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View at least 2 classmates’ presentations in order to form your replies. In considering your classmate’s presentation and summary, as well as what your classmate’s research involved, discuss whether it paralleled your own research. If it differed from your research, explain how it differed.

Gastric Adenocarcinoma (Heeral Lakhani)
Gastric adenocarcinomas are common in the gastroesophageal junction and further down into the stomach. Squamous cell carcinomas occur higher in the esophagus.
Histories of cancer have gone back to 4th BC where they believed something was attacking the body from the outside and penetrating the tissues and organs. Gastric
carcinomas were also believed to be contagious and occur in the same households. These, although not completely correct, do explain the environmental factors and
genetic basis associated with these cancers. Nutritional, environmental, and medical factors can all contribute to forming these adenocarcinomas. High salt diets, high
nitrate consumption, poor food preparation, smoking and infection can all exacerbate this disease. H. pylori infections are one the most common causes of this
cancer. Stomach pain, along with normal signs of stomach distress like hematemesis or coffee ground emesis, along with melena or anemia and weight loss are all
common signs associated with this disorder. Many of these signs and symptoms can be associated with other diseases like acute or chronic gastritis or Non-Hodgkin’s
lymphoma but genetic testing, blood tests, stool tests, biopsies, and other marker tests can be useful in differentiating gastric adenocarcinomas from other diseases.
Once a disease is diagnosed accurately, it is possible to begin treating these disorders. In the past, carcinomas used to be treated with wine, plants, some surgeries, or
with salts and arsenic paste. A few of these treatments are now known to cause gastric cancers. As with most cancers or diseases, an early diagnosis is essential in
treating the carcinomas otherwise palliative care is generally used for a better quality of life. Chemotherapy, medications like clarithromycin and amoxicillin, and
surgeries can help treat these cancers. The future of this disease might have more to do with classifying the disease more accurately and with treatment modalities.
I enjoyed reading and understanding more about gastric adenocarcinomas. I am more interested normally in neurological disorders and if I had the choice, I would
have chosen one of those to research and write about. However, being able to research a disease in a completely different system was insightful and helped me learn
more about a different body system. I did not realize how common adenocarcinomas are and how easily they can be affected by our diet and lifestyle. Although most
cancers have environmental factors that can methylate our DNA and lead to cancers, gastric adenocarcinomas are impacted more directly by our diet. I also did not
realize how difficult it was to classify one specific disorder and how differences in nomenclature mattered before. One if the difficulties with the classification of these
carcinomas had to do with the location and the spread of the carcinoma but this could be varied and easily misdiagnosed. Normally, before I start my research on a
disease, I just look up the specific disease on google. I normally like using emedicine.medscape.com to get a good background on the disorder so that I can use that to
guide my research and find essential search keywords when I’m looking up research articles. I found one article “History of Esophagogastric Junction Cancer Treatment
and Current Surgical Management in Western Countries that helped with the whole history section.
Berlth F, Hoelscher AH. History of Esophagogastric Junction Cancer Treatment and Current Surgical Management in Western Countries. J Gastric cancer. 2019
Jun;19(2):139-147. https://doi.org/10.5230/jgc.2019.19.18
BoÅŸoteanu, C., BoÅŸoteanu, M., & AÅŸchie, M. (2009). Differential diagnosis issues in a case of gastric carcinoma associated with leukemoid reaction. Romanian journal
of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie, 50(4), 701-705.
Dicken, B.J., Bigam, D. L., Cass, C., Mackey, J. R., Joy, A. A., & Hamilton, S. M. (2005). Gastric adenocarcinoma: review and considerations for future directions. Annals
of surgery, 241(1), 27-39. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.sla.0000149300.28588.23
John 3:16. English Standard Version. (2016). Bible Gateway. https://www.biblegateway.com (Original work published 200ohn 3:16. English Standard Version. (2016).
