Select a theory from the biological or psychological perspective and an abnormal behavior to examine through the lens of the chosen theory. In an analysis, describe how the theory views behavior in general and how it might describe the cause of the selected abnormal behavior.Introduction
There are many origins of abnormal behavior, and the development of abnormal behavior can be understood differently from various perspectives. Theories in psychology can help us understand how behaviors develop.It is important for psychology professionals to understand how theories help us to recognize, explain, and treat the sources of maladaptive behavior. Through this process, we can recognize our own biases and better explore options for helping those who exhibit abnormal behaviors.Defining Abnormality
Societies have defined abnormality in different ways throughout time. Understanding the past can help us understand how we got to where we are today. This course examines the progression of our understanding of abnormality and how we define normality versus abnormality. It also introduces the manual psychologists use to define, describe, and diagnose mental health disorders.For this assessment you will write an analysis that considers possible causes for an abnormal behavior.
To begin, select a theory from the biological or psychological perspective.
Examples of biological viewpoints are:
Neurotransmitter or hormone imbalance.
Psychological viewpoints include:
Select an abnormal behavior.
Use your selected theory to describe the cause of the abnormal behavior you selected, completing the following:
Describe your theory in detail and explain how the theory views behavior in general.
Explain how your theory describes the cause of your selected abnormal behavior.
Locate two peer-reviewed journal articles on your theory and use these resources to support your description of the theory and the cause of the behavior. Refer to your course text as well.
Compare and contrast your chosen viewpoint to the sociocultural viewpoint:
How might they view the abnormal behavior similarly?
How might they view the abnormal behavior differently?
Describe the benefits and drawbacks to applying multiple theories to define abnormal behavior
This template has been formatted according to guidelines outlined in the 7th edition of The
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020). Every effort was made
to ensure this templateÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s accuracy, but please confirm that your work aligns with your
professorÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s expectations and APA style. Also, delete all notes highlighted in yellow, and replace
bracketed information with your original content. Want to see a sample paper? Click here to
view an APA-produced student paper.
[Your PaperÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Title: Title Is Centered and Bold, Three or Four Lines Down From Top]
LEAVE A BLANK SPACE
[Your Affiliation, e.g. Department of Psychology, Capella University]
[Course Number and Name, e.g. PSYC2210: Psychology of Social Media]
[Your ProfessorÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Name, e.g. Dr. King]
[Assignment Due Date, e.g. January 21, 2020]
Ã¢â‚¬Å“Student papers do not typically include a running head, an author note, or an abstract, unless
specifically requested by the instructor or institutionÃ¢â‚¬Â (APA, 2020, p. 30). If you are unsure
whether your professor wants you to include an author note or abstract, contact the professor
[Title of Your Paper: Notice How the Title Is Top of Page, Centered, and Bold]
[Begin your paper on the next double-spaced line after the title, and indent all paragraphs
1/2 inch. In the updated manual on p. 154, writers are asked to include only one space between
sentences rather than two spaces. When writing in APA style, you have two choices for in-text
citations: narrative citations or parenthetical citations. According to a fictitious book by Harding
and JimÃƒÂ©nez (2020), a narrative citation occurs when you include Ã¢â‚¬Å“authorsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ names as part of your
sentenceÃ¢â‚¬Â (p. 24). Furthermore, Harding and JimÃƒÂ©nez (2020) explain that you only need to
provide a page number at the end of a narrative citation when directly quoting from the source. If
the authorsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ names do not appear in your sentence, you will use a Ã¢â‚¬Å“parenthetical citationÃ¢â‚¬Â
(Harding & JimÃƒÂ©nez, 2020, p. 24). Similar to the above example, you only need to include a page
number when quoting the authorsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ original words (Harding & JimÃƒÂ©nez, 2020). The APA manual
summarizes these rules and related concepts on pp. 261-264.
All Headings Are Bold and Written in Title Case (Level 1, Bold, Centered)
You can read more about formatting section headings in the APA manual on pp. 47-49.
Not included in this template is a level 5 heading, which is virtually identical to a level 4
heading, except it is italicized. According to the APA (2020), Ã¢â‚¬Å“The number of levels of heading
needed for a paper depends on its length and complexity; three is average. Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ [S]hort student
papers may not require any headingsÃ¢â‚¬Â (p. 48).
New Rules for Citations (Level 2, Bold, Left Justified)
First Rule (Level 3, Indented, Italicized, Begins Paragraph, No Punctuation) A
couple of important new rules concerning in-text citations appear in the APA manual. The first
pertains to citing works by three or more authors. Instead of writing each authorÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s name in the
first citation, then utilizing the abbreviation Ã¢â‚¬Å“et al.Ã¢â‚¬Â for all subsequent citations, the APA advises
writers to use the Ã¢â‚¬Å“et al.Ã¢â‚¬Â abbreviation for every in-text citation for works by three or more
authors. For example, my first in-text citation for a work by three authors would look like this
(Harris et al., 2020). This new guideline reduces the amount of clutter created by listing each
authorÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s name. You can read more about the use of Ã¢â‚¬Å“et al.Ã¢â‚¬Â on p. 266 of the APA manual.
