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Literature Review Instructions (Stage # 1) – 2%
SEM. 213
Literature Review Instructions (Stage # 1)
Final Deadline:
Submission:
Length:
Value:
Sunday, 17 July 2022 at 11:59 PM
Electronically via LMS
Appx. 600 – 700 Words
2% of total grade + FEEDBACK
By now, you should have an idea of the topic that you want to research. This means that you now
have to identify relevant literature. You should conduct your literature review with the following
steps:
Step 1: Review APA 7th Edition guidelines
Become familiar with the rules of how to write in APA style: in particular, pay attention to
general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, and spacing), title page, introduction, body, text
citation, and work cited page.
Your literature review should consist of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
A separate title page
Introduction paragraph
2 body paragraphs
Conclusion paragraph
A separate references page
Step 2: Choose a topic (argumentative) from the given list.
You can choose and further narrow down any of the following topics. You can also choose a
topic other than these. Please consult with me before starting your work on any of your own
choice topics.
1. How does friendship impact emotional health?
2. Stress and anxiety among students during Covid-19 pandemic
3. Stress and anxiety among students learning English language
Step 3: Research and identify the literature by selecting (4 journal articles) that you will
review to support your research paper.
•
Narrow your topic. As you review sources, you will quickly discover if your topic is too
broad. Narrow it down.
Literature Review Instructions (Stage # 1) – 2%
SEM. 213
Step 4: Analyze the literature related to the issue you will write about.
Once you have identified and located the articles for your review, you need to analyze them and
organize them before you begin writing:
1. Overview the articles: skim the articles to get an idea of the general purpose and content
of the article. Focus your reading on the abstract, introduction and research
design/methodology, limitations and the conclusion of each article.
2. Group the articles into categories/themes
3. Take notes:
a. Define key terms: look for differences in the way key terms are defined.
b. Note key statistics that you may want to use in the introduction to your review
c. Note emphases, strengths & weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on
different aspects of the issue being studied, each article that you read will have
different emphases, strengths and weaknesses.
d. Your role as a reviewer is to summarize and evaluate what you read, so that your
review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that
makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing.
e. Keep your literature review focused on your topic! Make sure that the articles you
find are relevant and directly related to your topic.
Step 5: Organize the sources and write your Literature Review
1. Using the notes you have taken, develop your literature review.
2. You should have:
– Introduction: background information about the topic + a thesis statement
about the two main themes you will discuss in your body paragraphs.
– Two body paragraphs: Each body paragraph should contain summaries of 2
articles and your analysis. The analysis should include the following elements:
o How are the articles alike,
o How are the articles different,
o A critique of a source / sources

Conclusion: summary of the main points. Also, identify the “gap(s) in information” /
issues that all the article missed. State what your research is trying to explore.
Literature Review Instructions (Stage # 1) – 2%
SEM. 213
Important Reminders:
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
Formal language only
You must ask your instructor to approve the articles before you start working on them
DO NOT PLAGIARIZE
You will be graded on all levels- including spelling, grammar, sentence structure
You must have 6 paragraphs (600 – 700 words)
APA style only
Submit your Literature Review on Moodle via Turn-it-in
NO LATE SUBMISSIONS
The Psychological Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic
The Psychological Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic on Women in the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia
1
The Psychological Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic
Literature Review
The whole world is undergoing a global pandemic caused by coronavirus. The following
literature review is going to illustrate how the coronavirus has psychologically affected the
majority of the population in Saudi Arabia to highlight various effective studies that discuss
mutual concerns and concepts. However, most of the conducted studies were concerned with
other middle eastern and western countries. In addition, most papers do not stress on the
importance of finding remedies and helpful tips to cope with harmful psychological changes
people are suffering from. Therefore, the main aim of this research is to provide additional
knowledge to help construct a solid foundation for the examination of the Psychological impacts
of Coronavirus and the exploration of remedies to effectively improve the mental health of the
general public in Saudi Arabia.
Elhessewi, Almoayad, Mahboub, Alhashem, and Fiala (2020) and Alamri et al. (2020)
studies aimed to examine the psychological health of Saudi Arabia’s general population amidst
the Covid-19 pandemic. In Elhessewi et al. (2020) study, the K10 scale was carried out through
an online questionnaire in which 739 people answered. Unfortunately, 35% of the respondents mostly young and unmarried individuals – were found to be in psychological distress mainly due
to the fear of catching the virus and losing their jobs. Likewise, a study by Alamri et al. (2020)
assessed the spread of depression, anxiety, and stress in Saudi Arabia as a result of the Covid-19
pandemic. 1,597 respondents completed an electronic pre-structured questionnaire which used
the DASS-21 scale. Results showed that 17.1% of the total respondents have medium to heavy
depressive symptoms, 10% have medium to heavy anxiety symptoms, and 12% have medium to
heavy stress levels. Higher rates of stress were prevalent in females, younger participants, and
health care providers, whereas higher rates of depression were found among smokers, unmarried
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The Psychological Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic
individuals, and non-working participants. Besides, anxiety was mostly found among people in
contact with positive Covid-19 patients. Although the two studies have examined the same
purpose, used identical methodologies, and showed similar outcomes, however, unlike the first
research, Almari et al. (2020) study mentioned the different types of psychological illnesses
suffered by the Saudi population through measuring mental problems in three categories: stress,
anxiety, and depression. Nonetheless, Elhessewi et al. (2020) study gave a broad measure of the
psychological distress without identifying the types of illnesses.
