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This is a 4000 reflective portfolio desmonstrating students’ experential learning on each of the following subheadings; learning style, professional reasoning or critical thinking, motivation, ethics in the workplace( example ethical leadership or corporate social responsibility), gendered leadership or leadership character, lastly, reflection on work experience during the module

Applied Practice
Session 5
Tutor: Dr. Michael Morley
Teesside University Business School
Content
• What is critical thinking?
• Characteristics of a critical thinker
• Importance of critical thinking to businesses
• Rules of critical analysis
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What is critical
thinking?
• Critical thinking examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates
evidence and assesses conclusions (Petress, 1984).
• Warnick and Inch (1994) describe critical thinking as the ability to explore a
problem, question, or situation; to integrate all of the available information
about the issue under review and arrive at a solution or hypothesis to justify
one’s position.
The goal of critical thinking is to evaluate all parts of a claim someone has made,
to evaluate each of the part as well as the whole
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What is critical thinking?
• Look very closely at detail and do not take anything you see,
hear or read for granted – challenge information presented
to you
• Are materials appropriate and up to date?
• Weigh things up
• Look for bias and assumptions
• Can evidence support the argument?
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Characteristics of a critical
thinker (Ferrett, 1997)
• A sense of curiosity; actively investigates facts, opinions and points of view.
• Asks pertinent questions. The questions and the discussion are focused on the
issue at hand.
• Assesses the statements which are made for their truth and coherence, and
evaluates the arguments and their accompanying propositions and hypothesis
for value, objectivity and focus on the issue under review.
• Interested in finding new solutions.
• Able to admit a lack of understanding or that the information available is not
substantive enough to make a good analysis and evaluation of the issue under
review.
• Willing to examine his/her beliefs, assumptions, and opinions and weigh them
against facts.
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Activity 1
Discuss why you think critical thinking is important
for employees working in modern organisations
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Importance of critical
thinking to organisations
• Leads to effective decision making in business – enables people to separate
facts from false assumptions
• Crucial to problem solving, planning and risk management
• Employees can no longer rely on others to make decisions
• Employees at every level face increasingly complex flow of information – critical
thinking helps them to make sense of it
• Many leaders lack the necessary critical thinking skills to perform effectively in
their role
• Critical thinking is a tool that can be used to question the rhetoric, tradition,
authority and objectivity associated with management assumptions and
practices (Mingers, 2000).
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Rules for critical thinking
• Clarity
• Accuracy and Precision
• Relevance
• Depth
• Breadth
• Logic
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Clarity
What can be done about the motivation of employees in
the company?
• Could you elaborate further on that point?
• Could you express that point in another way?
• Could you give me an illustration?
• Could you give me an example?
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Accuracy & Precision
All employees in the company are unmotivated and that is
the reason the company is performing poorly
• Is that really true?
• How could we check that?
• How could we find out if that is true?
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Relevance
I work hard so I should get a pay rise
How is that connected to the issue?
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Depth
Tell employees if they don’t perform better they will be out
of a job
How does this address the complexities of the issue?
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Breadth
Your salary will be cut because you have not met your
performance targets
Do we need to consider another point of view?
Is there another way to look at this issue?
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Logic
Rabbits are mammals and all rabbits have whiskers, so all
mammals have whiskers.
Does this really make sense?
Does that follow from what you said?
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Activity 2
A Conspiracy theory is an attempt to explain harmful, tragic or
extraordinary events as the result of the actions of a powerful group.
Such explanations reject the accepted ‘official’ version surrounding
those events. A popular conspiracy theory is that the American Moon
landing on 20th July 1969 was faked.
Do you think that the Americans landed on the Moon?
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Summary
• What is critical thinking?
• Characteristics of a critical thinker
• Importance of critical thinking to businesses
• Rules of critical analysis
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Applied Practice
Session 8
Tutor: Dr. Michael Morley
Teesside University Business School
Content
• Approaches to ethics
• Business ethics
• Corporate Social Responsibility
• Ethical leadership
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Activity 1 Ethics
Answer the Question: What are ethics?
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What are Ethics?
• Moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the
conducting of an activity (Oxford Dictionary)
• The study of moral principles or values that determine whether
actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good or bad Bratton
(2010, p422)
• Ethics refers to the value system by which a person determines
what is right or wrong, fair or unfair, just or unjust.
• BUT individuals have different standards and perceptions of what is
right and wrong.
