+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

Description

GROUP RESEARCH PRESENTATION
You will work in groups to research, prepare a slideshow, and give a live oral
presentation on Go to Meeting about the designated Chapter’s topics. In addition to
that will research sustainability issues and examples in relation to that topic
Group Presentations:
G1- Upholstery: constructions + Environmental Factors / Chapters 1 &12
G2- Upholstery: maintenance / Chapters 13 & 14
G3- Window Coverings: shades and Blinds / Chapters 15 &16
G4- Window Coverings: curtains / Chapters 17 & 18
G5- Wall Coverings / Chapter 19
G6- Soft Floor Coverings: Selection & properties / Chapter 20 & 21
G7- Soft Floor Coverings: Construction / Chapter 22 & 23
G8- Soft Floor Coverings: Installation & Hand techniques / Chapter 24 & 27
• Research Chapter theme and discuss it in relation to sustainability.
• Getting your information only from textbook and book slides are not sufficient. It
is important that you research about the theme in other resources.
• Research should be from Aii Online library, articles, books, journals, magazines,
lectures, Linked-in Learning (Lynda). Please at least 5 sources indicating the titles
and writers of the publication on last slide.
• Present few examples of interior designers and companies which deals with the
chapter theme in relation to sustainability. You can use sources as websites,
interviews, videos, etc. Please include credit of designers / brands / companies
• Include questions that you may have about it to the audience
• The slideshow format should allow you to include images and text, like as
PowerPoint, Keynote, Prezzi, etc.
• If showing videos online include a link in your presentation and load the video
prior to starts. Also you the advertisement and let ready to play.

chapter Thirteen
226
Upholstery Coverings
Photo courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Fiber and Yarn Usage
Fiber Usage in Upholstery Fabrics
Fiber Usage in Transportation Applications
Dominance of Spun Yarns
Multifilament Yarn Usage
Flat Upholstery Fabrics
Plain-Woven Fabrics
Twill-Woven Fabrics
Satin-Woven Fabrics
Crepe-Woven Fabrics
Dobby-Woven Fabrics
Surface-Figure Woven Fabrics
Jacquard-Woven Fabrics
Triaxially Woven Fabrics
Knitted Fabrics
Pile Upholstery Fabrics
Woven Pile Fabrics
Knitted Pile Fabrics
Tufted Fabrics
Genuine Leather Upholstery
Composition and Structure of Raw Hides
Curing and Cleaning
Tanning
Coloring
Finishing
Vinyl, Simulated Leather, and Suede Fabrics
Extruding Film Sheeting
Simulating Genuine Suede
227
Virtually every method of fabrication used to construct apparel fabrics is also used to construct
upholstery coverings. Thus, the variety of fabrics available for use on furniture is as extensive as
that available for apparel applications. The assortment includes textile fabrics that are essentially
two-dimensional and fabrics that are markedly three-dimensional. Nontextile furniture coverings
are composed of elements other than textile fibers and yarns. Some of these coverings, including
simulated leather fabrics, are produced directly from polymer solutions; others, specifically
genuine leather fabrics, are converted from the raw skins and hides of animals.
Some fabrics are composed entirely of simple yarns in simple, compact constructions, making
for relatively great durability and little aesthetic interest. Others incorporate complex yarns in
simple, loose constructions, providing much visual and tactile interest but less durability. Fabric
patterns range in complexity, from small, geometric figures to large and elaborately detailed
motifs. Pile upholstery fabrics are available in various construction densities and surface
textures. Some pile fabrics are woven, some tufted, and some knitted.
Although virtually every natural and manufactured fiber is used in textile upholstery fabric,
current statistical profiles show that cotton and the manufactured synthetic fibers hold significant
portions of the market. Disclosure of the fiber composition is particularly appropriate today, as
the use of synthetic fibers to simulate natural fibers in upholstery applications increases.
Fiber and Yarn Usage
Currently, both the upholstery fabric market and the transportation fabric market are dominated
by synthetic fibers. The end use category of upholstery fabrics includes slipcovers and vinylcoated cotton fabrics. It does not include olefin and saran webbing for outdoor furniture. The
end- use category of transportation fabrics includes automobile seat upholstery and slipcovers,
sidewalls (the vertical portion of car seats), interior roof linings, and sheeting. The cotton
quantities include the knit and woven fabric used as the backing for vinyl sheeting. The category
also includes convertible automobile tops and replacement tops, as well as upholstery used in
other modes of transportation, such as airplanes, railroad and subway cars, and buses. It does not
include things such as seat padding, window channeling, and carpet and rugs.
Disclosure of Fiber Composition
Upholstery and transportation fabrics offered to consumers and professionals in piece good form
must be labeled in accordance with the provisions of the Textile Fiber Products Identification
Act (TFPIA). As noted in Chapter 10, the Wool Products Labeling Act (WPLA) specifically
exempts all upholsteries, and the TFPIA specifically exempts permanently attached covering
fabrics. The scope of the TFPIA also includes slipcovers (furniture coverings that are cut,
seamed, and fitted over the permanently attached coverings), swatches, and samples.
The required information may be listed on the end of a bolt of fabric and on a label or hangtag
attached to a slipcover. With swatches less than two square inches in size, the information may
appear in accompanying promotional matter. Other swatches and samples may be labeled with
the required information or keyed to a catalog, indicating to prospective purchasers where the
information can be obtained.
Fiber Usage in Upholstery Fabrics
In the four year span shown in Table 13.1, the quantities of cotton decreased from 95.9 million
pounds in 2007 (38 percent of the total market) to 60.5 million pounds in 2011 (35 percent of the
total market). Concurrently, the market share held by the synthetic fibers slightly increased from
61 percent to 63 percent, whereas the market share captured by wool fell approximately 0.5
percent. Although the natural beauty, resiliency, and inherent flame and stain resistance of wool
fibers are valued characteristics, the relatively high cost of the fiber tends to limit its selection.
Fiber Usage in Transportation Applications
In the four year span shown in Table 13.2, the quantities of cotton decreased from 5.3 million
pounds in 2007 (4.3 percent of the total market) to 4.5 million pounds in 2011 (4.0 percent of the
total market). The market share held by synthetic fibers remains steady at 96 percent. The
overwhelming use of synthetic fibers can primarily be attributed to the advances made in
manufactured fiber processing. Properties such as soil repellency, high resiliency, and flame
resistance can be directly engineered into synthetic fibers, whereas finishing agents and
treatments must be used to develop such features with cotton.
228
Table 13.1 Fiber Usage in U.S. Upholstery Fabric Production*
* Millions of Pounds
** Manufactured fiber end use is divided between cellulosic (rayon and acetate) and synthetic (nylon,
polyester, acrylic, olefin). Yarn includes multifilament, monofilament, and spunbonded. Olefin includes
polypropylene and polyethylene staple and yarn. Olefin yarn also includes film fiber and spunbonded
polypropylene. Staple includes tow and fiberfill.
*** Less than 50,000 pounds of the fiber is used.
Source: Textiles Economics Bureau, Fiber Organon, “U.S. End Use Survey: 2007–2011,” October 2012,
Volume 83, No. 10, page 192, Table 4.
Table 13.2 Fiber Usage in U.S. Transportation Fabric Production*
* Millions of Pounds
** Manufactured fiber end use is divided between cellulosic (rayon and acetate) and synthetic (nylon,
polyester, acrylic, olefin). Yarn includes multifilament, monofilament, and spunbonded. Olefin includes
polypropylene and polyethylene staple and yarn. Olefin yarn also includes film fiber and spunbonded
polypropylene. Staple includes tow and fiberfill.
***Less than 50,000 pounds of the fiber is used.
Source: Textiles Economics Bureau, Fiber Organon, “U.S. End Use Survey: 2007–2011,” October 2012,
Volume 83, No. 10, page 194, Table 6.
Dominance of Spun Yarns
The dominance of spun yarns in upholstery is evident from the data presented in Table 13.1.
Together, natural and regenerated manufactured staple-length fibers accounted for more than 62
percent of the 2011 upholstery fabric market. More pronounced textural effects and design
features, which consumers and designers apparently consider relatively important in selection,
can be produced more readily by spinning and plying processes than by throwing operations.
Synthetic staple-length fibers are used more extensively than are regenerated manufactured
staple-length fibers and wool. To a large extent, this is the result of the increased use of spun
yarns of polyester in lieu of spun yarns of rayon and the increasing use of spun yarns of acrylic
or polypropylene olefin fibers to replace more expensive woolen yarns.
Whereas the loops, nubs, and other textural features characteristic of complex spun yarns add
aesthetic interest to upholstered furniture, prospective purchasers and specifiers should consider
the possible effects of end-use abrasion on the raised areas. Consumers and interior designers
should also evaluate the hand of the fabric to confirm that novelty yarn features are not too harsh
or rough for their comfort or that of their clients.
Multifilament Yarn Usage
229
Today, filament-length fibers account for 38 percent of the upholstery fabrics market. To
produce a softer and warmer hand, increase covering power, and minimize the development of
unsightly fuzz and pills, throwsters often introduce a three-dimensional form to the filaments by
using one of the texturing processes illustrated in Figure 5.5. For economy, ease of care, and
strength, multifilament yarns composed of nylon are increasingly replacing acetate as a substitute
for expensive silk filaments.
When stretch characteristics are needed in a woven upholstery fabric, manufacturers may
incorporate yarns whose spandex filament cores are covered by fibers identical in color to the
other yarns in the fabric. As noted in Table 3.5, spandex fibers have 500 to 700 percent
elongation at break and 98 percent recovery after 200 percent strain. The requisite fabric
elasticity can often be obtained when the highly elastic fiber accounts for as little as 3 percent of
the total fabric weight.
