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Obstinate Memory and 4 Days in September come roughly 30 years after the collapse of democracy in Chile and Brazil, respectively. How has the world changed? What is evidence for this change? Is there still belief in social revolution and Marxism? How are the events of the past (the Allende administration and coup in Chile, and the MR-8 action in Brazil) viewed with the passage of time? Find a clip from one of these films that shows these changes – or the lack thereof, and discuss.

Ordem e Progresso or
nem ordem, nem progresso?
Brazil Random Facts
• Portuguese Empire
• Over 200 million
• Bigger that the lower 48 of the US
• Invented the airplane?
Early Brazil
• Brazilian independence
• Massive slavery economy
• Imperial Brazil
• First Republic
– Cafe com Leite
– Control of rural landowners, coroneis
– Middle class frustration and desire for influence
and reform
Early Economics
• Early Economy, PPE
– Coffee
– Rubber
– Sugar, coca, cotton
• The Great Depression and impacts
– Coffee was 74% of exports, prices fell some
60-70%!
– National Coffee Council formed, purchased
and burned coffee, and reduced output to
preserve coffee industry
4
Getulio Vargas
• 1930-1945;
– Gaucho
– Centralizes Brazilian poltics
– Increase state intervention in economy
– Estado Novo, 1937+
– First mass-based politics
• Three parties, two that he created: PTB, PSD versus
UDN
• Unions organized vertically, but created crossindustry networks.
• WWII
Second Republic, 1945-1964
• Democratic politics
• ISI policies and related crises
– Protect domestic markets
– Attract FDI through incentives
– Create state entreprises
– Create development bank
– Directly promote strategic sectors
– Infrastructure and heavy industry
• Juscelino Kubitschek, President 1956-1960.
– Brasilia
The Brazilian Political System
in the Second Republic
• Weak President
– Majority veto override
– No decree power
• Complex Legislative System
– Multiparty, high fragmentation.
– Party-Switching
– Open-list proportional representation
Political System, Cont
• Net Result:
– Weak parties and little ideology – populism and
personalities reign
– Executive leadership difficult
– Pork and Vote-buying an essential part of
legislative coalitions.
– One small problem – the executive is relatively
weak and the legislature can vote itself pork…
Growing tensions
• Economic problems associated with ISI
• Stabilization program would alienate
workers and left.
• Polarization
• Military Thinking: ESG
– US helped to set up in 1949
ESG Text
“A principal characteristic of Communist
revolutionary war is the involvement of the
population of the target country in a gradual, slow
action – both progressive and continuous- which
aims at the conquering of minds….They may use
the method of guerilla warfare, of terrorism and
other irregular tactics where persons who are
national of the country itself are then turned into
the combatants. They may also use devious,
nonarmed tactics.”
Janio Quadros
• Janio Quadros
– Elected on populist anti corruption platform
– V-P Joao Goulart
– Brilliant or crazy?
– Resigns hoping for more power
Joao Goulart, V-P
• Will he become President?
– In communist China at the time of the coup
– Military despises him
– He flies home indirectly (China-Paris-RS)
• Solution: Parliamentary system?
– Weak President (Goulart)
– Tancredo Neves, Prime Minister
Goulart
• Regains full Presidential powers via
plebiscite, 1963
• Challenges
– Economic
– Military Politics
– Rural mobilization
– Stalemate
• Coup d’Etat, 1964
– Widely supported by media – later retracted
– Was it really a coup?
New form of Authoritarianism
• Military Governments in Brazil
– Previously – clean house and leave
– This time…. they stayed until 1985
• “Bureaucratic Authoritarian” Regimes
– Authoritarian
– Bureaucratic – apolitical technocrats given
control.
Brazil’s military government
• Pseudo-Democracy
• Brutal – but not Argentina, not Chile?
• Castello Branco 64-67
– 1966 Elections and political parties
– ARENA and the MDB
• Costa e Silva 67-69 (hard-liner)
– Repression of labor and politicians
– AI-5
– Insurrection, crushed by 1973
Military Government, Cont
Year
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
r
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
Ye
a
Change in GDP
Brazilian GDP Change
14.0
10.5
7.0
3.5
0.0
-3.5
-7.0
-10.5
Insurrection
• Leftist groups organized around the PCB
• Splinters on tactics and ideology
– MR-8
– PCdoB
– VPR
• After AI-5, agreement on violent tactics
Insurrection
• Small “foci” groups, following Che
Guevara’s model
• Expected to “spark” general revolution
• n
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