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Approaches to ethics
Deontological:
• Determined by the action itself – actions are either
‘right’ or ‘wrong’
• Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
Teleological
• Determined by consequences of action – ‘end
justifies the means’
• Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
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Teleological Approach
• Also called consequentialism
• Concerned with consequences of an action to decide if it is
right/wrong
• If consequence of my action is pain & suffering, then action is wrong
• If consequence of my action is happiness & love, then the action is
right
• The more good consequences an act produces, the better or more
right that act
• A person should choose the action that maximises good consequences
• No type of act is inherently wrong – not even murder – it depends on
the result of the act
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Teleological Approach
Suppose that by killing X, an entirely innocent
person, we can save the lives of 10 other innocent
people.
A consequentialist would say that killing X is
justified because it would result in only 1 person
dying, rather than 10 people dying
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Deontological Approach
• Sometimes called ‘non-consequentialist’.
• Certain actions are right or wrong in themselves:
– It is wrong to kill innocent people
– It is wrong to steal
– It is wrong to tell lies
– It is right to keep promises
• It looks at the intention of the person performing the act
• Do the right thing and don’t do wrong things
• Under this form of ethics you can’t justify an action by showing
that it produced good consequences
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Deontological Approach
A non-consequentialist such as Kant thought
that it would be wrong to tell a lie to save a
friend from a murderer.
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Deontological or
Teleological?
A father steals food in order to feed his family
Do you think this is this ethically right or wrong?
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Business Ethics
According to the Institute of Business Ethics (2016) business ethics:
• Is the application of ethical values to business behaviour
• Applies to any and all aspects of business conduct, from boardroom
strategies and how companies treat their employees and suppliers to
sales techniques and accounting practices.
• Goes beyond the legal requirements for a company and is, therefore,
about discretionary decisions and behaviour guided by values.
• Is relevant both to the conduct of individuals and to the conduct of
the organisation as a whole
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Why Businesses are
Interested?
• Following Fashion
• Response to Pressure
• Stakeholder Interest
• Pursuit of Profit
(Mahoney in Martin, 2005)
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12
Fallacy of the single
objective
‘To emphasise only profit
.. misdirects managers to
the point where they may
endanger the survival of
the business … “
(Drucker, 1989, p59)
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13
Global Responsibility
For the business community of the 21st century, ‘out of sight’ is no longer
‘out of mind’ …
…customers increasingly believe that the role of large companies in our
society must encompass more than the traditional functions of obeying the
law, paying taxes and making a profit …
… they also want to see major corporations helping to ‘make the world a
better place
HRH The Prince of Wales (2001)
Teesside University Business SchoolLibby Hampson/Thomas J McDonagh
14
Corporate Social
Responsibility
The comprehensive approach organisations take to meet or exceed the
expectations of stakeholders beyond such measures as revenue, profit
and legal obligations. It covers community investment, human rights
and employee relations, environmental practices and ethical conduct
Cable (2005)
The core premise is that the Organisation has an obligation to various
other groups in society to whom the Company is responsible’ (Bratton,
2010, p 423)
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15
Ethical Leadership
According to Heifetz (1994) ethical leaders should:
• Assist followers in dealing with conflict
• Focus on values of followers, the values of organizations in which
they work, and values of the communities in which they live.
• Create culture characterised by empathy, trust, & nurturance
• Help followers to change & grow when faced with difficult
situations
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Ethical Leadership
Principles
Northouse (2013) ethical leadership principles:
• Respect for others: Treat others with dignity and respect.
• Service to others: Behave in an altruistic fashion – put followers first
• Justice for others: Ensure that justice and fairness are central parts
of decision making.
• Honesty toward others: Honesty increases trust and builds the
leader–follower relationship.
• Building community with others: Influence others to achieve a
communal goal.
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The switch dilemma
A runaway trolley is hurtling down the tracks
toward five people who will be killed if it
proceeds on its present course. You can save
these five people by hitting a switch to divert the
trolley onto a different set of tracks, one that has
only one person on it, but if you do it that person
will be killed.
Is it ethical to hit the switch and thus prevent five
deaths at the cost of one?
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Most people say “Yes.“
The footbridge dilemma
A trolley is headed for five people. You are
standing next to a large man on a footbridge
spanning the tracks. The only way to save the
five people is to push this man off the
footbridge and into the path of the trolley.
Is it ethical to push the man off the bridge to
save the lives of 5?
Most people say “No”
Discuss!
Why the different response when the outcome
(saving 5 people at the expense of 1)
is the same?
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Why the different
response?
• Deontological judgements are driven by emotion and teleological
judgements are driven by logical thinking processes (Greene, 2009)
• This is known as a dual-process of moral judgement
• The footbridge dilemma elicits a conflict between emotional intuition
(“you must not push people off bridges!”) and calculation (“pushing
the person off the bridge will result in the fewest deaths”).