Multifilament yarns are especially important in the transportation market. Whereas synthetic
staple fibers accounted for approximately 21 percent of the 2011 market, filament fibers captured
some 75 percent. This increase may reflect the expanded use of textile fabrics in commercial
transportation vehicles and installations that are subjected to a high level of use. The increase
may also reflect the expanding use of textile upholstery in automobile interiors.
Flat Upholstery Fabrics
Greige goods producers, dyers, printers, stylists, and converters work together to manufacture an
expansive variety of flat and pile structures. Several of these are identified by specific fabric
names. Traditionally, fiber composition was an important variable in the descriptions of these
fabrics. Today, however, the increased use of the synthetic fibers has made fiber content less
valuable as a distinguishing characteristic, and more useful descriptions are based on structural
and appearance features. This section describes and illustrates flat or nonpile upholstery fabrics.
Several relatively simple upholstery fabrics are produced with basic weaving patterns or a
variation of these patterns, and a few are produced with a simple knitting operation. Several
complex coverings are produced with a decorative dobby, surface-figure, or Jacquard interlacing
pattern. These constructions are discussed and illustrated in Chapters 6 and 7.
Plain-Woven Fabrics
Homespun, tweed, and hopsacking are plain-woven upholstery fabrics. Homespun, shown
in Figure 13.1a, is made of heavy, coarse yarns that resemble hand-spun yarns. The use of speck
yarns, as shown in Figure 13.1b, adds distinctive color styling to tweed upholstery
fabrics. Hopsacking (hopsack), shown in Figure 13.1c, may be made with a plain or a basket
weave. This fabric’s name is derived from its coarse, irregular yarns, which resemble the rough
jute yarns of the gunny sacks use to store hops.
Figure 13.1 Plain-woven upholstery fabrics.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
230
Consumers and interior designers should carefully inspect backcoated upholstery fabrics to
determine whether the compound is visible on the face of the fabric. This problem generally
occurs only when the coating has been used to compensate for low-quality fabric construction.
The coating on the fabric shown in Figure 13.2 is color coordinated with the face yarns to make
it as inconspicuous as possible. Because coatings cost less than fibers and yarns, coated fabrics
are relatively inexpensive, but may not be durable in use.
Glazed chintz is produced for upholstery applications in somewhat heavier weights than those
produced for window treatments. Chintz typically has a floral or geometric pattern printed in
bright colors, as well as high surface luster produced by the use of a glazing finishing process
(Figure 17.3).
Basket-Woven Fabrics
A 4 × 4 basket pattern is often used to weave rope composed of sisal or other natural materials
into chair seats and backs. Basket-woven upholstery fabrics often have warp and filling yarns of
different colors. This styling is used extensively with upholstery designed and woven in
Scandinavian countries. Duck is a basket-woven fabric often used in slipcovers for furniture,
outdoor furniture, and boat covers (Figure 17.9).
Filling-Rib Woven Fabrics
Upholstery fabrics produced with a filling-rib weave, including rep, faille, bengaline, ottoman,
and shantung, are shown in Figure 13.3. Rep (Figure 13.3a) has fine ribs, slightly larger than
those characterizing taffeta. The ribs in faille (Figure 13.3b) are slightly larger and flatter still,
numbering approximately 36 per inch. Bengaline (Figure 13.3c) has equally sized and spaced
ribs, numbering about 24 per inch, and ottoman (Figure 13.3d) has large ribs that may be
equally sized and spaced or varied in size and spacing. Shantung (Figure 13.3e) is a fabric with
a slightly irregular surface due to thick and thin yarns in the filling direction.
Figure 13.2 Low yarn count, adhesive-backed upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Twill-Woven Fabrics
Different colors or sizes of warp and filling yarns are often used to accentuate the visual diagonal
of twill- woven upholstery fabrics. This kind of effect is evident in the plaid fabric in Figure
13.4. The twill interlacings and colored yarns in houndstooth vary to create broken checks or a
unique star pattern (Figure 13.5). Similar fabrics are frequently selected for use on contemporary
furniture, especially on items designed for casual residential interiors.
The reversed diagonals of herringbone make for a visual interest that may be enhanced by
using different colors or sizes of warp and filling yarns (Figure 13.6). Because the yarn
interlacings in twill weaves occur less frequently than they do in plain weaves, higher fabric
counts can be used to produce strong, compactly constructed twill upholstery fabrics. Such
fabrics are serviceable in high-use residential and commercial applications, including
transportation installations; various color stylings can add visual interest.
Satin-Woven and Sateen-Woven Fabrics
Frequently, fine, bright acetate or polyester filaments are thrown into low-twist, multifilament
yarns for the production of elegant satin upholstery fabrics (Figure 17.12). Satin is a warp-faced
satin weave; therefore, the majority of warp yarns are on the face of the fabric. Although such
fabrics may have silk-like beauty, the low- twist yarns are relatively weak and the floating yarns
may be easily snagged. Therefore, the application of these fabrics as furniture coverings should
be limited to items that will not be subjected to high levels of use and abrasion. In most cases,
upholstery fabric stylists use satin interlacings in combination with other, more durable
interlacings, especially in elaborately patterned Jacquard fabrics.
231
Figure 13.3 Filling rib weave upholstery fabrics.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.4 Plaid twill upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
232
Figure 13.5 Houndstooth upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.6 Herringbone upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.7 Chenille pile upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.8 Crepe upholstery fabric made from recycled polyester.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Warp sateen, a warp-faced satin weave, is composed of spun yarns. A common upholstery
fabric, warp sateen, is also frequently used to produce drapery lining fabrics (Figure 17.35) and
sheeting.
Sateen, a filling-faced satin weave, has the majority of filling yarns on the face of the fabric.
The upholstery fabric pictured in Figure 13.7 has chenille filling yarns which appear on the face
of the fabric.
Crepe-Woven Fabrics
Crepe-woven fabrics have a random, or irregular, interlacing pattern. The floats are of unequal
length in no distinct pattern. A crinkly, pebbly, or rough surface characterizes crepe fabrics. An
advantage of crepe-woven fabrics over crepe fabrics made with high-twist yarns is that the
crinkle is permanent. Crepe-woven fabrics also hold their shape and are one of the most wrinkle
resistant of all the weaves. The irregular interlacing pattern is shown in Figure 13.8. Crepewoven fabrics are also called momie weaves.
Dobby-Woven Fabrics
Some dobby-woven upholstery fabrics use a single color and two distinctly different interlacing
patterns, one for the designs and another for the background. The slight difference in height
between the designs and the ground highlights the motifs, as does the difference in the quantity
of light that the yarns in the two interlacings reflect. Other dobby fabrics have yarns of several
colors, some
233
appearing in the background and some appearing in the designs (Figure 13.9a).
The goose-eye twill shown in Figure 13.9b illustrates how a dobby weave can produce a
woven-in design. The motifs were formed by selectively reversing the direction of the visual
diagonal, creating small diamond shapes said to resemble the eyes of a goose.
Surface-Figure Woven Fabrics
One type of surface-figure weave, the dot or spot weave (Figure 13.10a and b), is used to
produce decorative upholstery fabrics. In this weave, extra yarns are interlaced to create small,
geometric motifs. The visual impact of the motifs is augmented by the use of contrastingly
colored base yarns. For stability and weight, the lengths of the extra yarns floating across the
back between the motif interlacings are left unclipped.
Jacquard-Woven Fabrics
Several distinctive Jacquard-woven fabrics are manufactured for use as furniture coverings. They
may be produced with two, three, or four sets of yarns, but all have relatively elaborate motifs
and multiple interlacing patterns.
Damask is woven from one set of warp yarns and one set of filling yarns. Removal of
individual yarns would destroy the details of the motifs, as well as the fabric integrity. Damask
fabrics are essentially two-dimensional and generally incorporate one or two colors. When a
single
234
color is used, the design motifs are highlighted because their interlacing pattern differs from that
of the ground (Figure 9.2). They may be further accentuated by the use of yarns differing in
brightness, level of twist, and degree of complexity from the yarns in the ground. The damask
fabrics in Figure 13.11a and b contain both simple and complex yarns.
Figure 13.9 Dobby-woven upholstery fabrics.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.10 Surface-figure weave upholstery fabric with unclipped extra filling yarns floating on the
back of the fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Frequently, the motifs in damask have a plain, filling- rib, or sateen weave while the ground
has a satin, twill, or filling-rib weave. The visual interest of the ground areas in the damask fabric
may be enhanced by weaving narrow bands of warp yarns that are various shades of the same
hue. The term strié identifies this kind of coloration (Figure 13.11b).
Figure 13.11 Damask upholstery fabrics distinguished by the use of simple and complex yarns.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Liseré fabrics are woven from two sets of warp yarns and one set of filling yarns (Figure
13.12). One set of warp yarns is generally identical in color to the filling yarns; together, these
form the ground. The second set of warp yarns is composed of a variety of single-colored yarns.
In accordance with the planned pattern, different colors of these yarns are wound in bands of
various widths on a separate loom beam. During weaving, the Jacquard mechanism raises these
yarns and controls their interlacing to produce detailed motifs in lengthwise bands. In many
liseré fabrics, the patterned bands are interspersed with satin-woven stripes.
Brocade is woven from more than one set of filling or weft yarns; the number of sets is
governed by the number of colors that are to appear in the motifs. The extra yarns are generally
woven in a filling-faced twill or sateen interlacing pattern, giving the design motifs a slightly
raised effect (Figure 13.13a and b). The ground is compactly constructed in a plain, twill, satin,
or filling-rib weave.
Brocatelle is often made from one set of fine warp yarns, one set of heavy warp yarns, and
two sets of filling yarns. Brocatelle (Figure 13.14) is similar to brocade, but the pattern is raised
and padded with stuffer yarns. The raised pattern (a distinctive puffed appearance) is generally
formed by inserting filling stuffer yarns on the back of the fabric.
