisational learning to support strategic requirements.
Contribution of organisational learning to competitiveness.
Options for deploying quality policies and processes in organisational learning.
Requirements for an organisational learning strategy to support organisational strategic and
policy requirements.
The importance of aligning an organisational learning strategy with human resources and
learning requirements and plans.
Models and approaches to organisational learning to support strategic requirements
Contribution of organisational learning to competitiveness
Options for deploying quality policies and processes in organisational learning
Requirements for an organisational learning strategy to support organisational strategic and
policy requirements
Class Activities: Version 3.0
Effective Date:
01/07/2019
All printed copies of this Document are considered ‘Uncontrolled Copies’. Printed copies are only valid for the day printed .
Review Date:
01/11/2022
Page 4 of 6
The importance of aligning the organisational learning strategy with human resources and
learning requirements and plans
Class Activities: Version 3.0
Effective Date:
01/07/2019
All printed copies of this Document are considered ‘Uncontrolled Copies’. Printed copies are only valid for the day printed .
Review Date:
01/11/2022
Page 5 of 6
Activity 2: This activity is a continuing activity from the previous activity
In this activity, your manager has asked you to prepare a form for internal staff to survey job
satisfactions and opportunities for improvement.
You need to ask a range of open-ended and closed questions.
Activity 3: This activity is a continuing activity from the previous activity.
You need to collect feedback from three staff related to work satisfaction and improvements.
Your classmates can act as staff members.
Activity 4: This activity is a continuing activity from the previous activity.
In the previous activity, you collected surveys from internal staff. In this activity, you need to analyse
the surveys and prepare a one-page report outlining the survey outcomes.
Class Activities: Version 3.0
Effective Date:
01/07/2019
All printed copies of this Document are considered ‘Uncontrolled Copies’. Printed copies are only valid for the day printed .
Review Date:
01/11/2022
Page 6 of 6
LEARNER GUIDE
BSBLED802
Lead learning strategy implementation
BSBLED802-Lead learning strategy implementation| Learner guide
Version Control
Unit code
BSBLED802
Document version
1.0
Release date
19.02.2019
Comments/actions
First draft
Copyright
Copyright © 2013-2019 by CAQA Resources.
Copyright protects this material. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed,
or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other
electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher,
except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by Copyright Act 1968 (Cth). For permission requests, write to
the publisher, addressed “Attention: Permissions Coordinator,” at the address below.
Enquiries should be addressed to:
CAQA Resources
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Craigieburn, Victoria – 3064
Australia
www.caqaresources.com.au
Disclaimer
Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure that the information in
this book was correct at press time, the author and publisher do not assume and hereby
disclaim any liability to any party for any direct, indirect, incidental, or consequential loss,
damage, or disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions
result from negligence, accident, or any other cause. Data and case study examples are
intended to be fictional. Any resemblance to real persons or organisations is coincidental.
If you believe that information of any kind in this publication is an infringement of copyright,
in material in which you either own copyright or are authorised to exercise the rights of a
copyright owner, and then please advise us by contacting the Director, Product, CAQA
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or
Email
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Acknowledgement
This is a property of CAQA Resources, A Career Calling Initiative.
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………. 2
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
CHAPTER 1: Provide leadership to learning strategy formation ………………………. 6
1.1 Evaluate approaches to learning and workplace training against organisational
strategic requirements ……………………………………………………………………….. 9
1.2 Analyse the contribution of organisational learning to competitiveness and confirm
with key stakeholders ………………………………………………………………………..14
1.3 Examine and review options for deploying quality policies and processes in
organisational learning ……………………………………………………………………….20
1.4 Analyse and plan requirements for an organisational learning strategy to support
organisational strategic and policy requirements ………………………………………..32
1.5 Analyse and plan technological and systems requirements for an organisational
learning strategy ………………………………………………………………………………34
1.6 Analyse and align organisational learning strategy with human resources and
learning requirements and plans ……………………………………………………………35
CHAPTER 2: Design and develop organisational learning strategy …………………. 39
2.1 Design the organisational learning strategy to achieve instructor, learner and
organisational strategic requirements ……………………………………………………..45
2.2 Include relevant units of competency, modules from accredited courses or nonaccredited training specifications in organisational learning strategy ……………….52
2.3 Develop flexible organisational learning strategies to permit and promote the
responsiveness of the organisation to changed circumstances and priorities ………55
2.4 Design and develop learning and assessment strategies to support organisational
strategic requirements ……………………………………………………………………….57
2.5 Establish processes and procedures for allocating and managing resources and
staff, required to implement organisational learning strategy ………………………..59
2.6 Structure compliant assessment and recognition policies and processes appropriate
to organisational strategic requirements ………………………………………………….63
2.7 Structure procurement and supply policies and processes appropriate to
organisational strategic requirements ……………………………………………………..66
CHAPTER 3: Implement an organisational learning strategy ………………………… 68
3.1 Implement an organisational learning strategy appropriate to the organisational
requirements …………………………………………………………………………………..71
3.2 Validate organisational assessment methods and assessment tools consistent with
learning and wider operational needs ……………………………………………………..75
3.3 Source learning resources compliant with specific international, national, industry
and workplace needs ………………………………………………………………………….77
3.4 Review policies and procedures for continuing relevance, operational effectiveness
and to identify any gaps ……………………………………………………………………..79
3.5 Systematically evaluate strategic outcomes attained through organisational learning
strategy and update policies and procedures accordingly ……………………………..81
CHAPTER 4: Review organisational learning and development ……………………… 82
4.1 Develop procedures to systematically liaise with educators, learners and others to
monitor how well learning strategies and learning resources achieve organisational
learning targets ………………………………………………………………………………..86
4.2 Monitor and incorporate national policy and system changes into organisational
learning and development strategies and practices ……………………………………87
4.3 Modify and design learning strategies and learning resources to support
implementation of improved learning policies and procedures ……………………….91
CHAPTER 5: Improve organisational learning strategy formation ………………….. 92
5.1 Evaluate an end-to-end implementation of the organisational learning strategy ….95
5.2 Review performance of resources and people supporting organisational learning
strategy implementation ……………………………………………………………………..98
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5.3 Construct and present plans for improving organisational learning strategy
formation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
References …………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
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Introduction
This learner guide is about the knowledge and skills required to:
â–ª
research and evaluate models and approaches to organisational learning to support
strategic requirements
â–ª
examine and review organisational policies and procedures relevant to training and
assessment
â–ª
develop consultation and communication processes to support and encourage
personnel input into design, implementation and review of organisational learning
strategy including:
â–ª
planning technological and systems requirements
â–ª
creating in-built flexibility for change in organisational priorities
â–ª
implementing appropriate processes
â–ª
initiate and implement learning program partnerships in line with relevant regulatory,
employment and organisational requirements
â–ª
source learning resources or assessment tools, and modify if required, to meet
requirements of organisational learning strategies
â–ª
implement plans for improving organisational learning strategies.
â–ª
explain authoritative responsibilities and parameters within the organisation
â–ª
describe consultation and communication processes to support and encourage
organisational input into policy and procedure development processes
â–ª
list contemporary approaches to assessment instrument and strategy design
â–ª
describe contemporary organisational learning strategy design and development
â–ª
outline continuous improvement processes associated with organisational learning
strategy
â–ª
explain implementation processes and their impact on an organisation
â–ª
identify locations, types and sources of relevant organisational documentation
â–ª
list organisational evaluation strategies
â–ª
identify organisational learning theory
â–ª
describe quality management compliance requirements as it relates to organisational
learning
â–ª
outline a range of international e-learning compliance regimes
â–ª
list relevant authority compliance requirements and obligations, for example under
the Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF) and Standards for Registered
Training Organisations (where applicable)
â–ª
identify legislation, codes of practice and national standards relevant to the job role
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â–ª
outline technology and systems requirements to support an organisational learning
strategy.
What will I learn?
This learning guide will provide you the skills and knowledge required to:
1. Provide professional leadership in improving organisational learning
and the quality of training and assessment products and services.
2. Lead strategy formation; design, develop and implement an
organisational learning strategy; and review and improve overall
organisational learning and development.