• In the footbridge case, emotional intuition wins out in most people.
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Activity
From your own experiences of working in organisations discuss
in groups good and bad practices relating to ethical leadership.
Relate these experiences to relevant ethical leadership theory
e.g. Northouse
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Business Ethics – some
examples
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Anonymising data/ data protection
Displaying honesty and integrity with customers, colleagues, suppliers etc.
Taking responsibility for actions
Leading ethically
Adhering to organisational policies e.g. Corporate Social Responsibility, Equality
& Diversity etc.
Adhering to ethical codes of practice
Ethical selling/marketing
Ethical accounting practices
Considering the environment – sustainability
Being open with information
Consideration of others work/life balance
Ensuring safety & security
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Which work-experiences are
ok to use?
You can reflect on any work experiences including:
• Current part-time job
• Previous full-time or part-time employment
• Applied practice module work-experience
• Voluntary work
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Summary
• Approaches to ethics
• Business ethics
• Corporate Social Responsibility
• Ethical leadership
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References
Bratton (2010) Work and organizational behaviour: Understanding the workplace. Palgrove Macmillan.
Cable, V. (MP) (2005) Hard-Nosed Case for CSR, Professional Manager, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 11.
Drucker, P. F. (1989) The Practice of Management, Heinemann Professional
Heifetz, R.A. (1994). Leadership Without Easy Answers. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
HRH The Prince of Wales (2001), Foreword to Grayson, D. and Hodges, A. Everybody’s Business: Managing
Global Risks and Opportunities in Today’s Global Society, Financial Times, pp. 8–9.
Institute of Business Ethics (2016) What is business ethics? [online] Available at:
http://www.ibe.org.uk/frequently-asked-questions/3 [Accessed 21 Sept. 2016]
Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Teesside University Business School
Applied Practice Session 7
Gendered leadership
Tutor: Dr. Michael Morley
Content
• Perspectives on gender
• History of women in the workplace
• Theories relating to gender disparity in the workplace
• Reasons for differences in gendered leadership
Gender
• Gender is a fundamental component of our identity and influences most of
our social experiences. Gender is something we do and something we think
• Two main views of gender differences – evolutionary psychology view and
social-constructivist view
• Evolutionary psychology: differences between the sexes is biologically
influenced – reasons why men tend to be more aggressive and women are
more nurturing is primarily the consequence of evolution
• Social-constructivist: society and culture create gender roles, and these
roles are prescribed as ideal or appropriate behaviour for a person of that
specific gender. This tends to be the feminist position.
• Cultural gender discourse focuses on differentiation (social-constructivist
view)
History
The development of women’s roles within the working world
can be contextualised by modern social history:
– Pre WW2 – traditional
– During WW2 – conscription (see Rosie the riveter)
– Post WW2 – return to traditional
Activity 1
Create a list of the characteristics of men and women.
Create a second list of the types of jobs that might be
associated with men and women.
Industry Differences
Women managers tend to occupy particular types
of management positions, being more likely to hold
support roles in personnel, training or marketing,
rather than performing critical operating or
commercial functions
Glass, Glass & more
Glass
The term ‘glass
ceiling’ was
introduced into
western vocabulary in
1986 in an article in
the Wall Street
Journal written by
Hymowitz and
Schellhardt.
Men’s accelerated
movement into senior
management
positions in a female
environment i.e.
nursing and teaching.
Women are often
elevated to senior
positions in situations
where the
organisation in
question may be
experiencing
difficulties.
Statistics on women in
leadership roles
As of 2nd October 2014 the figures show within the FTSE 100:
• Women now account for 22.8 % of all directorships
• There are no all-male boards in the FTSE 100
• Women account for 27.9% of Non-Executive Directorships and
8.4% of Executive Directorships
• Women account for 249 of the 1,094 FTSE100 board positions
http://www.wired-gov.net/wg/news.nsf/articles/DNWA-9PQGBL
What about now?
Women in leadership
roles – the future?
At the beginning of 1990’s it was predicted that, at the
current rate of change, it would take some 400 years
for women and men to be equally represented in top
positions of power in business and politics
Activity 2
Discuss why women are under-represented in leadership
positions. Is it the consequence of making a choice between
family and work or because of patriarchy and oppression… or
other factors?
Why are women
underrepresented?
Is it down to human capital differences?
Have women been in managerial positions long enough for
natural career progression to occur?