Jacquard-woven tapestry should not be confused with hand-woven tapestry. The two differ
not only in their modes of production, but also in the manner in which the filling or weft yarns
are handled. In machine-woven tapestry, these yarns are carried from one selvage to the other,
interlacing into the face when needed. In hand-woven tapestry, they are interlaced within the
perimeter of a design motif and then cut, leaving a short length of yarn hanging fringe-like on the
back. Machine-woven tapestry may also be made of many sets of yarns.
Figure 13.12 Liseré upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.13 Examples of brocade upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.14 Brocatelle upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Like hand-woven tapestries, Jacquard-woven tapestries often have picture-like motifs. Yarns
not used in the face of these fabrics are floated across the back, producing a mirror-image pattern
of opposite colors (Figure 13.15 a and b). The fabric is not reversible, however, because the
lengthy floats would be snagged and ruptured in use.
Because the motifs and pattern repeats of some machine-woven tapestries resemble those of
hand- stitched needlepoint accents, they are commonly referred
236
to as needlepoint weave fabrics. They cannot be woven on a dobby loom; a Jacquard mechanism
is required to control the placement of the various colors and the interlacing of the many sets of
yarns (Figure 13.16).
Figure 13.15 Jacquard-woven tapestry upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
A distinguishing characteristic of Jacquard-woven tapestries is that the various colors are
introduced in crosswise or lengthwise bands. When the colors in a band are not used in the face
designs, they are interlaced in the back, creating colored bands or stripes on the back side of the
fabric (Figure 13.17a and b).
Fabrics woven of three or more sets of yarns, including liseré, brocade, brocatelle, and
tapestry, may be classified as doublecloth fabrics. Other Jacquard-woven fabrics, including
some tapestries, are also doublecloths, but they are further distinguished by the formation of
enclosed pockets, areas where there is no interlacing between two distinct fabric structures that
face one another. As shown in Figure 13.18, the face of the pocket is composed of one set of
warp yarns and one set of filling yarns, and the back of a second set of warp yarns and a second
set of filling yarns. These pockets may show up in the motifs or in the ground; closure occurs
where the positions of the face yarns and the back yarns are shifted at the juncture of the motifs
and the ground. These fabrics are commonly referred to as pocket cloth.
In matelassé, the pockets are formed in the motifs. The mutual interlacing of the multiple sets
of yarns is planned to produce the appearance of quilting stitches. When a third set of filling
yarns is floated in the pockets, the designs stand out in relief, puffing the fabric and enhancing
the quilt-like appearance (Figure 13.19a and b).
Figure 13.16 Needlepoint-weave tapestry upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.17 Jacquard-woven tapestry upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.18 Pocket cloth upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Cloque is another doublecloth fabric in which interlacings of the four sets of yarns are
planned to simulate the appearance of quilting stitches. As shown in Figure 13.20, the mutual
interlacings, strategically positioned, create a pattern on the solid-colored surface. Unlike
matelassé, cloque is an essentially flat fabric, because the pockets are not padded.
Because Jacquard-woven upholstery fabrics have high production and materials costs, they
may be comparatively expensive. Nevertheless, their richly patterned surfaces prompt many
designers and consumers to give them priority in the furnishings budget.
Knitted Fabrics
Virtually all knitted upholstered furniture coverings are flat structures produced by interlooping
simple yarns with an interlock stitch (Figure 7.6). This stitch helps ensure that the fabrics will be
serviceable during use. These fabrics cannot be varied by incorporating complex yarns or by
altering structural features, but textile stylists, often with the assistance of a computer, can
provide variety by specifying the use of two colors of yarns, Jacquard patterns, printed patterns,
heather colorations, or cross-dyed effects.
The elasticity and flexibility of knitted fabrics make them particularly suitable for use as
coverings on curved furniture frames. The loops of the fabric open slightly under stress, allowing
the fabric to fit smoothly over the filling and
238
frame. Upholstery knits are generally composed of nylon fibers, which can be heat set to impart
dimensional stability and resiliency. Moreover, unlike other weft knitting stitches, the interlock
stitch is resistant to running and snagging.
Figure 13.19 Matelassé upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.20 Cloque upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Pile Upholstery Fabrics
The assortment of pile fabrics available for use as upholstered furniture coverings includes
several whose pile yarns are uniformly distributed over the fabric surface, as well as several
whose pile yarns are strategically placed to create a patterned layer. The techniques used to
produce woven pile fabrics were described and illustrated in Chapter 6, and those used to
produce knitted pile and tufted fabrics were discussed in Chapter 7.
Woven Pile Fabrics
Two filling pile fabrics, corduroy and velveteen, are used as furniture coverings. Both have a
cut-pile surface texture and are normally composed of cotton or cotton/polyester blends. The
surface of most corduroy upholstery fabric is uniformly covered with relatively wide and densely
constructed wales (Figure 6.15).
Among the upholstery fabrics produced by interlacing extra warp yarns with base yarns are
velvet, velour, friezé, and grospoint. With the exception of grospoint and some friezé fabrics,
these coverings have cut-pile textures.
Velvet is normally woven to have a uniform pile surface. The pile is created by extra warp
yarns interlacing with filling yarns (Figure 13.21a). Omitting selected pile yarns and thus
exposing some portions of the base fabric produces a variation in velvet upholstery. These
fabrics, called voided velvets, may have even greater aesthetic interest when a Jacquard
mechanism has been employed to control the strategic placement of various colors of pile yarns.
In the fabric pictured in Figure 13.22, the voided areas define the shapes of the design motifs
forming the pile layer, whereas Jacquard patterning creates the colored details appearing within
each motif. Jacquard patterning may also be used with level-surfaced velvet.
In most velvet upholstery fabrics, only a slight nap is introduced. In panné velvet, however, a
pronounced nap augments the luster contributed by bright fibers, which are often rayon
(see Figure 13.23). The effects of pile yarn orientation on surface reflection are readily seen in
the crushed velvet in Figure 9.7.
Figure 13.21 Comparison of warp pile (velvet) and filling pile (velveteen).
Illustrations by Ron Carboni.
Figure 13.22 Voided velvet upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.23 Panné velvet upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
239
Velour, which is generally produced by the over-the-wire construction technique, has a
slightly deeper pile and a more pronounced nap than velvet. Most velour is composed of cotton
fibers, which give the fabric a soft, warm hand.
Velveteen also has a uniform pile surface and is created by interlacing an extra set of filling
yarns with a single set of warp yarns (as seen in Figure 13.21b).
Friezé upholstery fabrics normally have a level, uncut-pile surface made of multifilament
yarns composed of stiff, strong nylon fibers. For variety, manufacturers may incorporate more
than one color of pile yarns, expose areas of the base fabric (Figure 13.24), or selectively shear
some pile loops to vary the level of surface luster.
Grospoint, pictured in Figure 13.25, has a level surface with pronounced loops larger than
those characteristic of friezé. Multifilament nylon yarns are often used in the loops to augment
their durability. Surface patterns may also be introduced by exposing areas of the base fabric and
by combining two or more colors of pile yarns. Grospoint fabrics are frequently used for
covering office chairs and the bottom and back cushions installed in transportation vehicles.
Figure 13.24 Friezé upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.25 Grospoint upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Figure 13.26 Tufted upholstery fabric.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Tufted Fabrics
Tufting machines can produce the pile construction density desired in tufted upholstery
fabrics (Figure 13.26). High density is necessary to prevent exposure of the base fabric,
especially on curved areas of furniture. Today, some machines can insert some 400 pile yarns per
square inch of base fabric. Together with the high rate of production characteristic of tufting,
these developments result in increased use of this technique for upholstery fabric production.
Genuine Leather Upholstery
The basic structures used in manufacturing genuine leather coverings—raw skins and hides—are
fabricated by various animals in assorted sizes, shapes, and thicknesses. Skins, retrieved from
small animals such as lambs, goats, and calves, are thinner than hides and have an average size
that does not normally exceed approximately 9 square feet. Hides, retrieved from large animals
such as deer, horses, and cattle, on average reach a maximum size of
240
about 25 square feet. Because heavier and larger pieces of leather are required for upholstery
applications, hides are usually selected, and they are processed whole.
Composition and Structure of Raw Hides
The processes used in producing leather upholstery can be better understood if the composition
and structural features of raw hide are first examined. Raw hide has three distinct sections: the
epidermis, the corium, and the flesh layer.
The indentations in the top layer, the epidermis, are the hair follicles or pores. After the hair is
removed, the exposed pores are seen as the grain markings, a surface feature found naturally
only in coverings produced from the topmost layer of the hide. The central portion of the hide,
the corium, is a network of interlaced bundles of tiny fibers composed of a protein called
collagen. Gelatinous matter surrounds the fibrous bundles. The bottommost portion of the hide is
flesh tissue (Figure 13.27).
The processing of raw skins and hides is an involved procedure that may be divided into four
major operations: curing and cleaning, tanning, coloring, and finishing. A single firm in a
vertical manufacturing operation usually carries out these operations.
Curing and Cleaning
Processing begins with curing—salting the raw hides. Curing retards bacterial action, helping
prevent putrefaction or decomposition, and it also removes the gelatinous matter from the
corium. The hides must be thoroughly cleaned, defleshed, and dehaired before further
processing. If the hides are thick enough to be split into multiple layers, the splitting will also be
done at this stage, prior to tanning.
Figure 13.27 Face and back of leather.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Tanning
In earlier times, tanning solutions were often made from tannins extracted from sources such as
tree bark. Because these vegetable tanning agents are slow-acting, they are rarely used in
commercial tanning operations. Today, tanning solutions are composed of mineral substances,
such as chromium-based salts and oils. The cured and cleaned hides are immersed in the
solution, where the tanning agents react with the collagen, rendering the fibers insoluble. The
agents and oils fill the spaces that were formerly filled by the gelatinous materials. The hides are
now soft, water-and mildew-resistant, pliable leathers.