Bible Gateway. https://www.biblegateway.com
Hallinan, J. T., & Venkatesh, S. K. (2013). Gastric carcinoma: imaging diagnosis, staging and assessment of treatment response. Cancer imaging: the official
publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society, 13(2), 212-227. https://doi.org/10.1102/1470-7330.2013.0023
Machlowska, J., Baj, J., Sitarz, M., Maciejewski, R., & Sitarz, R. (2020). Gastric cancer: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Classification, Genomic Characteristics and
Treatment Strategies. International journal of molecular sciences, 21(11), 4012. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114012
Rawla, P., & Barsouk, A. (2019). Epidemiology of gastric cancer: global trends, risk factors and prevention. Przeglad gastroenterologiczny, 14(1), 26-38.
https://doi.org/10.5114/pg.2018.80001
Hansen’s Disease Presentation-Kayla Haase
I presented the pathology of Hansen’s disease for my video presentation. Hansen’s disease, commonly referred to as leprosy, is a chronic mycobacterial infection caused by the
bacillus Mycobacterium leprae (Bhandari et al., 2020; Scollard, 2020; Shelley et al., 2018). First originating 3,000 years ago, Hansen’s disease is now considered a completely eliminated
disease by the World Health Organization. Hansen’s disease is common in endemic and underdeveloped countries, such as Southeast Asia and Africa. However, approximately 250 new cases
are identified each year in the United States, and India and Brazil continue to have the highest prevalence of cases of Hansen’s disease. Common symptoms of Hansen’s disease include
numbness of the limbs, scarring skin sores, and granuloma formation. Additionally, Mycobacterium leprae preferentially attacks the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system, causing
severe neurological damage. Interestingly, Hansen’s disease typically has an incubation period of four years or more before an induvial will display signs of infection. Genetically, Hansen’s
disease is believed to be induced by several genes, including the PARK2 gene, which is responsible for altering macrophage response to Mycobacterium leprae invasion and eventual infection.
However, the exact genes involved in the development of Hansen’s disease are not fully known. Clinically, Hansen’s disease is identified via skin biopsies and polymerase chain reaction assays.
Additionally, there are five main types of Hansen’s disease, including tuberculoid leprosy, lepromatous leprosy, and borderline leprosy. All five forms of Hansen’s disease typically include
granuloma formation, painful lesions, and inflammation. Currently, Hansen’s disease is treated with multidrug therapy utilizing Dapsone, Rifampin, and Clofazimine. However, before multidrug
therapy was introduced, monotherapy utilizing Sulfone was the primary treatment, which often led to microbial resistance. Future treatment options to determine the efficacy of multidrug
treatments are currently being investigated. However, more research is required to determine the safety of new treatment options.
In researching Hansen’s disease, I gained a plethora of knowledge on the damaging and lasting impact Hansen’s disease has on the neurological system and physical appearance of infected
individuals. Prior to researching Hansen’s disease, I was familiar with leprosy from the Biblical story of Jesus healing the leper. However, after my research, I realized that Hansen’s disease is
not an unfamiliar disease of the past as the disease is still prevalent in developing countries today. I found that researching the genetic basis of Hansen’s disease was challenging because there
are scientific unknowns regarding the genetic causes of Hansen’s disease. In finding research databases with current journal articles discussing Hansen’s Disease, I found that the National
Center for Biotechnology Information site was extremely helpful. In regards to the area of medicine, I am currently interested in, that has not changed. I am still interested in Pediatric medicine
as I love working with children and helping children. However, I find infectious diseases to be quite interesting and researching Hansen’s disease solidified my interest in infectious diseases. I
believe researching infectious diseases that are commonly identified in children would be very fulfilling as I would be able to further help children through research.
References
Bhandari, J., Awais, M., Robbins, B. A., & Gupta, V. (2020). Leprosy. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559307/
Scollard, D. M. (2020). Leprosy treatment: Can we replace opinions with research? PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 14(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008636
Shelley, B. P., & Shenoy, M. M. (2018). Revisiting hansen’s disease: Recognizing the many neurodermatologic faces and its diagnostic challenges. Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences,
6(1), 157-170. https://doi.org/10.4103/amhs.amhs_57_18

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