Do women self-select out of leadership tracks by choosing
“mommy track” positions that do not funnel into leadership
positions?
Why are women
underrepresented?
Is it the consequence of family pressures?
•
They are more likely to quit jobs for family-related reasons
and experience more losses after quitting than men do
(Keith & McWilliams,1998)
•
They still do most of the childcare and housework (Belkin,
2008; Craig, 2006)
•
Women who use flex time and workplace leave are often
marginalized; taking time off from a career makes reentry
difficult (Williams, 2010)
Why are women
underrepresented?
Is it the result of psychological differences?
• They undersell themselves – they do not promote themselves for
leadership positions (Bowles, Babcock & McGinn, 2005)
• They are less likely than men to ask for what they want (Babcock
& Laschaver, 2009)
• They are less likely to negotiate than men (Small, Gelfand,
Babcock and Gettman, 2007)
• Negotiations for higher level positions are often unstructured,
ambiguous, and rife with gender triggers, which disadvantages
women (Bowles & McGinn, 2005).
Why are women
underrepresented?
Does gender bias & stereotyping play a role?
• They face significant gender biases and social disincentives. When
women self-promote they are seen as less socially attractive &
less hirable (Rudman, 1998)
• Gender bias stems from stereotyped expectations – “women take
care and men take charge”
• Men are stereotyped with agentic characteristics (confidence,
assertiveness, independence, rationality, & decisiveness) whereas
women are stereotyped with communal characteristics (concern
for others, sensitivity, warmth, helpfulness, & nurturance (Deaux
& Kite, 1993; Heilman, 2001)
Activity 3 – Gender
and leadership styles
Despite the underrepresentation of women as leaders there are
many highly effective female leaders. How do you think the
leadership styles of men and women differ? Do you think these
differences has an impact on their effectiveness as leaders?
Indra Nooyi (CEO of PepsiCo) Sheri McCoy (CEO of Avon)
General Ann Dunwoody (retired
General of US army)
Gender and leadership
styles
•
Task oriented leaders focus on the tasks that need to be
performed in order to meet organisational goals
•
Interpersonally oriented leaders engage in behaviours such as
helping and doing favours for subordinates, looking out for their
welfare, explaining procedures, and being friendly and available.
•
Women were not found to lead in a more interpersonally oriented
and less task-oriented manner than men in organisations (Eagly &
Johnson, 1990)
•
Only gender difference found – women use a more participative
or democratic style than men (Eagly & Johnson, 1990)
17
Gender and leadership
styles
• Women were devalued when they worked in male-dominated
environments and when the evaluators were men:
– Females evaluated unfavourably when they used a directive or
autocratic style (stereotypically male)
– Female and male leaders evaluated favourably when they used
a democratic leadership style (stereotypically feminine)
– Women are adapting by using the style that produces most
favourable evaluations
(Eagly, Makhijani, & Klonsky, 1992)
The wind of change
Factors contributing to leadership effectiveness & rise of
female leaders:
• Culture of many organizations is changing
• Gendered work assumptions are being challenged
• Organizations valuing flexible workers & diversity of top
managers & leaders
• Developing effective & supportive mentoring relationships
• Increasing parity in domestic responsibilities
• Negotiating for valued positions and resources
Activity
Using your computers, do some research on
women’s representation within your own
country, this can include government statistics,
news articles and research papers.
Summary
• Perspectives on gender
• History of women in the workplace
• Theories relating to gender disparity in the workplace
• Reasons for differences in gendered leadership
References
Babcock, L. & Laschever, S. (2009) Women Don’t Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide, Princeton University Press: Oxfordshire.
Belkin, L (2008) When Mum and Dad share It All, The New York Times.
Bowles, H, R., Babcock, R., & McGinn, K, L. (2005) Constraints and Triggers: Situational Mechanics of Gender in Negotiation, Journal of
Personality & Social Psychology, 89 (6), 951-965.
Craig, L. (2006) Does Father Care Mean Fathers Share? A Comparison of How Mothers and Fathers in Intact Families Spend Time with Children,
Gender and Society, 20 (2), pp. 259-281.
Deaux, K & Kite, M. (1993) Psychology of women: A handbook of issues and theories, Westport, CT, US: Greenwood Press/Greenwood Publishing
Group.
Eagly, A. H. & Johnson, B. T. (1990) Gender and leadership style: A Meta-Analysis, Psychological Bulletin, 108 (2), p233-256.
Eagly, A., Makhijani, M., & Klonsky, B. (1992). Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 3–22.