Coloring
Coloring may be called for to camouflage an uneven natural color or to introduce currently
popular fashion colors. The color may be applied by a piece-dyeing or a surface- dyeing
operation.
In piece dyeing, referred to in the leather industry as drum dyeing, the tanned leather is
rotated in large vessels filled with dye liquor. In surface dyeing, pigments are mixed with
binding agents and spread or brushed over the surface of the leather; this technique is actually a
type of staining and colors the surface portion only.
Finishing
Finishing operations may involve the application of lubricants and softening agents to increase
the suppleness of the leather. Imperfect areas of grain may be corrected by gently abrading the
surface or by shaving a thin film off the surface. If the natural grain is very imperfect,
mechanical embossing operations may be employed to impart attractive markings. Resins,
waxes, and lacquer-based compounds may be applied and polished for a glazed finish. The high
gloss characteristic of glazed leather is shown in Figure 13.28a. Compounds used in glazing
also increase the moisture resistance of the leather.
Finished leather fabrics are labeled with such terms as full-grain leather, top-grain leather,
and split leather.
241
The natural grain markings in full-grain leather have not been corrected or altered in any
way. Top-grain leather (Figure 13.28b) has undergone minor corrections to its natural grain
markings.
Figure 13.28 Genuine leather upholstery.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Split leather is produced from a central portion of the hide; because the top layer of the hide
is not present in split leather coverings, no natural grain markings appear. Split leather may not
be as durable as full-and top-grain leathers.
Genuine suede—leather fabric produced with the flesh side of the hide exposed—is rarely
used in upholstery because of its habit of crocking or rubbing off color. Laboratory procedures to
evaluate crocking are reviewed in the following chapter.
Vinyl, Simulated Leather, and Suede Fabrics
Along with the relatively high cost of skins and hides, the lengthy and expensive processing
required to convert them into finished coverings puts genuine leather upholstery beyond the
financial reach of many residential and commercial consumers. Recognizing this, producers have
developed successful techniques for manufacturing simulated leather coverings. When furniture
manufacturers use these coverings, they should follow specific labeling guidelines. Vinyl
(vinyon in film form) and simulated leather fabrics are produced by extruding or expanding
polymer solutions. Simulated suede fabrics are produced with selected finishing operations.
Simulating Genuine Suede
Many upholstery coverings that appear to be genuine suede are actually simulated structures.
Two operations, flocking and sueding, are used to produce these fabrics.
Flocking and Sueding
An electrostatic flocking operation is generally used to produce simulated suede. One of the
arrangements illustrated in Figure 13.29 is used. Deposition of the flock is followed by sueding
or emerizing (Figures 13.30 and 19.11).
In sueding or emerizing operations, sandpaper- covered disks revolve against the flocked
surface. Unlike brushing and smoothing finishes, which raise and orient pile yarns in one
direction, and unlike napping finishes, which raise fiber ends, sueding roughens the surface,
generally orienting the flock in every direction. However, in Ultrasuede®, a simulated suede
marketed by Toray Ultrasuede (America), Inc. (TUA), the flock is given a directional lay or nap.
The durability of a flocked and sueded surface is determined by the cohesiveness of the
substrate, resin, and flock. The surface must resist abrasive forces and the resin must be stable to
cleaning agents.
Simulated leather and suede fabrics are used extensively to cover dining chairs and the seats,
backs, and armrests in automobiles. Apart from any damage caused by cutting or puncturing,
heavier vinyl and urethane
242
fabrics can withstand the high levels of use in mass transit vehicles.
Figure 13.29 Various electrostatic flocking arrangements.
Courtesy of Ascend Performance Materials.
Extruding Film Sheeting
The compounds used most often to create vinyl and simulated leather (Figure 19.10) fabrics
include polyvinylchloride and polyurethane. Solutions of these compounds are extruded as film
sheeting using the process described in Chapter 7. To provide the dimensional stability required
for upholstery applications, the sheeting is bonded to a supporting fabric, generally a
conventional knitted, woven, bonded-web, or spunlaced fabric.
243
The grain markings that distinguish full-and top- grain leathers are introduced to simulated
leathers by embossing (Figure 13.31). This is accomplished by pressing a metal-coated die that
has been prepared with the desired markings into the surface of the film.
Figure 13.30 Simulated suede upholstery.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Incorporating air into the compounds will expand polymer solutions. The effect of this
expansion is similar to that produced by whipping cream or egg whites: the apparent, but not the
actual, volume is increased. The expanded polymer solution is then applied to a base fabric as a
coating. This process increases the comfort characteristics. Polymer films and coatings have little
or no porosity. Because of this lack of breathability, many people find these fabrics
uncomfortable, especially in hot weather.
Figure 13.31 Vinyl with nonwoven backing.
Courtesy of Amy Willbanks, www.textilefabric.com.
Key Terms
Swatch numbers (swatch #) refer to specific fabric examples contained in the Interior
Design Swatch Kit, available for purchase from Textile Fabric Consultants, Inc.
at www.textilefabric.com.
backcoated upholstery fabrics (swatch 4)
bengaline (swatch 8)
brocade (swatch 21)
brocatelle
cloque (swatch 26)
corduroy (swatch 27)
crepe (swatch 23)
crushed velvet (swatch 31)
curing
damask (swatches 17 and 60)
dobby (swatch 15)
dot or spot weave (swatch 16)
doublecloth
drum dyeing
duck (swatch 10)
electrostatic flocking
embossing
emerizing or sueding
expanded polymer solution
faille (swatch 7)
friezé (swatch 33)
full-grain leather
genuine suede
glazed chintz (swatch 45)
glazed leather
goose-eye twill (swatch 14)
grain markings
grospoint (swatch 34)
herringbone (swatch 13)
hides
homespun (swatch 1)
hopsacking (swatch 3)
houndstooth (swatch 12)
Jacquard-woven tapestry (swatch 22)
liseré (swatch 20)
matelassé (swatch 25)
momie weave (swatch 23)
ottoman (swatch 9)
panné velvet
plaid twill (swatch 11)
pocket cloth (swatch 24)
rep (swatch 6)
sateen (swatch 53)
satin (swatch 51)
shantung (swatch 5)
simulated leather (swatch 40)
simulated suede (swatches 38 and 39)
skins
speck yarns
split leather
strié (swatch 17)
surface dyeing
tanning
top-grain leather
tufted upholstery fabric (swatch 37)
tweed (swatch 2)
velour (swatch 32)
velvet (swatch 29)
velveteen (swatch 28)
vinyl (swatch 40)
voided velvet (swatch 30)
warp sateen (swatch 52)
244
Review Questions
1.Noncellulosic fibers hold a significant portion of the upholstery market. What accounts for
their growth, and why does their increased use underscore the importance of fiber content
labeling?
2.Identify factors that have led to the shifting from cotton to the noncellulosic fibers for
transportation applications.
3.Explain why spun yarns dominant the upholstery market.
4.What should the consumer and interior designer consider when selecting upholstery fabric
having complex yarns?
5.Identify positive and potentially negative features of backcoated upholstery fabric.
6.Cite reasons why satin and sateen upholstery fabrics may have limited serviceability in enduse.
7.Distinguish between hand-woven and machine- woven tapestry.
8.Why are needlepoint-weave fabrics so named?
9.Knitted fabric has limited use as upholstered furniture covering. What are the advantages and
the limitations of these structures?
10.Grospoint fabrics have frequently been used for commercial upholstery applications. What
supports their use in this market?
11.Differentiate among full-grain leather, top-grain leather, and split leather.
12.How are natural grain markings simulated?
chapter fourteen
245
Evaluation and Maintenance of Finished
Upholstery Fabric
Atlas Material Testing Technology
Standards for Structural Qualities
Bow and Skew
Yarn Distortion
Evaluations of Physical Performance Properties
Tear Strength
Breaking Strength and Elongation
Bursting Strength
Dimensional Stability
Abrasion Resistance
Resistance to Pilling
Examination of Color Consistency and Retention
Colorfastness to Crocking
Colorfastness to Light
Colorfastness to Burnt Gas Fumes
Colorfastness to Cleaning Agents
Colorfastness to Water
Colorfastness to Solvents
Colorfastness to Ozone
Maintenance of Upholstery Fabrics
Preventive Maintenance
Routine Care
Emergency Action
Restorative Maintenance
Salvage Maintenance
246
The characteristics of the components used and the quality of the manufacturing processes
employed influence the appearance and serviceability of finished upholstery fabrics. Although
quality finishing can improve the performance and enhance the visual features of fabrics, it
cannot compensate for the use of inferior fibers and yarns, unstable colorants, poor pattern
registration, or shoddy fabrication. Similarly, the use of high quality components and fabrication
techniques cannot make up for poor fabric conversion. This interdependence encouraged
representatives from segments of the industry to cooperate in establishing standards for finished
upholstery fabrics. These standards are based on ASTM International and AATCC fabric tests.
Residential and commercial upholstered furniture manufacturers (purchasers) communicate their
specific fabric performance requirements to the fabric manufacturers (suppliers).
Use of the industry standards is strictly voluntary; minimum or maximum levels of
performance are recommended, not required. These standards do, however, identify properties
that should be considered when selecting woven upholstery fabrics, and they provide a basis for
evaluating quality and predicting end-use serviceability. Code requirements pertaining to fabric
flammability are covered in Chapter 11.
ASTM D 3597, Standard Performance Specification for Woven Upholstery Fabrics—Plain,
Tufted or Flocked, includes specification requirements for such properties as breaking strength,
tear strength, abrasion resistance, dimensional change, and yarn distortion. ASTM D 3597 also
includes specification requirements for colorfast properties related to water, solvents, burnt-gas
fumes, crocking, light, and ozone. These colorfastness tests relate to the cleanability and
serviceability of applied colorants when they are exposed to cleaning agents (Table 14.1). This
performance specification is for indoor furniture and is not applicable to contract fabrics or
fabrics used in porch, deck, or lawn furniture.
