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I’m gonna attached a word douc that contain 7 articles (not too big) or 7 parag each one has a question I need a brief paragraph answer for each 7 questions

1. Account of the “Starving Time” (1609-1610) – George Percy
This is an eyewitness account of the atrocities committed in desperation during the
winter famine of 1609-1610 in Jamestown, as told by the president of the
colony, George Percy. Percy was one of the wealthy gentlemen settlers who survived
the period now known as the “Starving Time” and lived to tell about it. The language is
dated, but fairly easy to understand.
What is your reaction to his account? How do you imagine you would cope with living in
such a situation? Express any other observations/reactions.
“Now all of us at James Town, beginning to feel that sharp
prick of hunger which no man truly describe but he which
has tasted the bitterness thereof, a world of miseries
ensued as the sequel will express unto you, in so much
that some to satisfy their hunger have robbed the store for
the which I caused them to be executed. Then having fed
upon horses and other beasts as long as they lasted, we
were glad to make shift with vermin as dogs, cats, rats,
and mice. All was fish that came to net to satisfy cruel
hunger as to eat boots, shoes, or any other leather some
could come by, and, those being spent and devoured,
some were enforced to search the woods and to feed upon
serpents and snakes and to dig the earth for wild and
unknown roots, where many of our men were cut off of
and slain by the savages. And now famine beginning to
look ghastly and pale in every face that nothing was
spared to maintain life and to do those things which seem
incredible as to dig up dead corpses out of graves and to
eat them, and some have licked up the blood which has
fallen from their weak fellows. And among the rest this
was most lamentable, that one of our colony murdered his
wife, ripped the child out of her womb and threw it into
the river, and after chopped the mother in pieces and
salted her for his food. The same not being discovered
before he had eaten part thereof, for the which cruel and
inhumane fact I ajudged him to be executed, the
acknowledgement of the deed being enforced from him by
torture having hung by the thumbs with weights at his
feet a quarter of an hour before he would confess the
same. . . . By this time being reasonable well recovered of
my sickness, I did undertake a journey to Algernon Fort,
both to understand how things were there ordered, as also
to have been revenged of the savages at Kekowhatan who
had treacherously slain divers of our men. Our people I
found in good case and well, liking having concealed their
plenty from us above at James Town, being so well stored
that the crab fishes where with they had fed their hogs
would have been a great relief unto us and saved many of
our lives. But their intent was for to have kept some of the
better sort alive and with their two pinnaces to have
returned for England not regarding our miseries and
wants at all, wherewith I taxed Captain Davis and told
him that I had a full intent to bring half of our men from
James Town to be there relieved and after to return them
back again and bring the rest to be sustained there also.
And if all this would not serve to save our men’s lives I
purposed to bring them all unto Algernon Fort, telling
Captain Davis that another town or fort might be erected
and built but men’s lives once lost could never be
“A Letter to the Royal Academy about Farting” – Benjamin Franklin, 1781
Benjamin Franklin was known in his time for being a genius, a practical joker, and a dirty old man. He also
had a penchant for toilet humor, as you’ll see in his 1781 letter to the British Royal Academy, in which he
encourages his contemporaries (a rather stuffy bunch, by the way) to fart without second thought. What are
your reactions/observations?
I have perused your late mathematical Prize Question,
proposed in lieu of one in Natural Philosophy, for the
ensuing year, viz. “Une figure quelconque donnee, on demande d’y
inscrire le plus grand nombre de fois possible une autre figure plus-petite
quelconque, qui est aussi donnee”. I was glad to find by these
following Words, “l’Acadeemie a jugee que cette deecouverte, en
eetendant les bornes de nos connoissances, ne seroit pas sans UTILITE”,
that you esteem Utility an essential Point in your
Enquiries, which has not always been the case with all
Academies; and I conclude therefore that you have given
this Question instead of a philosophical, or as the
Learned express it, a physical one, because you could
not at the time think of a physical one that promis’d
greater Utility.
Permit me then humbly to propose one of that sort for
your consideration, and through you, if you approve it,
for the serious Enquiry of learned Physicians, Chemists,
&c. of this enlightened Age.
It is universally well known, That in digesting our
common Food, there is created or produced in the
Bowels of human Creatures, a great Quantity of Wind.
That the permitting this Air to escape and mix with the
Atmosphere, is usually offensive to the Company, from
the fetid Smell that accompanies it.
That all well-bred People therefore, to avoid giving such
Offence, forcibly restrain the Efforts of Nature to
discharge that Wind.
That so retain’d contrary to Nature, it not only gives
frequently great present Pain, but occasions future
Diseases, such as habitual Cholics, Ruptures, Tympanies,
&c. often destructive of the Constitution, & sometimes
of Life itself.
Were it not for the odiously offensive Smell
accompanying such Escapes, polite People would
probably be under no more Restraint in discharging
such Wind in Company, than they are in spitting, or in
blowing their Noses.