Second Rule The other significant change to in-text citation formatting has to do with
repeating narrative citations. For example, if I am writing a paragraph focused specifically on the
work of Brown (2016), I would need to provide the year in parenthesis only after the first
reference to Brown. As you can see, I could write more about the groundbreaking work of
Brown without cluttering my paragraph with multiple in-text citations containing the year.
However, if I am referencing more than one work by Brown, I must provide a complete in-text
citation after each reference to Brown. That way, my reader wonÃ¢â‚¬â„¢t be confused. I would also
need to provide the year in any parenthetical citation referencing the author (Brown, 2016). This
new rule is described on pp. 265-266 in the APA manual.
Similar Rule. (Level 4, Indented, Plain Text, Begins Paragraph, Punctuated) In a
similar vein, if I am writing a long paraphrase of a single work, I need to provide only one in-text
citation at the beginning of the paragraph as long as Ã¢â‚¬Å“the context of the writing makes it clear
that the same work continues to be paraphrasedÃ¢â‚¬Â (APA, 2020, p. 269). In other words, I could
continue to write more about how the manual provides a helpful figure of this rule on p. 270. I
would not need to provide a citation when telling you that if the paraphrase is long enough to
warrant the creation of a new paragraph, you will need to provide an in-text citation at the top of
the new paragraph. As you can see, I am still discussing the APA manual in a specific context, so
I am not required to cite the manual again in this paragraph unless I introduce information from a
new source. Even so, if you think your professor or reader might question where you found a
certain piece of information, it wonÃ¢â‚¬â„¢t hurt to provide an extra citation or two.
Punctuating In-Text Citations
So far, you might have noticed that parenthetical citations typically appear before the
sentenceÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s end punctuation, because the parenthetical citation is just another element belonging
to the sentence. However, there is one specific instance when the parenthetical citation comes
after the end punctuation. In the case of block quotations (a quotation of 40 words or more), you
will introduce the quotation and demarcate it using special indentation:
Pretend that this is the beginning of the block quotation. First, notice that this long
quotation is not surrounded by marks. It is the only time in your paper where you will
quote something without using quotation marks. Next, the quotation is indented 1/2 inch
from the left, and itÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s left-justified, meaning that the quoteÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s left margin forms a straight
line up and down. Last but not least, you will provide the parenthetical citation after the
end punctuation (and because itÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s a direct quotation, you will include the page number).
Use block quotes sparingly. (Harding, 2020, p. 49)
If the original paragraph continues after the quotation, begin on the next double-spaced line,
making sure that the line is flush left. If you want to begin a new paragraph after the block
quotation, you will indent the new paragraph 1/2 inch from the left margin. Finally, if you
include a narrative citation when introducing the block quote (i.e. Ã¢â‚¬Å“According to Harding (2020)
Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â), only include the page number in the parenthetical citation after the block quote. You can
read more about these rules on pp. 272-273 of the APA manual.]
References [Centered, Bold]
Surname, A. A., & Surname B. B. (Year). Reference entry titles are written in sentence case:
Sentence case titles for articles and shorter works are plain text and capitalized as if you
were writing a sentence. Publication Name, 234(2), 40-190. https://doi.org/12.029303
(Example of journal article with DOI)
Surname, C. C. (Year). This is the title of a book about China and India: Notice that book titles
and titles of longer works are italicized. Publisher Name. (Example of book and e-book.
Writers are no longer required to identify e-book platform (e.g. Ã¢â‚¬Å“KindleÃ¢â‚¬Â) or database
(e.g. Ã¢â‚¬Å“EBSCOÃ¢â‚¬Â). For e-books, provide a DOI or URL if one is available. Read more on p.
321 of the manual.)
Utilize a hanging indent for all references. Click here to watch a tutorial video on how to achieve
this indentation. Again, this APA-produced sample paper demonstrates correct reference list
formatting on pp. 10-12. Some notable changes to reference entry formatting in the manualÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s 7th
edition include the following:
1) Publisher location is no longer a required element (APA, 2020, p. 295).
2) Except in certain cases, do not provide Ã¢â‚¬Å“database information for works
obtained from most academic research databases or platforms because works in
these resources are widely availableÃ¢â‚¬Â (APA, 2020, p. 297). Read more about the
exceptions on p. 297 of the manual.
2) The words Ã¢â‚¬Å“Retrieved fromÃ¢â‚¬Â no longer precede a URL (APA, 2020, p. 299).
3) Write a DOI as a hyperlink, e.g. http://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2373 (APA, 2020, p.
4) Rather than the previous maximum of seven authors, you may provide up to 20
authorsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ names in a single reference entry (APA, 2020, p. 286).
5) The updated manual includes reference entry examples for previously
undefined source types including social media posts, TED Talks, and YouTube
videos (APA, 2020, pp. 317-352).
The Purdue OWL contains a useful APA style guide which will be updated in early Spring 2020
to reflect changes in the 7th edition. Click here to visit the OWL, but bear in mind that some of
these materials need updating.
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