ASTM D 4771, Standard Performance Specification for Knitted Upholstery Fabrics for Indoor
Furniture, also includes physical and colorfastness tests relating to the serviceability of knitted
upholstery furniture. This standard is not applicable to contract fabrics (Table 14.2).
The cleanability standard for upholstery fabric is based on the stability of applied colorants
when they are exposed to water and to solvent according to prescribed testing procedures. Fabric
manufacturers may use the results of such tests to help determine what agents should be used in
the overall maintenance of a fabric. The need for overall cleaning can be delayed, however, if
routine care and immediate stain removal are consistently used to maintain an outer covering.
Members of the Association for Contract Textiles (ACT) established performance guidelines
for upholstery fabric intended for contract applications. The ACT symbols (Table 14.3) placed
on fabrics provide assurance to specifiers that the fabrics have performed to contract standards
and pass all applicable testing. The ACT performance specifications and test methods used to
evaluate these are included in this chapter.
Standards for Structural Qualities
Two standards concern the structural qualities of finished upholstery. One pertains to yarn
alignment and the other to yarn distortion. The ACT standards do not include guidelines for these
properties. Converters should carefully examine finished upholstery fabrics for the presence of
unsightly defects, or flaws, which also could decrease the durability of the upholstered fabric.
Assessment of quality can be made by examining the fabric with the eyes or an instrument to
identify defects, or flaws. The increasing use of computer-aided-fabric evaluation systems
(CAFE) not only increase the accuracy of the inspection, but greatly speed up the process of
inspection.
Yarn Alignment
Problems caused by the use of off-grain fabrics are illustrated in Figure 14.1. Furniture items
appear to be sagging when covered with a fabric exhibiting bow and crooked when covered with
a fabric exhibiting skew. These problems are emphasized when colored yarns have been used to
create such woven-in linear patterns as stripes and plaids.
In accordance with ASTM D 3882 Standard Test Method for Bow and Skew in Woven and
Knitted Fabrics, measurements of bow are taken at the maximum point of distortion in three
widely spaced places along the length of
248
fabric (Figure 14.2). The measurements of maximum distortion produced by skew are taken
parallel to and along a selvage, as shown in Figure 14.3. For each measurement, the maximum
bow or skew is calculated as a percentage of fabric width. Together, the purchaser and supplier
reach agreement on the acceptable level of yarn misalignment. ASTM International performance
specifications recommend that the average of the three bow measurements (not percentages) not
exceed 0.5 inch, and the average of the three skew measurements not exceed 1.0 inch.
247
Table 14.1 Standard Performance Specification for Woven Upholstery Fabrics (Plain,
Tufted or Flocked)
a
Class in the colorfastness requirements is based on a numerical scale of 5 for no color change or color
transfer to 1 for very severe color change or color transfer.
b
AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change.
c
AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale.
Adapted, with permission from D3597 (2009) Standard Specification for Woven Upholstery Fabrics—
Plain, Tufted, or Flocked, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken,
PA 19428, www.astm.org. A copy of the complete standard may be obtained from ASTM International.
Figure 14.1 Effects of filling bow and skew on the appearance of upholstered furniture items.
Table 14.2 Standard Performance Specification for Knitted Upholstery Fabrics for Indoor
Furniture
a
Class in the colorfastness requirements is based on a numerical scale of 5 for no color change or color
transfer to 1 for very severe color change or color transfer.
b
AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change.
c
AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale.
Adapted, with permission from D4771 (2009) Standard Performance Specification for Knitted Upholstery
Fabrics for Indoor Furniture, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West
Conshohocken, PA 19428, www.astm.org. A copy of the complete standard may be obtained from ASTM
International.
Yarn Distortion
ASTM D 1336, Standard Test Method for Distortion of Yarn in Woven Fabrics, is used as an
indicator of the tendency of yarns to slip or distort, causing an unsightly appearance in woven
upholstery fabrics. ASTM D 1336 covers the measurement of yarn distortion in woven cloth
following the application of surface friction. This test method is especially applicable to low yarn
count upholstery fabrics and satin-woven upholstery fabrics made of smooth, filament yarns.
249
Table 14.3 ACT Voluntary Performance Guidelines
250
Source: Association for Contract Textiles.
* ASTM International withdrew D5034 in 2001. This test method has been replaced by D1336, Standard
Test Method for Distortion of Yarns in Woven Fabrics.
Test Specimens and Procedures
As directed in ASTM D 1336, five specimens are cut slightly larger than 4 inches by 8 inches,
with their longer dimension parallel to the set of yarns having the greater resistance to shifting.
The operator determines this direction by exerting a shearing motion on the fabric with the
thumb and forefinger. After conditioning, a specimen is clamped into a rectangular carriage
frame and placed between two frictional drums on the testing device (Figure 14.4). The weight
of the upper drum is adjusted to provide a total force of one pound when sheer curtain fabrics are
being tested and a total force of two pounds when conventional-weight woven fabrics are being
tested. The carriage is then shifted so that the drums produce a shearing action on the specimen.
The rubber surfaces of the friction drum are turned in their clamps to present a new surface every
40 rubbing cycles.
251
Figure 14.2 Typical bow conditions.
Adapted, with permission from D3882-08 (2012) Standard Test Method for Bow and Skew in Woven and
Knitted Fabrics, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA
19428, www.astm.org. A copy of the complete standard may be obtained from ASTM International.
Figure 14.3 Typical skew conditions.
Adapted, with permission from D3882-08 (2012) Standard Test Method for Bow and Skew in Woven and
Knitted Fabrics, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA
19428, www.astm.org. A copy of the complete standard may be obtained from ASTM International.
Figure 14.4 Fabric shift tester.
Reprinted with permission from D1336 Standard Test Method for Distortion of Yarn in Woven Fabrics,
copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428, www.astm.org.
252
Figure 14.5 Measurable and nonmeasurable shift openings.
Reprinted with permission from D1336-07 Standard Test Method for Distortion of Yarn in Woven
Fabrics, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA
19428, www.astm.org.
Analysis of Results
After the specimen has been removed from the carriage and allowed to relax for 15 minutes, the
widest opening of each shift mark, or distorted yarn group, is measured as shown in Figure
14.5a and b. Non-measurable openings, illustrated in Figure 14.5c and d, are described and
reported. The average of the five measurements is calculated and reported.
Performance Guidelines
According to the performance specifications included in ASTM D 3691, conventional weight
woven upholstery coverings and draperies should exhibit a maximum distortion of 0.1 inch under
a two-pound load. ACT does not have a performance specification for yarn distortion.
Evaluations of Physical Performance Properties
Table 14.1 includes selected physical properties, the test methods used to measure these
properties, and recommended performance levels noted in ASTM D 3597. Mutual agreement
between purchaser and supplier determines which requirements must be met. In making these
decisions, consideration must be given to any fashion or aesthetic preferences currently
important to the ultimate consumer. Such variables may take precedence over performance
requirements. It should be recognized that fabrics can be produced utilizing an almost infinite
number of combinations of construction variables. Hence, no single performance specification
can possibly apply to all the various fabrics that could be utilized for upholstery fabrics.
Tear Strength
ASTM D 2261 Standard Test Method for Tearing Strength of Fabrics by the Tongue (Single
Rip) Procedure (Constant-Rate-of-Extension Tensile Testing Machine) may be used to evaluate
the force required to continue or propagate a tear in a fabric under specified conditions. The test
results can predict the likelihood that a small cut or puncture would become a large tear with
continued use of the upholstered item.
Test Specimens and Procedures
Test specimens are cut to a size of 3 by 8 inches, with the short dimension corresponding to the
direction to be tested. A 3-inch cut is made at the center of and perpendicular to the short side of
each specimen, forming two tongues or tails.
After conditioning the specimens for a minimum of 24 hours in a controlled atmosphere of 70
± 2 °F and 65 ± 2 percent relative humidity, each is successively placed in paired clamps on a
constant-rate-of-extension (CRE) testing machine. One tongue is secured in the jaws of the upper
clamp and one tongue is secured in the jaws of the lower clamp; thus, opposite sides of the
specimen are exposed to the operator. As the machine operates, the lower clamp moves
downward at a constant rate for a distance of 3 inches. The loads required to tear each specimen
are automatically recorded.
Analysis of Results
The five peak loads recorded during tearing of a specimen are averaged. The tear
strength values for all replicate specimens are then averaged and reported.
Performance Guidelines
ASTM D 3597 Standard Performance Specification for Woven Upholstery Fabrics specifies a
minimum of 6 pounds of force to propagate the tear. Furniture covered with these fabrics should
not be placed where it will receive heavy use.
253
Breaking Strength and Elongation
The elongation and breaking (tensile) strength of upholstery fabrics can be determined in
one testing procedure, ASTM D 5034 Standard Test Method for Breaking Strength and
Elongation of Textile Fabrics (Grab Test).
Test Specimens and Procedures
In the breaking strength-grab method, only a part of the specimen is gripped in the clamps.
Each specimen is 4 inches wide and 6 inches long, and is held in the center by 1-inch wide
clamps, as shown in Figure 14.6. (Using a larger back clamp is permissible and tends to reduce
slippage.) To ensure accurate alignment when securing the specimen in the clamps, a line is
drawn 1.5 inches from the long edge of the specimen. A constant-rate-of-extension (CRE) or a
CRT testing machine may be used.
Figure 14.6 Preparation and placement of a specimen for measuring the breaking force and apparent
elongation of fabrics by the grab method.