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CHAPTER 1: Provide leadership to learning
strategy formation
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The concept of learning strategy
As academics and professionals become aware of the role of learning in society, the idea of
a learning strategy continues to evolve dynamically (and partially automatically). Learning
isn’t limited to the ‘Industrial Age’ where students were seen as ’empty vessels’ that needed
to be filled with skills but not the knowledge required to play an active role in society. In the
face of the digital technology revolution and social change, that kind of belief has eroded,
although some educational systems and organisations are still struggling to evolve and adapt
to the constant change requirements of our time.
Learning continues to be influenced and sustained by on-going social transformations. One
such example is technology and the emergence of the digital economy. Technology is
changing the operational structure of organisations. It also calls for new learning solutions
to improve what can occur, when, where and how. This circular relationship between cause
and effect places enormous stress on educational providers and those in charge of leading
the implementation of the learning strategy to adapt to increasing speeds. There is no onesize-fits-all solution available in terms of implementing the learning strategy. Most processes
for the development of learning strategies begin with client needs assessment, setting
learning priorities and objectives that trigger the design and delivery of learning materials
and conclude with an evaluation of how well a training, education or development solution
meets the needs of learners. This process can, however, also be subject to a remarkable
range of variations in an organisation. Variations are caused by the individual, group and
organisational needs competing with each other and differences in context and how people
learn, use technology and interact with each other add to the complexity of the process of
implementing a learning strategy.
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Learning has always been linked to changing societies, organisations and individuals. Against
the backdrop of accelerated change, it must be realised that the fundamental nature of
learning has to change as well. The shift away from a classroom, public education and
training to a more flexible, responsive, context-centred, personal learning response is partly
evidence of this.
This is supported by trends such as:
•
About 70% of what an employee needs to know to do his or her work successfully is
learned outside of formal training, usually from colleagues in informal interaction and
structured work experience. (Kaplan 2002). Kaplan.
•
Much of the ‘high-ranking’ knowledge required for work is tacit, not only difficult to
collate into content but deeply embedded in people’s context and behaviour, attitude
and culture in this community (Ambrosini & Bowman 2001). Such knowledge is
difficult to teach or move to the workplace in the classroom (Eraut, 2004: 203).
•
Over 60 per cent of the learning activity in Australian industries (e.g. transport,
utility, IT, telecommunications) and over 80 per cent of learning costs come from
recognised and unrecognised training and development sponsored by the employer,
rather than from officially funded formal education and training (Bowles 2012). This
has resulted in the recognition of the importance of a trade market and authentic
learning, which is not only linked to skills but also the way that graduates are thinking
and applying knowledge.
What will I learn?
In this chapter, you will learn about the following:
1. Evaluate approaches to learning and workplace training against
organisational strategic requirements
2. Analyse the contribution of organisational learning to competitiveness,
and confirm with key stakeholders
3. Examine and review options for deploying quality policies and
processes in organisational learning
4. Analyse and plan requirements for an organisational learning strategy
to support organisational strategic and policy requirements
5. Analyse and plan technological and systems requirements for an
organisational learning strategy
6. Analyse and align organisational learning strategy with human
resources and learning requirements and plans.
For more information:
www.domain_name.com.au
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1.1 Evaluate approaches to learning and workplace
training against organisational strategic requirements
It is critical to evaluate all approaches and strategies to learning and training in the
workplace against the strategic directions within an organisation. This will provide a strong
foundation for the formation of an organisation that values learning and growth.
What is strategic planning?
Strategic planning is an organisational management tool that is used by a business to set
priorities and strengthen operations. Strategic planning allows an organisation to focus its
energy and resources to achieve the desired outcomes and results for the organisation’s
objectives and goals. With an organisation having a clear plan, this ensures that employees
and other stakeholders are working towards the common goals that have been established
and agreed on for the success of the business. Strategic planning helps an organisation to
assess and adjust its direction in a challenging environment that is continually changing.
These disciplined efforts assist an organisation in the fundamental decision-making process
to provide actions that will guide and shape the business. The organisation will be able to
answer such questions as; Who are we? Who do we serve? What do we do? Why do we do
what we do? An effective strategic plan allows an organisation to articulate, not only where
the organisation is heading but also the actions needed to be made to maintain focus on the
direction to achieve a successful future.
What is a strategic plan?
A strategic plan is an organisation’s written document developed during the planning process
to outline the crucial elements and actions needed for the desired outcomes and results and
for goals to be achieved. The strategic plan is used to communicate the organisation’s goals
to all relevant parties.
Vision and mission statement
Each vision and mission statement will be part of the strategic planning process but have
different objectives for an organisation. These statements may be written for the whole
organisation or relevant to individual departments.
A mission statement is the precise explanation for your organisation’s existence and
describes the organisation’s purpose and overall intentions. The mission statement supports
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the vision and provides communication of the purpose and direction to employees,
customers, vendors and other stakeholders. Questions to consider when creating mission
statements should include:
●
Why does our organisation exist?
●
What is the purpose of our organisation?
A vision statement looks to the future and creates an image of the organisation and what
they want to achieve. It should be aspirational, inspirational and offer challenges to your
employees. Questions to consider when creating vision statements should include:
●
Where is the organisation heading?
●
What problem are we seeking to solve?
●
If we accomplished all the strategic goals, what will we look like in ten years?
A values statement outlines the guiding principles that give the organisation direction on the
type of culture they want to build. In a values-led organisation, the values create a moral
compass for the organisation and its employees. It guides decision-making and establishes
a standard against which actions are assessed. These core values are internalised guidelines
that can be shared and acted on by the leadership team. Questions to consider when creating
values statements should include:
●
What values are unique to our organisation?
●
What values should guide the operations of our organisation?
●
What codes of conduct should our employees uphold?
A code of ethics puts those values into practice and is commonly used to support your values
statement. It details the procedures in place to ensure the organisation’s values are adhered
to. Questions to consider when creating a code of ethics should include:
●
What are the ethical issues in our industry?
●
What should someone do if he or she sees a violation of our values?
Management shouldn’t create a new values statement or code of ethics and expect
immediate change from their leadership team and employees. An organisation must fully
embrace its values and ethics at all levels of the business to help guide its attitudes, actions
and decision-making process. These principles should be followed daily for the value
statement to be an effective part of the business strategy.
Example of a value statement
“Our work will be informed and guided by our commitments and beliefs to:
Inclusiveness – we value diversity, respect people and are committed to equality.
Participation – we recognise and value the contribution of volunteers within organisations
and communities.
Quality – we strive for excellence through continuous improvement.
Openness – we are committed to a culture of teamwork and collaboration.”
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A value statement should;
●
Provide a shared sense of the organisation’s identity and purpose
●
Provide long-term direction for the organisation
●
Communicating what the organisation is about, both internally and externally
Many organisations find it useful to review their mission, vision and values as part of their
strategic planning to ensure they remain up-to-date with the current and relevant challenges
and changes of the business environment.
Management committees must ensure that the organisation is operating in a way that is
consistent with their mission, vision and purpose, as well as their values or ethical principles.
Businesses should be planning, monitoring, and reviewing these values statement as the
basis for their policies, activities, decision-making and expenditures. Reviews should be done
periodically, according to current and impending circumstances of the business environment,
and to assist committee members in staying familiar with the organisation’s mission, vision
and values.
What is strategic management and execution?
Strategic management is the extensive and ongoing processes and activities that
organisations use to methodically coordinate their actions and resources to align with their
mission, vision, values and strategy throughout the organisation. Strategic management
activities should transform their plan into a system that provides for performance feedback
to inform their decision-making process to assist the business in assessing and updating
their strategy for continuous growth as requirements and other circumstances change.
Strategy execution is the systematic implementation of an organisation’s strategic plan,
which is an essential business practice.
There are four (4) steps in strategic planning and management
There are many different frameworks and methods for strategic planning and management
which follow similar patterns and common attributes. There are no concrete rules for these
frameworks; however, they do include the following primary phases:
1) Analysis or assessment – The development of an understanding of the current internal
and external environments.