Heilman, M. E (2001) Description and Prescription: How Gender Stereotypes Prevent Women’s Ascent Up the Organizational Ladder, Journal of
Social Issues, 57 (4), pp. 657-674.
Keith, K & McWilliams, A. (1999) The returns to mobility and job search by gender, Industrial and Labour Relations Review, 52 (3), pp. 460-475.
Rudman, L. A. (1998). Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: The costs and benefits of counterstereotypical impression management.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 629–645.
Small, Deborah A., Gelfand, Michele, Babcock, Linda, & Gettman, Hilary. (2007). Who goes to the bargaining table? The influence of gender and
framing on the initiation of negotiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(4), 600-613.
Williams, J. C. (2010) Reshaping the Work-Family Debate, Google Books.
Applied Practice
Session 6
Tutor: Dr. Michael Morley
Teesside University Business School
Session Content
• What is motivation?
• Overview of motivation theories
• Achievement Goal Theory (AGT)
• Mind-sets
• Achievement Goals
• Fixed versus Growth mind-sets
• Mind-set & Achievement
• Changing mind-sets
• Achievement Goal theory Critique
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Defining motivation
Motivation refers to internal factors that impel action and
to external factors that can act as inducements to action
Locke & Latham (2004)
Internal drives to engage in a particular behaviour or
achieve a certain outcome or state
Ashleigh & Mansi (2012)
Motivation is an internal state that activates and gives
direction to our thoughts, feelings and actions
Lahey (1995)
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Motivation Theories
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Motivation Theories
• Content Theories:
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1943)
• Herzeberg’s two factor theory (1968)
• McGregor’s theory X and theory Y (1960)
• Process theories:
• Vroom’s expectancy theory (1964)
• Adam’s equity theory (1965)
• Locke’s goal theory (1968)
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Achievement Goal Theory
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A contemporary theory
of motivation…
Achievement Goal Theory (Mid 1970’s onwards) is a theory
of motivation developed by educational psychologists –
primarily Carol Dweck. It focusses on the relationship
between the ‘mind-set’ that people hold and their ability to
remain motivated in the face of challenges, change and
adversity.
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What is a mind-set?
• A particular way of thinking : a person’s attitude or set of opinions about
something (Merriam-Webster, 2014)
• The ideas and attitudes with which a person approaches a situation,
especially when these are seen as being difficult to alter (Collins, 2003)
You can hold a mind-set about a whole range of things including intelligence,
sporting ability, business skill, artistic talent (Dweck, 2006)
Mind-set of a
champion?
A person who has surpassed all rivals in a sporting
contest or other competition (Oxford Dictionary, 2014)
Science champion….
Albert Einstein’s teacher said that he was
“academically subnormal”
Creative champion….
Walt Disney was told that he lacked “creative
imagination”
Music champion….
Beethoven’s teacher called him a “hopeless
composer”….yet he wrote 5 of his greatest
symphonies while deaf
Sporting champion….
Michael Jordan’s coach said that he “wasn’t
more talented than other people”
Innovation champion….
Steve Jobs struggled with school – dropped out of
college after 6 months – for money he returned coca
cola bottles
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Activity – What
Happened?
So if these famous people weren’t always ‘champions’ what happened?
Can you think of someone you know who were seen as being exceptional
at something? Did they reach their potential? Why?
Can you think of someone you know who were considered a failure/low
achiever? Did they exceed their potential? Why?
Fixed versus Growth
Mind-set
Individuals tend to hold either fixed mind-sets or growth mind-sets
Fixed mind-set:
• Belief that intelligence is finite and can be measured e.g. using an IQ test
• No matter how much you learn or how hard you work your intelligence
stays the same!
• Talents are gifts – you either have them or you don’t!
Growth mind-set:
• Belief that intelligence is incremental and can be increased through effort
• Talent is potential that can be developed through practice
• Everyone can get better over time
• The brain is a ‘growth organ’
(Dweck, 2006)
Why does it matter whether someone
holds a fixed or a growth mind-set?
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Achievement Goals
Individuals build an entire psychology of motivation
around the mind-set they hold….
• People who believe that intelligence is fixed tend to hold
performance goals
• People who believe intelligence is incremental (growth
mind-set) tend to hold mastery goals
Dweck (2006)
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Achievement Goals
• People’s motivation and achievement is related to their goals
whilst undertaking a task
• Type of goal people select determines quality of their
achievements
• Both performance goals and mastery goals focus on
achievement of competence & can lead to success but for
different reasons
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Mastery goals &
performance goals
Mastery goals (linked to growth mind-set):
• Mastering new skills
• Seeking increased confidence
Performance goals (linked to fixed mind-set):
• Seeking favourable judgements for competence (try to feel
superior)
• Avoiding criticism for incompetence/poor performance
Fixed versus Growth Mindset
People who have a growth mindset tend to….