Zaki et al. (2020) study focused on assessing the mental health and psychological
changes of the medical professionals in Saudi Arabia. The Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IESR) was applied to measure changes through a survey questionnaire distributed to healthcare
professionals including questions linked to anxiety, worries, depression, and fear of developing
Covid-19. Zaki et al. (2020) found that the average age of workers was 38.2 years and suffered
from radical increases in their depressive episodes and anxiety attacks. 19.3% were depressed
while 2.4% lost the sense of motivation and productivity and social media was their lead to
Covid-19 updates. Moreover, 27.3% had their practices affected by Covid-19 and 40.6% had
their wallets drained due to the pandemic. Similarly, a study by Arafa, Mohammed, Mahmoud,
Elshazley, and Ewis (2020) evaluated the following psychological changes: constant worrying,
anxiety attacks, and depressive episodes that acutely developed due to the global pandemic
caused by coronavirus in the Saudi Arabian and Egyptian regions. The Depression Anxiety
Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) was executed through a google survey questionnaire and found that
69% of frontline health workers suffer from depression, 58.9% had anxiety and 55.9% were
constantly stressed. Even though both studies have targeted similar psychological changes and
aspects examined on healthcare workers. The first paper by Zaki et al. (2020) listed and
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The Psychological Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic
examined a wider range of psychological effects due to the virus compared to the second paper
that merely focused on three factors that were: depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the
second paper by Arafa et al. (2020) included wider demographic characteristics where selected
participants were from two countries that are: Egypt and Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, the
first paper only focused on medical professionals at the military hospitals of KSA.
Gupta et al. (2020) research paper studied the variations in sleep behavior and sleep
quality, while Al-Hanawi et al. (2020) study examined the psychological difficulties suffered by
health care workers and the general public during the pandemic. In Gupta et al. (2020), the
effects of lockdown on sleep experience, physical activity, routines, anxiety, and depression were
examined. Hence, an online questionnaire was distributed through social media channels in
which 958 responses were collected. The survey included questions associated with past and
current sleep schedules, current and past routines, demographic characteristics, and working
behaviors. Results showed that compared to the pre Covid-19 period, participants have shifted
their bedtime and working time to a later period, as well as reduced their night-time sleep hours
while increased day-time naps. These findings were mostly observed in working individuals with
exception to health workers. The deterioration of sleep quality and quantity was linked with
depressive symptoms. In Al-Hanawi et al. (2020) study, 3036 respondents answered an online
questionnaire, which was built using the Peritraumatic Distress Index to rate the distress level of
participants as normal, mild, or severe. Collected data showed that 40% of the Saudi people are
psychologically distressed, in which 33% have mild levels of distress, whereas 7% have severe
levels of distress. Furthermore, young females took a higher percentage of those negatively
affected during the Covid-19 pandemic. Unlike the second paper, Gupta’s paper shed light on
sleep quality and quantity, which was missing from Al-Hanawi’s paper. However, Al-Hanawi’s
4
The Psychological Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic
paper incorporated a larger sample size compared to Gupta’s study. These variations allowed for
diversified results, which broadened the analysis of the subject matter.
To summarize, the articles covered in this literature review prove that coronavirus played
a major role in negatively influencing the psychological and intellectual well-being of
individuals. Such negative effects were reflected through the psychological illnesses suffered by
Saudis such as stress, anxiety, and depression. However, the goal of this research is to facilitate
in setting a fundamental basis and enabling future researchers to dive in-depth and examine the
discussed topic in detail to spread awareness for upcoming Saudi generations. However, there
are not enough remedies nor research papers concerned with the Psychological effects of
coronavirus on Saudi’s general public Thus, there is a noticeable gap to be filled through
conducting comprehensive and thorough research in this area of study.
5
The Psychological Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic
References
Alamri, H. S., Algarni, A., Shehata, S. F., Al Bshabshe, A., Alshehri, N. N., ALAsiri, A. M.,
Saleh, N. F. (2020). Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the general
population in Saudi Arabia During Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of
Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(24), 1-4. Retrieved from
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33316900/
Arafa, A., Mohammed, Z., Mahmoud, O., Elshazley, M., & Ewis, A. (2021). Depressed, anxious,
and stressed: What have healthcare workers on the frontlines in Egypt and Saudi Arabia
experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic? Journal of Affective Disorders, 278, 365371. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com
Al-Hanawi, M. K., Mwale, M. L., Alshareef, N., Qattan, A. M., Angawi, K., Almubark, R., &
Alsharqi, O. (2020). Psychological distress amongst health workers and the general
public during the Covid-19 pandemic in Saudi arabia. Risk Management and Healthcare
Policy, Volume 13, 733-742. Retrieved from https://www.dovepress.com
Elhessewi, G. M., Almoayad, F., Mahboub, S., Alhashem, A. M., & Fiala, L. (2020).
Psychological distress and its risk factors during COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: A
cross-sectional study. Middle East Current Psychiatry, 1-6. Retrieved from
https://mecp.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s43045-021-00089-6
Gupta, R., Grover, S., Basu, A., Krishnan, V., Tripathi, A., Subramanyam, A., . . . Saha, G.
(2020). Changes in sleep pattern and sleep quality during COVID-19lockdown. Indian
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The Psychological Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic
Journal of Psychiatry, 62(4), 370-378. Retrieved from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597722/
Zaki, N. F., Sidiq, M., Qasim, M., Arnas, B., Hakamy, A., Ruwais, N., . . . Al‑Thomali, A. B.
(2020). Stress and Psychological Consequences of COVID‑19 on Health‑Care Workers.
Journal of Nature of Science and Medicine, 3(4), 1-7. Retrieved from
https://www.jnsmonline.org/
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