2) Strategy formulation – Where a high-level strategy is established, and the development
of a basic organisational strategic plan is formulated and documented.
3) Strategy execution – Where the high-level strategic plan is translated into more
operational planning and action items.
4) Evaluation or sustainment management – Where continuous evaluation of performance,
reporting, communication, culture and other strategic management issues occur, that inform
and help to refine and update the business’s strategic plan.
The evaluation of organisational strategies
Without a strategy evaluation process, the strategy cannot be formulated or adjusted to
changing circumstances and needs of the business. Regardless of whether it is carried out
by an individual or as part of an organisational review procedure, strategic evaluation is an
essential step in guiding an organisation. For many managers, evaluating strategies is simply
an assessment of how well an organisation performs. Did it grow? Is the rate of profit normal
or better? If the answers to these questions are positive, the strategy of the organisation
seems working well, if not, the strategy needs to be revised to ensure it is sound. Despite
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its unassailable simplicity, this line of reasoning is lacking the whole point of strategy: that
the critical factors determining the quality of the current findings are often not directly
observable or simply measured, which may well become too late for an effective reaction
when strategic opportunities or threats have a direct impact on operating results. The
strategy evaluation is, therefore, an attempt to look beyond the apparent facts about a
company’s short-term health and instead evaluate the more fundamental factors and trends
which govern their success.
A comprehensive evaluation of the strategies used in the organisation to learning and
workplace training will be necessary. Learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge
and skills. It is important to remember the value and attitude of the organisation to learning
and how it is supported and decided on. Workplace training is any training to be carried out
in the workplace for the learning process. It will be necessary to make sure that a range of
information is collected and evaluated on learning at the workplace and in the workplace to
support organisational learning strategies.
Organisational strategic requirements
Without a clear concept of its strategy, no good military officer would attack even a smallscale target. Without an equally clear concept of his/her strategy, no seasoned politician
would campaign for an election. However, we frequently find business professionals who
deploy large-scale resources without a clear understanding of their strategy in the field of
business management. Yet the approach of a company is a key component in determining
its future. A valid approach will produce growth, profit, or whatever other goals managers
have set. Not only will an inappropriate approach fail to deliver benefits, but it can also lead
to disasters.
Organisational strategic requirements are those included in the strategic plans of the
organisation, all of which will focus so that the organisation can widen in the direction that
has been planned. A strategy is an action plan designed to achieve a particular goal or solve
a specific problem.
All factors and components needed to meet the strategic plans and to maintain the strategic
direction of the organisation are known as strategic organisational requirements. These
include but not limited to:
●
Available technologies
●
Access and equity guidelines and practices
●
Learning systems
●
Recording and reporting procedures
●
Business and performance plans
●
Legal framework and guidelines
●
Collaborative or partnership arrangements
●
Quality and continuous improvement guidelines
●
Privacy requirements
●
WHS/OHS requirements
●
Defined resource parameters
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●
Efficiency and effectiveness of supply arrangements with third-party suppliers (i.e.
procurement arrangements)
●
Ethical standards
●
Strategic, operational and functional needs;
To form the basis of an organisational learning strategy, information collected about learning
and job training within the organisation must be matched with the organisation’s strategic
requirements. If strategic organisational requirements are to be matched to learning and
workplace training approaches, a strong understanding of the regulatory theory of learning
is necessary.
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1.2 Analyse the contribution of organisational learning to
competitiveness and confirm with key stakeholders
Organisational learning
Organisational learning is an extremely recent metaphor that matches two concepts–
learning and organisation–and allows the organisation to explore as if it had a stock of
knowledge, skills and expertise. At the theoretical level, the organisation acts following the
principles of experimentation, testing and error, success and failure, discovery and invention
to be better equipped, uniquely, when it comes to surviving through and leading change.
How does an organisation engage with their stakeholders?
There are three essential steps to remember when building and supporting ongoing
stakeholder engagement in an organisation’s strategic planning and implementation
process. They are:
1. Communication with stakeholders
The first rule of stakeholder engagement is about sharing information on the organisation’s
purpose. Making sure to communicate with external stakeholders purposefully and in a
consistent way to ensure everyone understands why the organisation exists and what value
your organisation provides to their customers, vendors and market-share.
Internal stakeholders need to know where the organisation is going, so they can align their
work with your organisation’s goals and directions. To ensure this happens, use all
communication means available, such as newsletters, meetings, electronic messaging,
posters, payroll inserts, emails, dashboards, etc. Messages to employees should be
consistent and provide details of how employees fit into the strategic plan and how their
commitment and contributions have helped in the decision-making process, how they have
shaped the decisions made, to acknowledge the results they have achieved and further share
and coach towards strategic performance.
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Be visual and make the messages visible everywhere by posting strategic roadmaps
throughout the organisation to remind people of the importance of the mission, vision, and
strategies. People who know what is expected of them and the acknowledgement of how
they contribute are likely to be more engaged and committed than those who do not.
It is important to consult with all the stakeholders to provide their valuable input, and if a
policy is formulated after considering all the feedback provided by stakeholders then
implementation of policy will be easy, and it will be acceptable by everyone in the
organisation.
This process includes the validation of assessment methods and resources and whether they
are consistent or not. Support from the relevant authorities can be sought if required.
Following are the stakeholders who are common within the organisation:
•
learners
•
customers
•
management and staff
•
instructional designers
•
instructors
•
peers
•
public
•
suppliers and learning partners
•
public agencies, especially regulators
2. Involving stakeholders in the process
Ask for input about strategic planning in meetings, through surveys and questionnaires, with
targeted suggestion boxes and newsletters. Be sure to include stakeholder groups in the
discussions for the strategic plan wherever possible, and don’t place limits on planning and
review sessions by only catering for high-level management.
Involve essential stakeholder groups in the appropriate strategy discussions, whether it be
in a formal or informal group planning activities held at meetings. Use department meetings
to gather input on the strategic plan and its results.
Provide employees with an
understanding of the differences between the strategic initiatives, the long-term or
significant picture and the daily operations of the organisation, which will further indicate
how the levels are aligned.
With greater understanding comes greater ownership. Keep communicating to provide
constant reinforcement of the shared ideas and give feedback on how ideas are being
developed and integrated into the process.
3. Ensure people know what the strategic plan is and where they fit into the plan
Employees will then have a higher understanding of the organisation’s purpose, which will
help to build a culture of commitment and ownership throughout the organisation. However,
for those employees not directly involved in the process, you need to ensure they know what
the plan is, and where they fit in, as well as how they contribute to the strategic goals of
the organisation.
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Give them time to discuss and internalise the plan for better understanding and engagement
for the desired direction to be achieved. Engage in meetings with work units and
departments to show them how they contribute. Develop performance measures of their
work that detail how well they are contributing to the desired strategic outcomes and provide
feedback on those measures. Doing everything you can to make sure that the work of the
organisation is aligned with the strategic plan keeps all employees focused on a shared vision
and mission in achieving the organisation’s goals.
It’s nearly impossible to get where you want to go without a goal, a roadmap, and
organisational commitment to getting you there. Without a goal, you can’t align the
organisation with the common desired outcomes and won’t know the choices available to
get the organisation to where it wants to be.
Without a sense of commitment, you cannot guarantee that your stakeholders will move in
the same direction that you want them to go. Building commitment through more extensive
stakeholder engagement is an increasingly important element of the strategic planning
process.
The key stakeholders
Concerning an organisational learning strategy, key stakeholders in an organisation are
those who are either affected or who take decisions about the organisation. A stakeholder
analysis may be necessary to identify the key stakeholders about the organisational learning
strategy.
Key stakeholders may include:
●
clients/ consumers
●
learners/ students
●
subject matter experts/ instructional designers
●
trainers/ instructors
●
the staff and management of the organisation
●
peers
●
public
●
public agencies and bodies, especially regulators
●
suppliers and third-party partners
Analyse the contribution of competitiveness
To ensure that organisations stay competitive within the market, many factors must be
considered. Some of them are internal factors, some of them are external, but
competitiveness is improved and enhanced by utilising them effectively.