People who have a fixed mind-set
tend to….
…be deep learners
…be superficial/surface learners
…view mistakes are a source of
learning
…view mistakes as meaning they are
not smart
…achieve more
…perform poorly
…persist in the face of difficulty
…give up when faced with obstacles –
may blame others or circumstances
Nature or Nurture?
The distinguishing feature of geniuses is their passion and
dedication to their craft, and particularly, the way in which they
identify, confront, and take pains to remedy their weaknesses
(Good et al, 2007)
Achievement Goal theory suggests that it is not what you are born
with that matters; its your mind-set that counts
Evidence – Example 1
Students beginning a 7th grade class who had identical achievement
scores were assessed to determine whether they had fixed or growth
mind-set.
Fixed mind-set students were focused on grades. Growth mind-set
students said learning was more important than getting good grades.
Maths grades rose dramatically in the growth mind-set group compared
to the fixed mind-set group.
Evidence – Example 2
A group of medical students training to be doctors were assessed to
determine whether they had a fixed or growth mind-set. The students
progress was followed through their first semester of a chemistry module.
Students who had a fixed mind-set stayed interested in the subject only when
they did well right away. Those who found it difficult but showed a big
interest in, and enjoyment of the subject throughout the course had a growth
mind-set. They continued to show the same high level of interest even when
they found the work very challenging.
Growth mind-set students achieved higher final grades in chemistry
Evidence – Example 3
4th grade students were tested in a lab with electrode cap to measure
brain activity. Students were asked a series of challenging questions on a
computer.
After answering, they waited a second to see if they got the answer right
or wrong. After another second, they learned what the correct answer
was.
Fixed mind-set students’ brainwaves indicated stronger attention on being
right or wrong. Growth mind-set students’ brainwaves indicated stronger
attention on the correct answer.
Activity
Why do you think measuring whether people have a fixed or a growth
mind-set enable us to predict how successful they are likely to be?
Can you identify people with fixed and growth mind-set orientations
in organisations you are familiar with? What impact do they have on
others?
Do you think peoples mind-set can be changed?
Mind-set and achievement
• If people believe that success is the result of ability (fixed mindset, performance goals) then why persist in the face of difficulty?
They may feel that circumstances are outside their control (i.e.
there’s nothing that could have been done to make things
better). Setbacks and even effort can undermine their
confidence.
• If people believe that success is down to effort (growth mindset, mastery goals) then increased effort will result in success.
They believe that effort, increased learning and strategy
development, will actually increase their intelligence.
Can mind-set be
changed?
• A growth mind-set can be taught – people need to be taught
that the brain can stretch and grow like a muscle. They can
get smarter!
• Giftedness/talent can be cultivated – people need to be
exposed to circumstances where talents can flourish
• Activities must require effort and challenge – those who excel
make deliberate efforts and systematically address
weaknesses; push themselves beyond their “comfort zone”
(Dweck, 2006)
Fostering a growth
mind-set
• Believe that the brain can grow like a muscle – you can get smarter by exercising it
• Push yourself out of your comfort zone by choosing difficult tasks that offer
opportunities for learning something new or improving your knowledge and skills
• Confront your weaknesses and think of strategies for dealing with them
• Don’t compare yourself to others either favourably or unfavourably – only be
interested in improving your own learning
• Focus on and recognise the effort you have made despite setbacks
• See setbacks/errors/mistakes as learning opportunities
• Persist in the face of difficulty
• Recognise that it is more important to learn than to achieve high marks,
promotion etc.
(Dweck, 2006)
Activity
Think of something in your past that you think measured you. It could be a
poor test score, being fired from a job, being passed over for promotion,
being rejected… or something else. Focus on that thing. Feel all the
emotions that go with it. Now put it in a growth-mind-set perspective. Look
honestly at your role in it, but understand that it doesn’t define your
intelligence, personality or career failure. Instead ask: what did I (or can I)
learn from that experience? How can I use it as a basis for growth?
(Adapted from Dweck, 2006)
How can you promote a growth
mind-set in others?
• How you give feedback for success
• The way in which you ask people to undertake
learning activities
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Activity
Think of an example where you have praised someone for their
success. For example you could have praised them for getting a
good grade in an exam or assignment, for getting a promotion,
winning an award, meeting their sales/performance targets etc.
What words did you use?