Analysis of Results
The breaking strength (load) in pounds is recorded for each replicate specimen tested, and the
average of these values is calculated and reported. The apparent elongation is expressed as the
percentage increase in length based on the distance between the clamps, which is normally 3
inches (% elongation at rupture = [length stretched/original length] × 100).
Performance Guidelines
As detailed in Table 14.1, the ASTM International guidelines for elongation differ for different
categories of fabrics. ASTM International specifies a minimum breaking force of 50 pounds for
all fabrics, regardless of construction and weight.
ACT standards for contract upholstery breaking force are the same as the ASTM guidelines. A
minimum of 50 pounds of breaking load is required in both the warp and filling or weft
directions.
Bursting Strength
ASTM D 3787, Standard Test Method for Bursting Strength of Textiles—Constant-Rate-ofTraverse (CRT) Ball Burst Test, describes the measurement for bursting strength with a ball
burst strength tester. This test is used for textiles that exhibit a high degree of ultimate
elongation.
Test Methods and Procedures
Five specimens are cut to at least 5 inches square or a circle 5 inches in diameter. The specimen
is placed in the testing machine in the clamp ring without tension. The ball burst tester pushes the
fabric at a speed of 12 inches per minute. This speed is continued until the specimen bursts.
Analysis of Results
After bursting, specimens are removed from the clamp and the average bursting strength is
recorded to the nearest 0.5 N (0.1 lb).
Dimensional Stability
Upholstery fabrics must maintain their original dimensions, within reasonable limitations. With
permanently attached, as well as removable, furniture coverings, there should be no prolonged
bagging and sagging of the fabric after a person rises from the item; nor should there
254
be excessive growth of the fabric in cleaning. Excessive shrinkage of the fabric in use or
cleaning would cause the fabric to become smaller than the filling, distorting the threedimensional form of the cushions. It would also place stress on the fabric seams and zipper
closures, causing them to ripple or split.
Industry representatives recommend that procedures set out in ASTM D 3597 be followed in
measuring the dimensional stability of upholstery fabrics. Measurements of the relaxation
shrinkage or growth of the specimens are made after exposing them to water.
Test Specimens and Procedures
In preparation for testing, fabric specimens are cut 12 inches square and marked with sets of
three 10-inch-gauge distances in both the warp direction and the filling directions, as illustrated
in Figure 14.7. The marked specimens are submerged in distilled water for 10 ± 1 minutes. They
are then placed on horizontal screens and allowed to dry for 24 hours.
Analysis of Results
The distance between the gauge marks is measured in each direction. Separate averages are then
determined for the warp and the filling. The percentage of change is calculated as directed in the
following equations:
Figure 14.7 Specimen marked for measuring dimensional stability.
% shrinkage = [(A –B)/A] × 100
% gain = [(B –A)/A] × 100
where A = distance between gauge marks before wetout, and B = distance between gauge marks
after wetout and drying.
Performance Guidelines
Upholstery fabrics should not exhibit more than 5 percent shrinkage in either fabric direction.
The guidelines also suggest a maximum gain of 2 percent in either direction. The reason for this
differential is that upholstery fabric is usually under tension; therefore, shrinkage up to 5 percent
is generally less objectionable than fabric gain, which produces bagging.
Abrasion Resistance
The extensive use of complex yarns and decorative interlacings in upholstery fabric requires that
consumers, interior designers, and architects consider the level of abrasion to which the
covering will be subjected in end-use. This will assist in the selection of a fabric that will be
serviceable for a reasonable length of time, minimizing the potential need for premature
replacement or recovering of the item.
For the evaluation of the abrasion resistance of upholstery fabrics, ASTM D 4157 Standard
Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Oscillatory Cylinder Method) is used.
This procedure, frequently referred to as the Wyzenbeek test method, was selected because it
has traditionally been employed in the industry. The Oscillatory Cylinder Abrasive Machine
(Figure 14.8) used is described in the following section.
Test Specimens and Procedures
Test specimens are cut
inches by
inches. The long dimensions are cut parallel to the
warp yarns to test warp-wise abrasion resistance and parallel to the filling yarns to test
fillingwise abrasion resistance. The specimens are secured in the clamps of the apparatus after
conditioning. The specimen supports are then lowered over the curved cylinder, which is covered
with No. 50 grit sandpaper as the abradant. The cylinder oscillates at the rate of 90 cycles
(double rubs) per minute, effecting unidirectional rubbing action on the specimens.
255
Figure 14.8 Oscillatory cylinder abrasive machine used to evaluate abrasion resistance.
Courtesy of Schap Specialty Machine.
Analysis of Results
At the end of 3,000 cycles (double rubs), the specimens are examined for loose threads and wear;
slight discoloration from the abradant on light-colored fabrics is disregarded. If no noticeable
change is apparent, the test is continued for another 5,000 cycles and the specimens are again
examined. If no noticeable change is apparent, the test is continued for another 5,000 cycles or
until the fabric ruptures.
Performance Guidelines
As noted in Table 14.1, different levels of abrasion resistance are recommended for light-duty,
medium-duty, and heavy-duty applications, 3,000 cycles, 9,000 cycles, and 15,000 cycles,
respectively. As detailed in Table 14.3, these in-use applications are defined in terms of
frequency of use.
The ACT guidelines require that general contract upholstery fabric tested by the Wyzenbeek
method withstand 15,000 cycles. Heavy-duty upholstery should withstand 30,000 cycles (Table
14.3).
The ACT guidelines also include abrasion resistance standards for fabric tested by ASTM D
4966 Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Martindale Abrasion
Test Method). In this testing, the fabric is mounted flat and abraded in a figure-eight fashion by a
worsted wool fabric. ACT guidelines stipulate that general contract upholstery should withstand
20,000 rubs and heavy-duty upholstery should withstand 40,000 rubs before showing an
objectionable change in appearance.
Resistance to Pilling
Small balls or pills on the surface of fabrics are unsightly, especially when fibers of contrasting
colors are present. To assess the extent of pilling, ACT recommends that contract fabrics be
subjected to the procedures in ASTM D 3511 Standard Test Method for Pilling Resistance and
Other Related Surface Changes of Textile Fabrics: Brush Pilling Tester.
Test Methods and Procedures
The fabric specimens are first brushed with nylon bristles to free fiber ends that form fuzz on the
surface of the fabric. Subsequently, the face sides of two specimens are rubbed together in a
circular motion to roll the fiber ends into pills.
Analysis of Results
The degree of fabric pilling is evaluated by comparing the tested specimen with visual standards,
which may be actual fabrics or photographs of fabrics, showing a range of pilling resistance. The
fabric is evaluated and categorized into classes according to the visual standards.
Performance Guidelines
ACT guidelines require that upholstery fabric be rated a minimum of Class 3. Contract
upholstery fabrics that meet or exceed the recommended performance levels in pilling resistance,
breaking strength, and yarn distortion may be marketed with an ACT symbol (Table 14.3).
Examination of Color Consistency and Retention
Colorfastness refers to the ability of colorants to retain their original properties when they are
exposed to various environmental conditions, cleaning agents, and end-use activities. Residential
consumers, contract designers, and architects should be aware of sources of potential harm
256
to colorants and avoid them, if possible. Manufacturers should ascertain the stability of colorants
applied to upholstery fabrics and discontinue the use of those failing to exhibit acceptable levels
of fastness.
As part of their quality-control work, dyers and printers should examine the uniformity of
color characteristics and look for any variability in pattern repeats. End- product producers and
consumers may reject upholstery fabrics exhibiting inconsistent color or pattern placements.
Sophisticated electronic color meters can be used to detect differences in the color
characteristics of fabrics. Colors of a fabric should not vary within any single piece or roll, and
streaks are unacceptable.
Because changes in the texture of pile fabrics may produce changes in the apparent brightness
of the fabric, members of the industry recommend that packaging, storing, and handling of these
fabrics be controlled to avoid distortion of the original pile yarn orientation. Care during
processing and shipping can minimize the development of apparent shading problems.
The variation of pattern repeats should be measured from center point to center point of any
contiguous repeats, and a minimum of four measurements should be taken in a continuous length
of 50 yards. When pattern repeats are 13 inches or more in length, the variation should not
exceed 0.5 inch; when pattern repeats are less than 13 inches in length, the variation should not
exceed 0.25 inch.
Changes in color characteristics may be described in relative terms—barely perceptible, quite
noticeable, and so on—but the degree of change can be measured and rated in numerical terms
by using standard test methods. Manufacturers of upholstery fabrics may elect to compare the
results of such tests with the levels of fastness recommended by representatives of the industry.
These standards are listed in Table 14.1.
Colorfastness to Crocking
Rubbing may cause unstable colorants to exhibit a problem known as crocking, the transfer of
color from one surface to another area of the same fabric or from one material to another. The
loss or transfer can occur under dry or wet conditions. Crocking may occur in upholstery fabric
when, for example, apparel fabric rubs against the colored seat of a chair.
The Crockmeter, shown in Figure 14.9, is the instrument used in AAATC 8 Colorfastness to
Crocking (Rubbing): AATCC Crockmeter Method. During testing, the upholstery fabric is
cyclically rubbed by a rod covered with white fabric. Transfer of color from the upholstery
surface to the white fabric is evidence of crocking. AATCC 116 is used for especially small print
fabrics where the singling out of areas smaller than possible to test with the standard Crockmeter
method.
The degree of transference is evaluated visually, and a numerical fastness value is determined
by comparing the white fabric that covered the rod during testing with pairs of chips on
the AATCC Gray Scale for Staining. As shown in Figure 14.10, there is no difference between
the members of the first pair of chips, and the rating is 5; a perceptible difference appears in the
second pair, a combination of the white reference chip and a slightly grayed chip, and the rating
is 4.5. The last pair includes a white reference chip and the strongest gray chip: a marked
contrast appears, representing a significant level of color transfer.