The strong learning culture within an organisation represents an essential advantage in the
workplace as it permits:
●
Enhanced functioning efficiency
●
Less wastage
●
Increased productivity
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Enhanced ability to analyse and meet market needs
●
Improved ability to monitor the quality and compliance of products and services
It is vital that stakeholders confirm the influence on competitiveness through appropriate
communication and consultation processes to assure that the focus and benefits of the
strategy are established.
Effective consultation and communication processes guarantee that organisational decisions
are practical and based on the comprehensive policy framework, the contribution of all
stakeholders informs that. The effective policy and procedural development processes
always consider stakeholder engagement as an integral component. Stakeholder
consultative and communications processes are essential to develop and promote the
information required for the appropriate and effective development of policies and
procedures.
Organisational learning
The process of creating knowledge, retaining and transferring it within an organisation is
known as “organisational learning”. An organisation enhances its experience over time. It
can generate knowledge from various experiences. The knowledge an organisation usually
acquires is extensive and covers any topic that an organisation may use to improve their
products and services. Examples can include ways to enhance production efficiency or to
develop positive relationships with stakeholders.
Organisational learning is based on the experience of an organisation and enables the
organisation to remain competitive in a changing environment. Organisational learning is a
process that improves efficiency, precision and profitability. One real example of
organisational learning in the world is how a new pizza store will reduce pizza costs as
combined pizza production increases. As the personnel generate more pizzas; they start
making pizzas faster, employees learn how to work together, and the machinery is placed
in the most effective place, which leads to cheaper production costs.
The Units of Knowledge
There are four different units of knowledge created:
●
individual
●
a group
●
organisational
●
inter-organisational
The learning curve
This is the most common way of measuring organisational learning. Learning curves show
how an organisation produces its product or service, enhances its productivity, efficiency,
reliability and production quality with lower returns. The curves of learning vary by the rate
of organisational learning. Organisational learning rates are affected by individual skills,
improvements in the technology of an organisation and improvements in coordination
structures, routines and methods.
The learning agenda
A learning agenda is an example of a more formal way of monitoring and supporting
organisational learning. Organisational learning is an aspect of an organisation and the
organisation’s field of study. Organisational learning is the creation, retention and transfer
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of knowledge. The creation of knowledge, preservation of knowledge and transfer of
knowledge can be seen as adaptive processes that are part of the experience. Experience is
the knowledge that contributes to involvement or exposure to a subject’s procedural
understanding.
Research within organisational learning applies in particular to the attributes and conduct of
this knowledge and how it can lead to changes in an organisation’s cognition, habits and
behaviours. Individuals mainly view the functional mechanisms for organisational learning
by creating knowledge through experience. However, the knowledge of individuals only
facilitates learning in the whole organisation if it is transferred. Individuals can be retained
or leave the organisation. In addition to its individuals, knowledge integrated into the
organisation can be retained. In other ways, organisations may maintain knowledge, using
knowledge repositories such as communications tools, processes, learning agendas,
routines, networks, and transactive memory systems. Organisational learning is a sub-field
is the study of knowledge, experience and the effects of knowledge within an organisation.
Organisational learning studies contribute directly to the applied knowledge management
science (KM) and the concept of a learning organisation. Organisational learning has to do
with studies of corporate theory, organisational communication, organisation, psychology
and organisational development. The fields of education, psychology, sociology, economics,
anthropology, political science and management sciences have contributed to organisational
learning.
Stakeholder’s roles in the planning process
Business owners must consider stakeholders who have a vested interest in the organisation
when they are making significant business decisions and project development. Stakeholders
may not make the decisions, but they do need to know what the organisation is planning to
do. For example, a local city council may not be in the business of developing land, but they
are the council’s representatives and as such, have a vested interest in new real estate
development. Stakeholder’s roles will vary, depending on the project type or business
circumstances.
Brainstorming ideas
Stakeholders brought into any project development from or decision the beginning can help
provide ideas and contribute to problem-solving by offering potential solutions. Often,
stakeholders come from varying backgrounds, so they look at issues from different
perspectives which allows for discussion of many viewpoints. Stakeholders can play devil’s
advocate that can help to flush out ideas beyond the initial buzz of implementation.
Resources for problem-solving
Engaged stakeholders stay involved in the process, which increases the organisation’s
chances of project success through to final execution. Excellent project leaders keep
stakeholders informed with updates on the projects’ progress in their business newsletters.
Stakeholders are informed when significant issues such as regulatory obstacles, legal issues,
funding and budget concerns occur.
Positive communication goes both ways. For example, by keeping the city council apprised
of community development and addressing residents’ concerns, a project manager can
diffuse a potentially adverse situation. Should a significant petition against the development
arise, the project is more likely to get information sooner, rather than later, when
communication with stakeholders has been forthcoming.
Employees as stakeholders
As employees get paid to do a job, many business owners do not think about employees as
being stakeholders. To build engagement, though, if an employee has a clear plan with set
goals and resources, they are more likely to succeed. There are many reasons an employee
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want a job to succeed, such as job security, potential promotion and prestige. Surveying the
employees and gathering input on project ideas is a good strategy and will also bring to light
and potential issues they may see. Allowing people to take charge of a project’s success
requires trust by a business a leader, and they can capitalise on their loyalty, with an
enthusiastic team willing to go the extra mile.
Prevention of unforeseen problems
It is natural for a business to want a project to come together without a hitch; that is seldom
the reality, especially as projects become bigger. Utilising stakeholders can help business
leaders to minimise the impact of many problems, thereby preventing significant issues from
occurring. For example, a pet shop planning to sell animals as pets could benefit from
partnering with their local animal rescue shelters to advocate for animal adoption and
responsible animal ownership. The rescue organisation can be an ally for the pet shop and
influence the community. It can be imperative in advocating for your business, rather than
perceiving it as an adversary.
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1.3 Examine and review options for deploying quality
policies and processes in organisational learning
It is essential to examine and review possibilities for implementing quality policies and
procedures in organisational learning.
These options may include:
●
Quality management plans when compiling the policy framework
●
Information checked according to the context and regulatory requirements
●
Regular internal checks
●
Stakeholder feedback
●
Influence of internal and external environments (quality assurance steps)
●
Mapping statutory guidelines to policies and procedures
As part of an organisational learning strategy, a variety of quality requirements will need to
be established to ensure that the learning is appropriate for the organisation and that all
learning is achieved and recorded according to the conditions specified in the organisation’s
documented policy framework.
Following are the quality management compliance requirements related to organisational
learning:
•
Accessibility and diversity needs (i.e. W3C)
•
Content storage, discovery, management and access standards and reference models
(i.e. ADL Registry, CORDRA, S1000D)
•
AQTF Standards for Registered Training Organisations
•
Industry standards/benchmarks
•
International e-learning standards, specifications and reference models (i.e. SCORM,
IEEE, IMS, AICC)
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•
OHS requirements
•
Training and/or assessment organisation standards
A quality management plan should be developed as part of the organisational learning
strategy. In order to meet the quality requirements that have been implemented, a variety
of monitoring, measurement and control activities must be carried out which can be
integrated into the Quality Management Component of the learning strategy.
Quality management systems include comprehensive and documented policies, procedures
and actions. These are implemented within an organisation to ensure that every phase of
every task performed within the organisation is planned and controlled so that specific
quality benchmarks can be consistently achieved throughout all organisational operations.
The policies and procedures should include the following:
●
Internal research
●
Market segmentation
●
Commissioned research
●
Demographics
●
Political influences
●
Social influences
●
Economics
●
Technological changes and advancements
●
Products and services
Quality assurance steps
Step 1: Determine the readiness of the organisation
For example: Establishing your planning process and the questions to ask:
●
Are the criteria and conditions for successful planning in place?
●
Can specific difficulties be avoided?
●
Is this the appropriate time for your organisation to initiate a planning process? If
not, where do you go from here?
Step 2: Development of your team and their schedule
You need to ask who is going to be on the strategic planning team. Someone needs to be
chosen to oversee the implementation, and then you need the decision-makers or key
individuals for the team.