Do you think the words you used encouraged a fixed or a growth
mind-set? Why?
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Why praise matters…
Two groups of similar ability children were given increasingly difficult maths
papers.
One of the groups was praised for their cleverness when they got a high
test score on a paper e.g. “Well done you got 8 out of 8 – you are really
clever”
The other group was praised for their effort when they achieved a high test
score e.g. “Well done – you must have worked really hard to get 8 out of 8”
As the papers became more difficult the group praised for their cleverness
performed poorly and gave up whereas the group praised for their effort
performed better and maintained their motivation.
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Promoting an incremental
view of intelligence
Praising and rewarding effort……
…..promotes an incremental view of intelligence and therefore encourages
a growth mind-set
whereas praising and rewarding ability…..
…….. promotes a fixed view of intelligence therefore encourages a fixed
mind-set
Praise
Praising people for their intelligence is detrimental to their long term
intellectual growth and development
Bad praise:
You are really smart
You did well because you are so intelligent
Good praise:
You must have tried very hard
You kept trying even when it got difficult – well done!
You got an A without working? That’s nice but you must not be learning
much. Lets do something that you can learn from.
Give people tasks linked to
mastery goals
• If people are told their ability will be evaluated from
performance in a given task they will give up in the face of
difficulty
• If people are told that a task they have been given offers an
opportunity to learn something valuable then they will tend to
remain motivated in the face of difficulty
• Evaluating performance means being judgemental whereas
promoting an opportunity to learn is non-judgemental
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Criticisms of AGT
• Is a 2 goal model appropriate? Pintrich (2003) proposes a 4
goal model
• Can a theory based on research conducted in experimental
situations be trusted? (Urdan & Turner, 2005)
• Theory ignores reasons why people select one goal over
another (Covington, 2000)
• Mainly derived from studies relating to children/young
people
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Activity 1 – Your
Mind-set
• Complete the Mind-set Questionnaire.
• Part 1 of the questionnaire measures what sort of
mind-set you have relating to intelligence
• Part 2 of the questionnaire measures what sort of
mind-set you have relating to personal qualities
Activity 6
Someone you manage is lacking in a particular skill or skills
(e.g. IT, people skills etc.) which is having a negative impact on
the quality of their work. They have been reluctant to
undertake training you have suggested in the past. As their
manager how would you persuade them to undertake training
to improve their skills?
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Activity 7
Reflect on your own motivation in the face of challenges,
change and adversity. Identify at least two major
challenges in your working life that you feel you need to
develop more of a growth mind-set. Use AGT to help you to
identify the actions you need to take to improve your
motivation.
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Session Summary
• What is motivation?
• Overview of motivation theories
• Achievement Goal Theory (AGT)
• Mind-sets
• Achievement Goals
• Fixed versus Growth mind-sets
• Mind-set & Achievement
• Changing mind-sets
• Achievement Goal theory Critique
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References
Covington, M.V. (2000) Goal Theory, Motivation, and School Achievement: an Integrative Review, Annual Review of
Psychology 51: 171-200
Dweck, C. S. (2006) Mindset – How you can fulfil your Potential. New York: Random House.
Good, C., Rattan, A., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Genius portrayed as inborn versus acquired influences students’ theories of
intelligence, motivation, and performance in math. Unpublished data, Columbia University, 2007.
Harackiewicz, J.M., Barron, K.E., Pintrich, P.R., Elliot, A.J. & Thrash, T.M. (2002) Revision of Achievement Goal Theory:
Necessary and Illuminating, Journal of Educational Psychology 94(3): 638-645
Pintrich, P.R. (2003) A Motivational Science Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching
Contexts, Journal of Educational Psychology 95(4): 667-686
Urdan, T. & Turner, J.C. (2005) Competence Motivation in the Classroom. In A.J. Elliott & C.S. Dweck (eds.) Handbook of
Competence and Motivation. London: Guildford Press: 297-317
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Applied Practice
Session 4
Tutor: Dr. Michael Morley
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Content
• What is praxis?
• Purpose of praxis
• Developing professional praxis
• Role of theory in praxis
• Engaging in professional praxis – a summary
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What is “Praxis?”
• From Greek meaning to act; to do; to practice
• “Reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it” (Freire
(1996, p. 33).
• Action in praxis is not just about action grounded in reflection but must
be rooted in respect for people, obligation for their welfare and pursuit
of truth (Carr and Kemmis, 1986).
• Praxis can be risky because it challenges the status quo. It requires that
a person “makes a wise and prudent practical judgement about how to
act” (Carr and Kemmis 1986, p.190).