If no color was transferred from the upholstery fabric surface to the white test fabric, a rating
of 5 would
257
be recorded. If transfer occurred, the degree of contrast observed between the unstained and
stained areas on the test fabric would be compared with that observed between the paired chips
on the scale, and the appropriate number would be assigned. Thus, the higher the reported value,
the more stable the colorant and the better the resistance to crocking.
Figure 14.9 The Crockmeter testing apparatus.
Courtesy of SDL Atlas.
Figure 14.10 AATCC Gray Scale for Staining.
Courtesy of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists.
The AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale, (Figure 18.5), is specified for evaluation of
both dry and wet crocking in ASTM 3597. The numerical ratings are equivalent to the Gray
Scale ratings.
The ACT guidelines require a Class 4 minimum for dry crocking, and a Class 3 minimum for
wet crocking. Contract fabrics meeting or exceeding these minimums may be marked with the
ACT symbol, an artist’s palette (Table 14.3), to denote compliance.
Colorfastness to Light
In 2012 AATCC 16 Colorfastness to Light was withdrawn in its current form. The test method
has been rewritten into three separate test methods to make it more user friendly. AATCC 16.1
provides the general principles and procedures for determining the colorfastness to light of
textile materials outdoors behind glass. AATCC 16.2 provides the general principles and
procedures for determining the colorfastness to light of textile materials using carbon-arc lamps.
AATCC 16.3 provides the general principles and procedures for determining the colorfastness to
light of textile materials using xenon-arc lamps. These tests set out several procedures that can be
used to evaluate the lightfastness of colored fabrics. There are procedures for accelerated
laboratory testing and for extended outdoor exposure testing. Various light sources and testing
conditions are specified in each test procedure. Because lightfastness is especially critical for
draperies, curtains, and awnings, these test methods are explained in Chapter 18.
After completion of the selected lightfastness testing procedure, producers visually evaluate
and rate the level of color retention in essentially the same manner as crocking evaluations are
made. In this case, however, the AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change is used. As shown
in Figure 14.11, the reference chip is a saturated gray color, and it is successively paired with
lighter gray chips.
Numerical ratings are determined by comparing the difference observed between an original
and an exposed fabric specimen with that observed between the members of a pair of chips on
the scale. Again, the higher the reported value, the more stable the colorant. A rating of Class 4
or higher after 40 hours of exposure to light is required to meet the standard. Class 5 indicates no
fading, while Class 1 indicates a high degree of fading.
Colorfastness to Burnt Gas Fumes
Atmospheric contaminant fading, ozone or O-fading, fume fading, and gas fading are terms
that describe the destructive effects of various gases on colored textiles.
258
Gases that commonly cause problems include oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and ozone.
Exposing colored textiles to various concentrations of these gases may result in weakening or
fading of the original color or an actual change in hue. Either type of change in the color
characteristics of interior textile products is a twofold disaster: The harmony among several
items in an interior setting is destroyed, and the cost of replacement must be paid.
Figure 14.11 AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change.
Courtesy of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists.
Greater numbers of fume fading incidents occur in industrial centers, geographic regions
where coal and fuel oil are major heating sources, and densely populated areas where personal
automobiles are widely relied on. Automobile exhaust can contain as much as fifty thousand
times more nitric oxide than a normal atmosphere. Whereas emission control devices on
automobiles and clean air standards are reducing the concentrations of some atmospheric
pollutants, the increasing use of fireplaces and wood-burning stoves for home heating is
generating greater concentrations of others.
Fume fading is a particular problem in acetate fibers dyed with disperse dyestuffs. After
prolonged exposure to oxides of nitrogen or sulfur, certain colors gradually and permanently
change hue. Blues turn pink, greens turn brownish yellow, and browns turn red. Solution dyeing
is necessary to avoid such changes, and trade names may be used to distinguish the solution-dyed
fibers.
AATCC 23 Colorfastness to Burnt Gas Fumes can be used for analyzing the negative effects
of various gases, but it is generally used to determine the effects of nitrogen dioxide. The test is
conducted in an enclosed chamber, such as the one in Figure 14.12, with controlled
concentrations of the gas. After completion of two cycles of testing, the level of color change is
determined in the same manner as lightfastness ratings are determined, using the Gray Scale for
Color Change. AATCC 129 Colorfastness to Ozone in the Atmosphere Under High Humidities
is
259
used to measure the deleterious effects of ozone on colored textiles.
Figure 14.12 Gas fume chamber.
Courtesy of SDL Atlas.
Colorfastness to Cleaning Agents
The fastness of the colorants determines the cleanability of upholstery fabrics when they are
exposed to water and to solvents, the agents that are typically used to clean upholstery.
Manufacturers are specifically concerned with the potential for color bleeding and migration
(movement of the dyestuff through the fabric components). Bleeding, either to the interior of the
covering or onto cleaning cloths, would weaken the surface color. Migration would create
various levels of intensity over the surface and could transfer color from one area to another area
of a different color.
Colorfastness to Water
AATCC 107 Colorfastness to Water is recommended for evaluating the fastness of colored
upholstery fabric to water. In preparation for testing, a multifiber fabric, a structure that has
narrow bands of six different fibers, backs the fabric specimen. The paired fabrics are immersed
in distilled water and then removed, pressed between glass plates, and heated in an oven at 100
±2 °F for 18 hours. After air drying, the fabric specimen is visually evaluated and rated for color
change using the AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change. The multifiber fabric backing is visually
evaluated for staining using the Gray Scale for Staining.
Colorfastness to Solvents
AATCC 107 is also used to evaluate the fastness of colored upholstery fabrics to solvents. In this
procedure, however, the paired fabrics are immersed in a solvent, perchloro-ethylene, instead of
in water. The exposed fabrics are again evaluated for color change and staining.
It should be noted that these colorfastness test methods give reliable information on the
stability of colorants to water and to solvent only. They do not take into account the rubbing or
blotting action usually involved in a cleaning process. Therefore, fastness to water or solvent
does not necessarily guarantee a satisfactory outcome to actual soil and stain removal efforts.
Upholstery fabrics meeting or exceeding the standards recommended for the several properties
discussed in this chapter should perform well in end-use. However, proper maintenance is
required to ensure that the original appearance features are retained at an acceptable level for an
extended period of time.
Colorfastness to Ozone
AATCC 129 Colorfast to Ozone in the Atmosphere under High Humidities is recommended for
evaluation of the colorfastness of upholstered furniture to ozone. As in other colorfastness tests, a
multifiber test fabric backs the test specimens. They are simultaneously exposed to ozone in a
testing chamber until the control sample shows a color change. After drying, a fabric specimen is
rated for color change using the Gray Scale for Color Change. The multifiber backing is rated for
staining using the Gray Scale for Staining.
Maintenance of Upholstery Fabrics
Residential and commercial consumers do not expect an upholstery fabric to retain its new, fresh,
clean appearance forever. On the other hand, they do not anticipate that soil accumulation will be
so rapid that an unreasonable maintenance program will be required. Consumers also expect that
the removal of stains will not be an impossible challenge.
Preventive Maintenance
As a preventive maintenance measure, contract designers and other specifiers may request that
the surface of upholstery fabrics be laminated with clear or translucent vinyl film sheeting.
Although vinylized fabrics can be washed with mild detergent and warm water, they are not
waterproof; they are not intended for installation outdoors. Because this treatment produces some
variation in color and luster, converters suggest that the client examine a treated sample of the
fabric before the vinyl application is ordered.
With routine care and immediate stain removal, residential and commercial consumers can
assist in the long- term retention of the original appearance of upholstery fabrics. As long as the
appearance is satisfactory to the consumer, the need for an overall or restorative cleaning
procedure is postponed.
Routine Care
Upholstered furniture products should be frequently and thoroughly vacuumed to remove
airborne dust and lint.
260
If possible, loose cushions should be turned and rotated to equalize wear and soiling levels.
Protective arm covers and head rests should be cleaned to minimize differences between the
appearance of these items and that of other exposed areas.
Simulated leather fabrics with a polyvinylchloride or polyurethane surface may be washed
with warm water and a mild soap (not a detergent), and then rinsed with a dampened cloth and
dried. As a protective measure, a hard wax can be applied to the surface. However, waxes, oils,
and furniture polishes must not be applied to genuine leather coverings because they may
damage the finish.
Emergency Action
Prompt action must be taken in the event of spillage or deposition of other foreign matter. Fluids
must be immediately absorbed from the surface to confine the area of spillage and to prevent
them from penetrating into the fibers and fabric backing. Solid materials, such as candle wax and
crayon, should be broken up, scraped, and vacuumed to remove as much of the substance as
possible before stain removal agents are used.
When stain removal agents are required, they should first be applied as directed to an
inconspicuous area of the outer covering. After the agent has been removed and the fabric has
dried, the area should be examined for evidence of change in the original color characteristics. If
necessary, different agents should be tried until one causing no change in color can be identified.
To avoid spreading the stain and overwetting the fabric, stain removal compounds should be
applied in small amounts from the outside edges toward the center of the stain. To avoid
distortion of the surface texture, the agent should be blotted on, not rubbed into, the foreign
matter and fabric. After the stain has been completely removed, the cleaning agent residue must
also be removed by rinsing the fabric and blotting it dry.
Waterborne stains can be removed from most textile upholstery fabrics with a mild detergent
diluted with warm water, using one teaspoon of detergent per cup of water. Oilborne stains can
be removed with a solvent-type dry cleaning fluid, such as K2r®, produced by Texize.
Table 14.4 lists the stain removal agents and procedures recommended for use with wool.
Additional stain removal agents and procedures are listed in Tables 27.3, 27.4, and 27.5.
Although these are specifically applicable to soft floor coverings, they may also be used with
upholstery fabrics. In all cases, however, a pretest should be performed to confirm that the agent
would not alter the color of the fabric or the integrity of the fabric structure.