Step 3: Gather current and relevant information
Gather the following information from your organisation:
●
Mission, vision and values statements
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Business plan, even if it isn’t current
●
The strategic plan, even if it isn’t current
●
Marketing plan, even if it isn’t current
●
Financial records for the last few years
●
The previous year’s SWOT Analysis
●
Sales figures and projections
Step 4: Review the information collected:
Review the information collected in the last action with your team, and ask the following
questions:
●
What trends do you see?
●
Are there areas of apparent weakness or strengths?
●
Have we been following a plan, or have we just been going along with the market?
Strategic plan
To survive a strategic plan needs to be adaptive to any unanticipated or changing conditions.
An organisation that develops and executes a strategic plan gains significantly from
experience. Creating a working model and then building a concrete plan can be more
successful for your organisation than having no plan at all, which can lead to the discovery
of underlying assumptions that are flawed or incomplete.
Often your organisation’s mission and vision may remain the same while your objectives
and goals will need to be revised or updated which can result in either adapting your current
strategy or beginning the process all over again. Some organisations can maintain a
strategic plan for a year or longer, while others have to respond to market changes more
frequently.
Whatever your situation, it doesn’t have to be an adverse negative outcome for you as
strategies can be switched according to the business environment and the needs of your
organisation. For the dynamic business environment, most organisations operate within
corrective action needs to be taken quickly to compensate for this.
PEST Analysis can help strategic planning
Organisations depend on the long-term planning of strategic management for the successful
operation of their business. Different companies use different analysis according to their
needs and structure. Internal and external factors are highlighted to understand the
complexity of the business environment and its challenges. The PEST analysis is widely used
among businesses and focuses on external rather than internal factors. It is regarded as
being useful in long-term strategic planning and works from a macroeconomic perspective.
The Political, Economic, Social and Technological factors assist organisations to get a deeper
understanding of the business trends in their chosen industry or market.
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Political Factors
Legal factors include labour laws, taxes, social and environmental obligations, audits, fiscal
and monetary policies. These aspects influence the business’s decision-making process.
Political factors can affect businesses to a great extent as government decisions, and policies
cause changes in the business environment, as well as can affect the cycle of a business.
Political and government intervention is not feasible for a strong organisation and can
damage their long-term plans. To overcome these barriers, organisations need to maintain
favourable relations with governments to receive special considerations and incentives.
Government trade regulations can affect a business’s international market, their customers
and increase the business’s expenditure. Laws of labour affect the workforce and can change
the internal dimensions of the business, as well as their rights.
Political factors that can affect a business:
●
Government stability and related changes
●
Government involvement in trade unions and agreements
●
Import restrictions on the quality and quantity of products
●
Regulation and deregulation
●
Environmental Laws
●
Laws that regulate environmental pollution
●
Intellectual property law (copyright, patents)
●
Education Law
●
Antitrust law
●
Employment law
●
Discrimination law
●
Data protection law
●
Health and safety law
●
Bureaucracy
●
Levels of corruption
●
Tariffs
●
Trade control
●
Competition regulation
●
Tax policy (tax rates and incentives)
●
Consumer protection and e-commerce
●
Freedom of the press.
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Four (4) main effects of these political factors for organisations are:
●
Impact on economy
●
Political stability
●
Changes in regulation
●
Mitigation of risk
Impact on economy
Affecting a country’s economic setting is its political situation. The economic environment
affects a business’ performance.
For example, there are significant differences in Liberal and Labor policies in Australia which
influences factors like government spending and taxes, and which can ultimately affect the
economy. A higher level of government spending often helps to temporarily stimulate the
economy but can have longer-term detrimental effects.
Political stability
Lack of political stability in a country affects the business operation, which is especially true
for those organisations which operate on an international level.
An aggressive takeover could overthrow a government and could lead to riots, looting and
general disorder in the environment which disrupts business operations. For example; Sri
Lanka was in a similar state during the civil war, as well as Egypt and Syria who face
disturbances.
Changes in regulation
Governments could alter their regulations and rules, which in turn affects a business. An
example would be restrictions in the production and/or sale of a certain item or product.
Mitigation of risk
A way to manage political risk is to buy political risk insurance, with some organisations
which have international operations taking out this type of insurance to reduce their risk
exposure.
Certain countries provide indications of risk exposure. The “Index of Economic Freedom” is
one example for organisations to use and provides a ranking of countries based on how
politics impacts business decisions in the country.
Economic factors
Unstable and weak economies are risky and can harm the business as the inflation rate,
interest rate, employment and unemployment rates, as well as economic growth indicators
factor into the decision-making process. Economic factors are interlinked with political
elements. An organisation cannot progress if the economy is declining or becoming unstable.
Inflation affects demand and supply as well as leads to unfavourable investment conditions.
Consumer purchasing power falls, currency devalues, resulting in a loss for the business.
Exchange rates affect the cost of import and export by increasing overall trading costs for
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the organisation. Moreover, interest rates play a vital role as it influences the expansion and
growth of the business.
Social factors
Social factors involve the trends of the domestic market, population, demographics and
cultural trends. These factors help a business assess the market to improve their products
and services as needed. If these products and services that the organisation provides are
not according to the compatibility of the market, they risk failure for the business.
Demographic factors and population growth rates, domestic markets and age distribution
influence organisations and help them evaluate the fluctuations of existing or new markets
in meeting consumer needs. Domestic markets should be carefully judged and studied
before a product or service is launched by assessing the consumers’ spending power and
living standards with prices made accordingly. These factors are essential for market
research.
Social factors that impact customer needs and market share:
●
Population growth rate
●
Social classes
●
Minorities
●
Family size and structure
●
Immigration and emigration rates
●
Lifestyles
●
Religion and beliefs
●
Sex distribution
●
Age distribution and life expectancy rates
●
Education level
●
Emphasis on safety
●
Health consciousness
●
Average disposable income level
●
Buying habits
●
Attitudes toward saving and investing
●
Attitudes toward green or ecological products
●
Attitudes toward renewable energy
●
Attitudes toward imported products and services
●
Attitudes toward customer service and product quality.
●
Attitudes toward work, career, leisure and retirement
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The social aspect focuses on the forces within the society, such as family, friends,
neighbours, colleagues, and the media which can affect our interests, attitudes and opinions.
PEST Analysis importance in strategic planning
●
Internal and external factors that influence an organisation’s success or failure
●
It gives an overview of the business’ current position
●
It forecasts the potential future of the organisation
●
Evaluates the business environment and allows organisations to make strategic
decisions
●
Provides businesses with a reality check of their performance and improvement needs
●
Enables organisations to understand the economy and market to inform business
growth
●
Provides a method of identifying threats and opportunities
●
Allows businesses to learn about markets, to increase national or global presence
●
Prevents future failures and provides continuous improvement for success
●
It helps organisations to analyse threats and to take countermeasures for
improvement.
Implementation of strategic planning
Organisations usually go through their strategic planning processes once a year which allows
them to analyse and assess the vital elements of PEST. When it comes to strategy planning
or decision-making, evaluating all the information and compiling it in one place is as
important as having a capable team. When an organisation wants to achieve a goal, it should
come up with an effective strategy to accomplish this. By conducting an assessment,
businesses can determine emerging opportunities and strengths as well as external factors
or threats.
Economic conditions fluctuate constantly, and changes in values and social shifts can affect
the way the organisation’s brand and products succeed in the market. There is a dedicated
team behind every strategic plan for a successful business. A PEST analysis is a critical part
of any strategic planning process and without a general idea of the external factors that
would affect the organisation or its strategies, then reaching their targets or accomplishing
goals is virtually impossible.
A PEST analysis is about seeking information from professionals who are aware of current
conditions in each area, not just about listing political, economic, social and technological
factors. The strategy should allocate resources, set priorities, decide on timeframes for
achieving goals, and come up with control mechanisms as well as assigning employees
accordingly to the planning. A PEST analysis will provide a comprehensive insight to ensure
the business strategy will be successful.
This information would be vastly valuable for building effective strategies. After
independently gathering data of the relevant factors, the PEST diagram will be useful in
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comparing them with other elements which make it easier to come up with solutions for
threats and ways to make the best of the opportunities available to help the company
achieve its goals.