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Purpose of praxis
• Promoting positive, social change
(Wintrup, Wakefield and James, 2013)
• Enabling change for the common good
(Mezirow, 1990).
• Becoming critically conscious through
reflection, critical thinking and action
(Freire, 1996).
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How do you develop
professional praxis?
• Praxis lacks a usable framework (Breung, 2011). However……………..
• Focus on real-world problems situated within the context of own
experiences (Freire, 1995; Burbules and Berk, 1999).
• Reflection and action are necessary for praxis: reflection without action
results in intellectual discovery, whereas action without reflection is
activism (Freire, 1996).
• Action informed by theory, dialogue, and self-reflection
• Reflective learning model’s such as Rolfe’s can be used as a framework
for praxis development
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Role of theory in praxis
• Theory is critical to action in praxis (Leistyna et al., 2004).
• Two types of theory relevant to praxis development:
1. Formal published theory you find in a journal or book e.g. learning
styles, learning loops, ethical leadership etc.
2. Practice based theory which is developed purely from observations
about practice in specific, work-related contexts
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Formal theory examples
• Reflecting on motivation theory (e.g. Maslow,
Herzberg, Vroom, Locke) to help you gain an
insight into what motivates you and members
of you team (e.g. money, positive feedback
etc.)
• Reflecting on team theory (e.g. Belbin,
Tuckman)
• Reflecting on professional reasoning theory
(e.g. Argyris & Schon) to identify incongruent
behaviours
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Practice based theory –
example 1
Adam developed a theory about his communication style and how this influenced his
behaviour. Through reflection he observed that he used an aggressive style of communication
which was resented by colleagues. He theorised that he used this style because he believed
others expected him as a senior manager to act in an autocratic and unemotional manner. As
a consequence, he changed his behaviour to become consultative, listening to and considering
the perspectives of others. To summarise:
Observation: Use of aggressive communications style is resented by his colleagues.
Theory:
Adam theorised that he acted aggressively because he believed that
colleagues expected him to act in an autocratic, aggressive way because he
was their manager
Action:
Change of behaviour to more consultative, style, listening
to and considering the perspectives of others
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Practice based theory –
example 2
James developed a theory about his lack of ambition. Through reflection he observed that he
was not ambitious to be promoted in the police force. He theorised that this was because he
joined the police force to serve the public, which he could do better in his current role than
from a senior position. James took action to further develop his knowledge and skills in his
current role by producing a professional development plan.
Observation: Lack of ambition to be promoted in the police force
Theory:
James theorised that he was not ambitious because further promotion would
mean that he would not be able to serve the public in the way he wanted to.
Action:
Developed professional development plan to further improve in current role to
better serve the public.
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Summary – engaging in
Professional praxis
Think
critically
Challenge
orthodoxy
Theorise
from practice
Contextualise
formal theory
Professional
Praxis
Reflect and
act
Practice
ethically
Develop
professional &
organisational
innovations
Engage in
critical
dialogue
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Activity 3
Thinking about your own reflective practice, identify one
practice based theory you have developed. What did you
observe? What theory did you develop from your
observations? What action did you take (or do you intend to
take?). Share your practice based theories with your group.
Are there any similar themes?
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Summary
• What is praxis?
• Purpose of praxis
• Developing professional praxis
• Role of theory in praxis
• Engaging in professional praxis – a summary
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References
Burbules, N. C., & Berk, R. (1999). Critical thinking and critical pedagogy: Relations, differences and Limits. In T. S.
Popkewitz & L. Fendler (Eds.), Critical theories in education (pp. 45-66). New York: Routledge.
Carr, W., & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming critical education, knowledge and action research. Abingdon: Routledge.
Freire, P. (1982). Education for critical consciousness. New York: Continuum.
Freire, P. (1995). Pedagogy of hope: Reliving pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum
Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed. London: Penguin Books.
Leistyna, P., Lavandez, M., & Nelson, T. G. (2004). Critical pedagogy: Revitalizing and democratizing teacher education.
Teacher Education Quarterly, 31(1), 3-15.
Mezirow, J. (1990). Conclusion: Toward transformative learning and emancipatory education. In J. Mezirow (Ed.),
Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning (pp. 354-376). SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rolfe, G. (1993). Closing the theory-practice gap: A model of nursing praxis. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2, 173-177.
Wintrup, J., Wakefield, K., & James, E. (2013). Meanings of engagement to part-time, working students in higher
education. In E. Dunne & D. Owen (eds.), The student engagement handbook: Practice in higher education (pp 201220). Bingley: Emerald.
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