If warm, soapy water does not remove soil from simulated leather coverings, the surface can
be cleaned with a cloth dampened with kerosene or naphtha. These compounds are flammable
and should be used with caution in a well-ventilated area to avoid inhalation of the fumes.
Ballpoint ink can usually be removed by spraying the stain with hair spray and immediately
wiping the surface.
Procedures used to remove stains will also remove accumulated soil. This may result in a
localized clean area that can readily be distinguished from adjacent soiled areas. When such
differences are apparent, or when large areas are soiled, the entire surface should be cleaned.
Restorative Maintenance
The original appearance of upholstery fabrics can usually be restored by carefully cleaning the
fabric surface. Consumers may elect to do the restoration themselves, to send the item to a
professional cleaner, or to have a professional cleaner restore the item on-site.
Frequently, upholstery manufacturers voluntarily label their products with a cleaning code.
The code to be used is determined by measuring the level of color migration and bleeding caused
by water and by solvent, using the standard test methods described earlier in this chapter.
Industry representatives recommend that all upholstered furniture be identified as to its
cleanability code, using the letter codes defined as follows:
•W—Use water-based upholstery cleaner only.
•S—Use solvent-based upholstery cleaner only.
•WS—Can use water-based or solvent-based cleaners.
•X—Do not clean with water-base or solvent-base cleaners; use vacuuming or light brushing
only.
Water-based cleaning agents are commonly labeled upholstery shampoo. These agents are
commercially available as foams, concentrated liquids, and dry compounds.
It should be emphasized that these cleaning codes apply to the outer covering fabric only; it is
imperative that overwetting of the fabric be avoided to prevent contact with the filling materials.
It must also be noted that zippered covers should not be removed for cleaning or excessive
shrinkage may occur and the backing compound may be damaged. Zippers are used to facilitate
filling the cushions, not to facilitate cleaning.
261
Table 14.4 Removal of Spots and Stains From Wool Upholstery
Courtesy of Australian Wool Innovation Limited.
Genuine leather coverings may be cleaned with cheesecloth soaked in a solution of warm
water and any mild soap. The surface should then be wiped with a slightly damp cloth and dried
with a soft cloth.
Salvage Maintenance
In the event that an upholstered furniture covering no longer has an acceptable appearance, even
after overall cleaning, consumers may elect to have the item reupholstered. Because such
projects involve materials costs, skilled labor charges, and, often, transportation expenses, they
may be relatively expensive. For this reason, reupholstering is often restricted to wellconstructed items and antique pieces.
262
Key Terms
AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale
AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change
AATCC Gray Scale for Staining
abrasion
ACT symbols
Association for Contract Textiles (ACT)
atmospheric contaminant fading
bleeding
bow
breaking force (load)
breaking strength
bursting strength
cleaning code
colorfastness
crocking
Crockmeter
dimensional stability
electronic color meter
elongation
fume fading
gas fading
growth
lightfastness
migration
off-grain fabrics
ozone or O-fading
pattern repeats
pilling
shift mark
shrinkage
skew
tear strength
tensile strength
vinylized fabric
Wyzenbeck test method
yarn distortion
Review Questions
1.Are the recommended levels of flaws and defects in upholstery fabrics reasonable?
2.Distinguish between filling bow and filling skew. What causes these yarn alignment
problems, and how do they affect the appearance of things such as upholstered furniture and
window coverings?
3.Discuss how waterborne and oilborne stains are removed.
4.How would fabric shrinkage affect the appearance of upholstered furniture? Would fabric
growth present problems with an upholstered item?
5.Describe the problems caused with yarn distortion.
6.Why would colorfastness to crocking be an important test for upholstered furnishings?
7.Why is frequency of use a reasonable measure to use in defining in-use applications terms for
upholstered furniture (i.e., light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy-duty)?
8.Explain the membership and work of ACT. What symbols are used by this group, and what
connotations are associated with each symbol?
9.Differentiate between brightness and apparent brightness. What causes changes in the
apparent brightness of fabrics, especially pile fabrics?
10.Explain how the AATCC Gray Scales and the AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale are
used in fabric evaluations.
11.Identify the problems that atmospheric contaminants cause with colored textiles.
12.Identify the cleanability codes voluntarily used with upholstery fabric. What does each
indicate? How do manufacturers determine which code to include on a label?
263
Unit Two Case Study
Project Type: Assisted Living Chains
Statement of the Project:
Karrington Communities, based in Columbus, Ohio, is one of the assisted living chains in the
United States. They want to achieve a high-end residential look that is appealing to current
residents and people looking to reside in these types of communities.
Statement of the Problem:
Assisted living communities need a durable, easily maintained, cost-effective upholstery creating
a high-end residential appearance. In dealing with incontinence and soiling, the upholstery also
needs to be antibacterial, anti-fungal, antimicrobial, and maintain its original appearance
qualities. The aesthetics and maintenance were more important to the client than cost.
Selection Criteria:
The upholstery was chosen because of its proven performance and aesthetic value. Crypton® is a
chemically treated upholstery covered with the appearance of a fabric yet the durability of a
vinyl. It upholsters very well, giving the lounge and dining pieces a very tailored look. From
approximately 15 feet away, a chair upholstered in Crypton® looks like a chair upholstered in
fabric. Kar-rington did not want to use vinyl because they felt that it looked low end. Vinylized
fabrics, on the other hand, tend to delaminate and turn yellow, which also does not make them
good solutions for maintaining the desired appearance. In the 20+ facilities that we have done
with Karrington, the Crypton® has performed miraculously in both durability and aesthetics.
Product Specifications:
Crypton®
•Resists staining of blood, urine, and betadine
•Passes the Tensile Strength test of 284 lbs.
•Passes the Tongue Tear Strength test of 15.4 lbs.
•Resists yard slippage of 100 lbs.
•Resists the Wyzenbeek test of 100,000 double rubs
•Classified in UFAC Class 1
•Passes the State of California Bulletin 117, Section E
•Is antibacterial, antifungal, and antimicrobial
Maintenance and Cost:
In laboratory settings, all stains were easily removed with mild soap and water. Solvent-based
cleaners are not used to clean Crypton®. Although Crypton® is more expensive than vinylized
fabrics and vinyl, the durability of Crypton® makes it a viable solution. Lower long-term cost is
achieved because of its durability over time. Standard maintenance products and simple
maintenance procedures also reduce long-term cost.
Discussion Questions
1.Identify two of the client’s requirements for the design project.
2.Identify an aesthetic feature of the product which meets the client’s requirements.
3.Distinguish functional features of the product that meet the client’s requirements.
4.Discuss the implications of the tactile qualities versus the visual qualities.
5.List the performance advantages of Crypton®.
6.Compare and contrast long-term appearance retention of Crypton® with vinylized fabrics.
7.Research another product that is appropriate for this application; then compare and contrast
the cost effectiveness, availability, durability, and maintenance of the new product with the
Crypton® used in the case study.
8.If cost was a factor, what other fabrics would be appropriate for assisted living facility
applications?
Textiles
GROUP RESEARCH PRESENTATION
You will work in groups to research, prepare a slideshow, and give a live oral
presentation on Go to Meeting about the designated Chapter’s topics. In addition to
that will research sustainability issues and examples in relation to that topic
Group Presentations:
G1- Upholstery: constructions + Environmental Factors / Chapters 1 &12
G2- Upholstery: maintenance / Chapters 13 & 14
G3- Window Coverings: shades and Blinds / Chapters 15 &16
G4- Window Coverings: curtains / Chapters 17 & 18
G5- Wall Coverings / Chapter 19
G6- Soft Floor Coverings: Selection & properties / Chapter 20 & 21
G7- Soft Floor Coverings: Construction / Chapter 22 & 23
G8- Soft Floor Coverings: Installation & Hand techniques / Chapter 24 & 27
•
Research Chapter theme and discuss it in relation to sustainability.
•
Getting your information only from textbook and book slides are not sufficient. It
is important that you research about the theme in other resources.
•
Research should be from Aii Online library, articles, books, journals, magazines,
lectures, Linked-in Learning (Lynda). Please at least 5 sources indicating the titles
and writers of the publication on last slide.
•
Present few examples of interior designers and companies which deals with the
chapter theme in relation to sustainability. You can use sources as websites,
interviews, videos, etc. Please include credit of designers / brands / companies
•
Include questions that you may have about it to the audience
•
The slideshow format should allow you to include images and text, like as
PowerPoint, Keynote, Prezzi, etc.
•
If showing videos online include a link in your presentation and load the video
prior to starts. Also you the advertisement and let ready to play.
Textiles
•
The oral presentation will take place on GTM. And should not be longer than 30
minutes. One of the group members will have to share screen and the others
will have to participate in the presentation as well. Please do a test run of your
presentation so that your group is familiar with the platform and online format.
•
Your presentation will be recorded.
Schedule (EST time)
Fev 18, 8:30pm/ G1-Upholstery: constructions + environmental factors / Chapters 1&12
Fev 18, 9 pm / G2- Upholstery: maintenance / Chapters 13 & 14
Fev 25, 8:30pm / G3- Window Coverings: shades and blinds / Chapters 15 & 16
Fev 25, 9 pm / G4- Window Coverings: Curtains / Chapters 17 & 18
Mar 4, 8:30pm / G5- Wall Coverings / Chapter 19
Mar 4, 9pm / G6- Soft Floor Coverings: Selection & Properties / Chapter 20 & 21
Mar 11, 8:30pm / 11am / G7- Soft Floor Coverings: Construction / Chapter 22 & 23
Mar 11, 9pm / G8- Soft Floor Coverings: Installation & Hand Techniques / Chap 24& 27
Please pick a group chose by the date/time or topic. Access doodle and write your
FirstName LastName
https://doodle.com/poll/bqhets822yh8n43y?utm_source=poll&utm_medium=link

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

error: Content is protected !!