PESTEL and Globalisation
Over the past decade, new markets have opened to foreign competitors, with the
deregulation of whole industries and the privatisation of state-run enterprises which has
made globalisation a fact of life in almost every industry and entails much more than
organisations directly exporting products to other countries.
Factors Favouring Industry Globalisation
1.
Markets
●
Global customer needs
●
Global channels
●
Transferable marketing approaches
●
Homogeneous customer needs.
2.
Costs
●
Large-scale and large-scope economies
●
Learning and experience
●
Sourcing efficiencies
●
Favourable logistics
●
Arbitrage opportunities
●
High research-and-development (R&D) cost.
3.
Governments
●
Favourable trade policies
●
Common technological standards
●
Common manufacturing and marketing regulations.
4.
Competition
●
Interdependent countries
●
Global competitors.
Markets
The more similar markets in different regions there are, the higher the pressure for
industries to globalise. For Example, Coca-Cola and PepsiCo are standard and the same in
every country around the world because of the high demand for soft drinks. The airframemanufacturing industry, dominated by Boeing and Airbus, also has a highly stable market
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for its products as airlines all over the world have the same needs when it comes to large
commercial planes.
Costs
In these industries, the costs favour globalisation. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo realise economies
of scope and scale because they make significant investments in marketing and promotion,
through the promotion of coherent brands and images they can leverage their marketing
share and profitability around the world. Boeing and Airbus are investing millions in newproduct research and development because the global market for their products is significant
around the world.
Quality management plans
The Quality Management Plan sets out the acceptable level of quality usually defined by the
consumer and describes how the project ensures that the quality level of its end-product or
deliverables and operating work processes are achieved.
Quality management activities ensure that:
●
Products and services are constructed to meet agreed standards and requirements
●
Work processes are carried out efficiently and documented
●
Non-conformities have been identified, and adequate corrective action plans for the
deliverables of projects and project processes are taken.
Quality control activities monitor and verify that project results meet defined quality
standards. Quality control activities monitor and verify the work processes used to manage
the quality while generating the deliverables.
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Quality management plans may be:
●
Authorisations and responsibilities for quality control
●
Continuous improvement processes
●
Applicable standards
●
Measurable quality metrics for process and product
●
Quality data recording and maintenance
●
Reliability and validity requirements.
Components of quality management plans
The Quality Management Plan usually include the following components:
●
Quality objectives
●
Quality standards
●
Key project deliverables and processes to be reviewed for satisfactory quality level
●
Quality roles and responsibilities
●
Quality control and assurance activities
●
Plan for reporting quality control and assurance problems
●
Quality tools
Quality objectives
To succeed in the project and to achieve its goals and results, all of the quality requirements
and objectives identified must be met. The stakeholders in a project will generally have a
significant influence on determining quality goals and standards and their influence will
depend on their authority, seniority, and importance to the project. Business, stakeholders
and organisational staff and departments normally work together to define quality standards
and objectives required for a successful project outcome. These are known as “Quality
Objectives”.
The quality objectives can be:
●
Acceptable tolerances and modification of specifications
â—‹
●
Explicit and implicit expectations from the project deliverables
â—‹
●
Variations outside acceptable tolerances and how these variations may have
negative impacts on the quality of the project
Quality management processes should ensure that expectations are met
Client definitions of ‘fit for purpose.’
â—‹
Is the project meeting the needs of the end-user?
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●
â—‹
Specific levels of quality and performance, normally designated by specific
measurements and definitions
â—‹
Assumed performance requirements are believed to be true and relevant.
â—‹
Assumptions can be dangerous when working a false assumption, so you
should always strive to clarify the assumptions and confirm assumptions with
the appropriate players— Negotiated agreements between costs, schedule
and performance — or A common project management achievement is that
costs, schedules and achievements are difficult to achieve together.
Organisation, client or sponsor requirements
â—‹

All requirements must be fulfilled to ensure that the quality of products and
services.
Quality management tools, techniques and methodologies
Quality management tools, techniques and methodologies may include:
●
Benchmarking
●
Brainstorming
●
Charting processes
●
Cause and effect diagram:
â—‹
Fishbone
â—‹
Ishikawa
●
Control charts
●
Defining control
●
Flowcharts
●
Histograms
●
Pareto charts
●
Processes that limit and/or indicate variation
●
Root cause analysis
●
Run charts
●
Scattergrams
●
Selection criteria
●
Undertaking cost-benefit analysis.
Quality standards
●
Australian and international standards
●
Enterprise and industrial agreements
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●
Industry codes of practice
●
Industry standards
●
Organisational policy, systems and procedures
●
Regulations and legislation.
Who is affected by quality?
●
Consumer
●
Employees
●
End users
●
Business owners
●
Management
●
Suppliers
●
Project manager
●
Project team
●
Government bodies
●
Public
●
Other stakeholders
Since these people have an interest in the project, they can help set expectations and quality
requirements. When engaged in a project in any capacity, you must ensure that you are
aware of the quality requirements of the project and can contribute to it. All identified
stakeholders have to know the quality requirements and how they are to be planned,
maintained and achieved for the project to succeed and be of sufficient quality. When the
quality level of the project decreases or diminishes, the project may be at risk of failure to
meet its goals, and therefore all stakeholders need to be aware of and understand the quality
requirements and work together to achieve them.
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1.4 Analyse and plan requirements for an organisational
learning strategy to support organisational strategic
and policy requirements
Organisations should establish their own Quality Management Plans, policies and procedures
and use their own templates to ensure that the right information is recorded and presented
in the correct format. To do this, you need to monitor the organisational guidelines, protocols
and quality management processes properly. All requirements for an organisational learning
strategy should be examined and planned to ensure that both policy and strategic
requirements can be met.
Organisational learning strategy
There are several components that should be included in the organisational learning
strategy, and it is important that all of them are planned to ensure that the strategy’s
operating efficiency is achievable. The components of the organisational learning strategy
may include:
●
Personnel in charge of the implementation
●
Organisational goals, aims and objectives
●
Key project deliverables and processes
●
Integrated strategic activities
●
Regulatory standards and compliance framework
●
Organisational policies and procedures
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●
Organisational control and assurance activities
●
Organisational roles and responsibilities
The development of the organisational learning strategy is a good way to ensure that
organisational learning requirements can be analysed and planned carefully for successful
project outcomes.
How to analyse and plan the organisational learning strategy
You must follow your organisation’s guidelines to analyse and plan the organisational
learning strategy. A few steps are listed below that can be used for this purpose:
●
Evaluation of available skills in the organisation to achieve strategic goals in line with
the quality framework and standards
●
Evaluation of employee learning needs
●
Design of a blended learning program to meet these needs
●
Design of an assessment tool to provide a roadmap to change and mapping progress
against well-defined learning objectives and goals.
Some of the international e-learning compliance system or learning approaches used across
the globe are:
•
CANCORE in Canada,
•
EdNA Metadata Standard in Australia,
•
SINGCORE in Singapore
•
ARIADNE Foundation in Europe which has fed into the IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 standard
for learning object metadata
•
DC-ED extensions to the Dublin Core that address educational uses of materials.
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1.5 Analyse and plan technological and systems
requirements for an organisational learning strategy
“By investing in competent (and dedicated) staff, designing and implementing high quality
programmes, Retrak has now taken the position of one of the leading global organisations
in their field”. Marcus Holmgren, Läkarmissionen. (Retrak annual review 2014).
Organisational learning strategy provides organisations opportunities to divide the
objectives into several smaller components or sub-projects. Achieving these objectives one
by one ensures the overall success of the organisational learning strategy. In business today,
technology is part of nearly everything we do and using the right technology, processes and
systems for organisational learning strategies are essential to the success of overall
organisational learning strategies.
Technological and systems requirements
Without analysing and planning the technological and systems requirements, it is nearly
impossible to develop and implement a sound organisational learning strategy. Technological
and systems requirements include:
●
Hardware and software required to run the operations of the organisation
●
Systems needed to run and administer management and administration processes
●
Sales and marketing tools, equipment and utilities
●
General client support tools, equipment and utilities
●
Systems and tools needed to run quality assured services and operations
●
Systems and tools to provide quality learning, training and education
How to analyse and plan technological and systems requirements
You must follow your organisation’s guidelines to analyse and plan the technological and
systems requirements. The steps are below that can be used to analyse and plan:
●
Monitoring of the current systems and processes in place
●
Competitive analysis to identify how competitors are performing better or using
better technologies and systems are operating
●
Client-needs analysis against current systems and processes
●
Ensuring the decision support systems are based upon the collection of information
obtained from within the organisation and credible external sources.
●
Ensuring that decisions are based upon facts and evidence and not personal
judgements and biases.
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1.6 Analyse and align organisational learning strategy
with human resources and learning requirements and
plans
It is critical to make sure that the organisational strategy is properly aligned with the
organisation’s human resources and learning requirements and plans. One of the main goals
of organisational learning strategy is to ensure that the organisation meets all current and
future needs in terms of learning requirements and human resources.
All key staff carrying out actions for the organisational learning strategy must be able to be
identified in the learning strategies. A stakeholder analysis should be conducted by each
group of stakeholders in the organisation to identify the business requirements. A
stakeholder analysis can determine the level of input and commitment and define the
particular roles of each group relevant to the collection of data to identify these
requirements.
Human resources and learning needs
Each employee, their aspirations and their needs should be properly documented. This
process of documentation can also help reveal the organisation’s objectives, aims and basic
goals such as the immediate and long-term growth targets and current and future potential
from an activity or a project.
An organisation’s HR department is the right place to start analysing and aligning the
organisational learning strategy against human resources and learning requirements and
plans, and also for exploring the business’ learning needs.
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Questions to analyse
There are several questions to be answered when analysing and aligning an organisational
learning strategy against human resources and learning requirements.
Such as:
●
The functional and operational strategy of the organisation – are there any recent
changes?
●
How to create a concise training strategy statement with the help of policy and
manual development of HR personnel?
●
Any recent research and development affecting the organisational learning strategy?
●
What is the type of business processes involved in the organisation, have they been
defined?
●
Is the business a product-oriented, service-oriented or performance-oriented
business?
●
How can you enhance your business activities against the organisational learning
strategy?
These and several other questions can help to determine the type of training and
development plan to be developed. For example, technical training usually requires
simulations, service improvement training typically requires scenario-based decisionmaking, and product training requires detailed product tutorials.
Determine the performance needs
The first tool an organisation needs is KPI’s (key performance indicators). When we talk
about performance, it is critical to have a system to measure it. The Human Resources
department usually develop a list of KPIs to be integrated into staff performance appraisals,
gap analysis tools and training materials. KPIs quantitatively measure employee
performance, for instance, the number of consumers per month, number of products sold
per month, the number of complaints processed per month, number of registrations lost per
month, etc. These figures contain valuable information for the planning phase.
You should also develop several questions around KPIs to ensure they are working:
●
Are the KPIs objective-in-nature and not open for interpretation?
●
What are the employees going to do after the appraisal according to their KPIs?
●
How can the KPIs be improved and tested?
●
How is learning going to influence the KPIs?
The most intelligent way to create an effective learning culture is the alignment of
organisational objectives with KPIs set for each role within the organisation.
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Determine employee performance
Most learning courses and programs crash at launch, as the organisation is usually the only
focus area in their curriculum and training. This is why we must accept the individual learning
needs of the organisational employees in the planning phase on a long-term basis if we want
to develop an effective organisational learning strategy. It is the staff who inspire others to
do the right thing, change with the needs of the times and go-through the gap-analysis and
gap-training.
Legislation, codes of practice and national standards relevant to individual leading
strategy management
Some of the legislation, codes of practice and national standards relevant to individual
leading strategy management implementation include:
•
ATO legislation
•
PAYG legislation
•
Superannuation laws
•
OHS/WHS laws
•
Fair work Australia legislations
•
Relevant industry standards, e.g. hospitality
•
Industry code of practice, e.g. CPA for
trainer/assessors
•
Privacy/Anti-discriminations laws
accountants, ASQA standards for
Develop an organisational learning strategy
This is the most important step in the analysis of the organisational learning phase. Creating
a formal organisational learning strategy is critical to providing quality training to staff. It is
recommended to involve all stakeholders who are key contributors to the approval of the
development and implementation of the organisational learning strategy.
The organisational learning strategy should reflect business practices, organisational culture,
external environment, laws, policies and innovative technologies and practices. The
organisational learning strategy is, of course, the result of extensive research and analysis
and rigorous peer review. Make it a rule to refer to this document before any learning
material is developed.
Developing an organisational learning strategy includes taking language and jargon barriers
into account and whenever possible, translating, explaining providing a glossary. You also
need to determine the technology preference, which will be dependant on the learners. You
need to ask questions such as; Are they too busy with meetings and unexpected appeals for
structured, blended training? Do they want asynchronous learning materials? What’s been
working in the past? Have you collected any explicit preferences for training through
surveys? Are your learners focused on the game-based learning methodologies? Perhaps ice
breakers and case studies will motivate and engage them. Perhaps it’s a puzzle or a mystery
they need as a group to solve. Maybe team development and team confidence are the main
challenges that prevent training success. Understanding and empathising with a group and
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team needs will help you determine the preferences for how the training is delivered. Above
all, check the resources of the organisation. What system is in place for learning
management and supports organisational learning strategy? Most employees like to talk
about their learning. Channel this productive conversation using your organisational learning
strategy. Observe and mentor newly-acquired training communications and determine what
training material needs to be used to improve it for the next round. Planning and improving
training is part of the methodology to enhance performance.
Methods of evaluation
It is essential that a range of methods and processes are developed to ensure that there is
continuous improvement in training and evaluation measures and that they are carried out
within the context of the organisational learning strategy so that it can be maintained.
This can be done through:
●
Feedback and consultation tools and processes
●
Validation tools and processes
●
Moderation tools and processes
Organisation’s record-keeping system describes the documentation process. And it depends
upon the size of the organisation. Most common practices nowadays are storing data or
documentation digitally. Online accesses of documents are requirements, and it also saves
time and space.
Types and sources of relevant organisational documentation are access and equity principles
and practices, available technology and learning systems, business and performance plans
, collaborative or partnership arrangements, confidentiality requirements , defined resource
parameters, ethical standards policy, existing technology and systems in place to manage
performance, customer service, decision support, suppliers, learning, compliance and
related activities, legal and organisational policies, guidelines and requirements , OHS
policies, procedures and programs, quality and continuous improvement processes and
standards , quality assurance and procedures manuals and recording and reporting
procedures.
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CHAPTER
2:
Design
and
organisational learning strategy
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The purpose of having an organisational learning strategy
The purpose of having an organisational learning strategy is to set overall goals for the
business and to develop a plan of how to achieve them. It involves stepping back from your
day-to-day operations and asking where your organisation is headed and what its priorities
should be. Developing and integrating organisational knowledge into daily practice can be a
powerful way of increasing the impact of an organisation, particularly as it grows.
The elements of an organisational learning strategy
The four elements that will support an organisational learning strategy include:
●
Supportive leaders
●
Culture of continuous improvements
●
Defined learning structure
●
Intuitive knowledge and learning processes
Supportive leaders
Landy and Conte (2004) proposed that organisational culture and climate are two different,
yet overlapping concepts – “climate is about the context in which action occurs and culture
is about the meaning intended by and inferred from those actions” (From Work in the 21st
Century: An Introduction to Industrial and Organisational Psychology. By Frank J. Landy,
Jeffrey M. Conte, p.526).
Supportive leadership is a management and leadership style, adapted by supportive leaders,
in which a manager not only delegates tasks and obtains results, but supports an employee
until the task ends. An important step forward for supporting leadership is that the manager
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will work with the employee until he or she is competent enough to manage tasks with
minimal supervision in the future.
Culture of continuous improvements
Building an effective culture of continuous improvement does not only mean carrying out a
few process improvement steps. Acknowledgement of having a culture of continuous
improvement is a good starting point, and companies can earn tangible rewards for
implementing it. But more is needed to drive lasting results over time and to incorporate
continuous improvement in the organisation itself. This is when the real and transformative
changes can generate hundreds of millions of dollars of possibilities. This disruptive shift
also makes efforts to improve continuously while making some traditional approaches
ineffective. As a result, companies are forced to adapt to their corporate culture as they
continue to improve.
Defined learning structure
Deepening your understanding of the way your business works and its position relative to
other businesses in your markets will help you develop a strategy for business growth. Ask
yourself the following three questions, as a starting point, to define a learning structure:
Where are we now?
As you think about where your organisation is now, you want to make sure there has not
been a change to your foundational elements, mission and value. You will not tend to revise
these areas very often.
Then you want to look at your current position or your strategic position. This is where you
assess what is happening internally and externally to determine how you need to shift or
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change. You should review your strategic position regularly using a SWOT Analysis. You will
need to look at the following elements:
●
Mission statement: This is the purpose for which you were founded and why you
exist. Included in some mission statements is the business of the organisation.
Others explain what customers they serve or the products they produce. Why does
your organisation exist? Does your mission statement say what you do?
●
Values and guiding principles: This clarifies what you believe and stand for which
guides the organisation in its daily business. What are the core beliefs and values of
your organisation? What beliefs and values guide your daily interactions? What is the
level of commitment from your managers and employees?
●
SWOT: This stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. These
elements are critical in assessing the strategic position of your organisation. You want
to develop your company’s strengths, shape up the weaknesses, capitalise on the
opportunities and recognise the threats.
Where are we going?
●
The question “Where are we going?” helps you answer other questions like “What
will my organisation look in 5 years?” “Where are we heading?” and “What is the
future I want to create for my business?” As the future is hard to predict, you can
brainstorm what this may look like. The following will help you define the future for
your business:
Sustainable competitive advantage: A sustainable competitive advantage explains what
you are best at compared to your competitors. Each business strives to create a position
that continues to be competitive over time. What are you best at providing? What is your
uniqueness? What can your organisation potentially do better than any other organisation?
Vision statement: Your vision is creating a picture of what your organisation’s future
makeup will be and where the organisation is heading. What will your organisation look like
in five to ten years from now?
How will we get there?
Knowing how you’ll reach your vision is the roadmap in your strategic plan, but it’s
also the most timeconsuming. The reason it takes time to develop is that there are many
routes from your current position to reach your vision. Choosing the right road determines
how quickly or slowly you get to your destination.
Outline of your roadmap for your strategic plan:
Strategic objectives: These are the long-term and continuous strategic areas that help
you to connect the mission to the vision. Financial, operational, customer and people are
four areas encompassed by holistic objectives. To achieve your vision, what are the key
activities that you need to perform?
Strategy: This establishes a way to match the organisation’s strengths with market
opportunities so that when your customer has a need, your organisation comes to mind.
This section explains how you will travel to your destination. Does your strategy match your
strengths in a way that provides value to your customers? Does it build an organisational
reputation and recognisable industry position?
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Short-term initiatives/priorities/goals: Your strategic objectives are converted by your
short-term goals into specific performance targets. You can use priorities, goals or initiatives
interchangeably. This is where goals define short-term actions. Goals that are effective
clearly state, what you want to accomplish, when by, how you are going accomplish it and
who will be responsible. Each goal should be measurable and specific. To reach your vision,
what are the 1-3 year goals you are trying to achieve. What are your specific, measurable
and realistic targets of accomplishment?
Action items: Action items are plans that set specific actions that lead to achieving your
goals. They include start and end dates and selecting a person responsible. To achieve your
goals, are your action items comprehensive enough?
Scorecards: A scorecard measures and manages your strategic plan. What are the key
performance indicators (KPIs) you need to track and monitor to see if you are achieving
your mission? Pick five to ten goal related measures you can use to track the progress of
your plan and align them with your scorecard.
Execution: When executing the plan, you should identify any issues that surround the
people that manage and monitor the plan and how it is supported and communicated to
everyone involved. How committed are you to implementing the plan to move your
organisation forward? Will you commit resources, money, and time to support the plan?
Intuitive knowledge and learning processes
Intuitive knowledge is a natural process for human beings. Intuition is a process, which
enables us, without analytical reasoning, to directly know something to bridge the gap
between our mind’s conscious and subconscious sections, as well as between instinct and
logical reason.
Please find below an example of Intuitive knowledge and learning processes where an
individual is self-analysing:
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What will I learn?
In this chapter, you will learn about the following:
1. Design organisational learning strategy to achieve instructor, learner
and organisational strategic requirements
2. Include relevant units of competency, modules from accredited courses
or non-accredited training specifications in organisational learning
strategy
3. Develop flexible organisational learning strategies to permit and
promote responsiveness of the organisation to changed circumstances
and priorities
4. Design and develop learning and assessment strategies to support
organisational strategic requirements
5. Establish processes and procedures for allocating and managing
resources and staff, required to implement organisational learning
strategy
6. Structure compliant assessment and recognition policies and processes
appropriate to organisational strategic requirements
7. Structure procurement and supply policies and processes appropriate
to organisational strategic requirements.
For more information:
www.domain_name.com.au
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2.1 Design the organisational learning strategy to achieve
instructor, learner and organisational strategic
requirements
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Contemporary organisation learning strategy design and development is the stage when the
organisation identify the learning requirement and then use a learning strategy for designing
a learning programme for development.
The organisational learning strategy needs to be developed in a way that ensures that
instructors, learners and organisational strategic objectives or requirements and
organisational goals are fulfilled. Detailed analysis of the needs of the learner and the
organisation must be carried out so that it can be used as a framework and guide for the
design of the organisational learning strategy.
What is a strategic learning objective or organisational goal?
Before we start writing strategic learning objectives, let’s begin by defining what it is we’re
talking about. A strategic objective is a specific goal that you want to achieve, with a clearly
stated outcome and deadline. It differs from a Focus Area – in that it is specific and
measurable, and once completed will be replaced by another goal. In other words, it is
something that can be tangibly achieved.
It is also one of the primary goals of the organisation, underneath which many sub-goals
will eventually align.
Writing strategic objectives, how many should I have?
There is no right answer here, even though there are indeed risks if you get the number
wrong. Too few and you’re probably not stretching yourself. Too many and you’re unlikely
to achieve them all, which should be your intent for the organisation. As a rule, if you align
the strategic objectives with your bigger framework, having between 2 and 4 strategic
objectives for each of your focus areas is a good start.
Structuring a strategic objective?
Keep things simple when structuring your strategic objectives; they should be easy to
remember and understandable by everyone within the organisation. This means no jargon,
if possible, and keeping them to one sentence long. You can add more detail, but you should
sum up what you want to achieve quickly and simply.
Structure is defined as: Action + Detail + Metric + Unit + Deadline
How do I ensure accountability?
Depending on the size of your organisation, you may want to delegate some degree of
accountability for individual strategic objectives to your management team. Ultimately, as
the leader of your organisation’s strategy, you still need to be accountable for the objectives,
but that doesn’t mean you can’t share that ownership with someone else.
For strategic objectives, it is strongly recommended having a maximum of two co-owners
for each, including yourself. Why? Because any more than that, and you risk falling into a
situation where people become overly reliant on ‘someone else’ to own the goals. You can
involve more people in delivery, through a series of linked or cascaded sub-goals. However,
you want at most, two people being responsible for the ultimate delivery of the strategic
objective.
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The strategy of learning
A wide range of strategic factors can shape organisational learning strategies from necessity
to implementation. Organisations implement learning strategies to achieve many different
outcomes. The policy and strategic focus on the building can include several factors at the
system level, which may need to be considered in the development of learning strategy
within an organisation:
●
learning culture,
●
human capital and
●
a learning organisation and organisational learning.
Organisational learning vs learning organisation
Both the learning organisation and organisational learning are very similar, and they connect
to each other, but they are also different because one involves the actual learning in an
organisation and the other involves the course of gaining the learning in the organisation.
Organisational learning is defined as “the process of improving actions through better
knowledge and understanding” (Fiol, 1985). In other words; the “learning organisation is a
firm that purposefully constructs stru…
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