My Prize Question therefore should be, To discover some Drug
wholesome & not disagreable, to be mix’d with our common Food, or Sauces,
that shall render the natural Discharges of Wind from our Bodies, not only
inoffensive, but agreable as Perfumes.
That this is not a chimerical Project, and altogether
impossible, may appear from these Considerations. That
we already have some Knowledge of Means capable
of Varying that Smell. He that dines on stale Flesh,
especially with much Addition of Onions, shall be able to
afford a Stink that no Company can tolerate; while he
that has lived for some Time on Vegetables only, shall
have that Breath so pure as to be insensible to the most
delicate Noses; and if he can manage so as to avoid the
Report, he may any where give Vent to his Griefs,
unnoticed. But as there are many to whom an entire
Vegetable Diet would be inconvenient, and as a little
Quick-Lime thrown into a Jakes will correct the amazing
Quantity of fetid Air arising from the vast Mass of putrid
Matter contain’d in such Places, and render it rather
pleasing to the Smell, who knows but that a little Powder
of Lime (or some other thing equivalent) taken in our
Food, or perhaps a Glass of Limewater drank at Dinner,
may have the same Effect on the Air produc’d in and
issuing from our Bowels? This is worth the Experiment.
Certain it is also that we have the Power of changing by
slight Means the Smell of another Discharge, that of our
Water. A few Stems of Asparagus eaten, shall give our
Urine a disagreable Odour; and a Pill of Turpentine no
bigger than a Pea, shall bestow on it the pleasing Smell
of Violets. And why should it be thought more
impossible in Nature, to find Means of making a Perfume
of our Wind than of our Water?
For the Encouragement of this Enquiry, (from the
immortal Honour to be reasonably expected by the
Inventor) let it be considered of how small Importance
to Mankind, or to how small a Part of Mankind have
been useful those Discoveries in Science that have
heretofore made Philosophers famous. Are there twenty
Men in Europe at this Day, the happier, or even the
easier, for any Knowledge they have pick’d out of
Aristotle? What Comfort can the Vortices of Descartes
give to a Man who has Whirlwinds in his Bowels! The
Knowledge of Newton’s mutual Attraction of the Particles
of Matter, can it afford Ease to him who is rack’d by their
mutual Repulsion, and the cruel Distensions it occasions?
The Pleasure arising to a few Philosophers, from seeing,
a few Times in their Life, the Threads of Light untwisted,
and separated by the Newtonian Prism into seven
Colours, can it be compared with the Ease and Comfort
every Man living might feel seven times a Day, by
discharging freely the Wind from his Bowels? Especially
if it be converted into a Perfume: For the Pleasures of
one Sense being little inferior to those of another,
instead of pleasing the Sight he might delight the Smell of
those about him, & make Numbers happy, which to a
benevolent Mind must afford infinite Satisfaction. The
generous Soul, who now endeavours to find out whether
the Friends he entertains like best Claret or Burgundy,
Champagne or Madeira, would then enquire also
whether they chose Musk or Lilly, Rose or Bergamot,
and provide accordingly. And surely such a Liberty
of Expressing one’s Scent-iments, and pleasing one another, is of
infinitely more Importance to human Happiness than
that Liberty of the Press, or of abusing one another, which the
English are so ready to fight & die for. — In short, this
Invention, if compleated, would be, as Bacon expresses
it, bringing Philosophy home to Mens Business and Bosoms. And I
cannot but conclude, that in Comparison therewith,
for universal and continual UTILITY, the Science of the
Philosophers above-mentioned, even with the Addition,
Gentlemen, of your “Figure quelconque” and the Figures
inscrib’d in it, are, all together, scarcely worth a
3. Letter from George Washington to Martha Washington, June 1775
The following is a letter from George Washington to his wife, Martha, dated June 18th-19th, 1775. What do
you make of Washington’s attitude at being chosen to lead the American forces? How would you describe his
relationship to his wife? Record any other observations.
Philadelphia, June 18th 1775
My Dearest,
I am now set down to write to you on a subject which fills me with inexpressible concern–and this
concern is greatly aggravated and Increased when I reflect upon the uneasiness I know it will give
you. It has been determined in Congress, that the whole army raised for the defence of the American
Cause shall be put under my care, and that it is necessary for me to proceed immediately to Boston to
take upon me the Command of it. You may believe me my dear Patsy, when I assure you in the most
solemn manner, that, so far from seeking this appointment, I have used every endeavor in my power
to avoid it, not only from my unwillingness to part with you and the Family, but from a consciousness
of its being a trust too great for my capacity and that I should enjoy more real happiness and felicity in
one month with you, at home, that I have the most distant prospect of reaping abroad, if my stay were
to be seven times seven years. But as it has been a kind of destiny, that has thrown me upon this
service, I shall hope that my undertaking of it is designed to answer some good purpose. You might,
and I suppose did perceive, from the Tenor of my letters, that I was apprehensive I could not avoid
this appointment, as I did not even pretend to intimate when I should return–that was the case–it was
utterly out of my power to refuse this appointment without exposing my Character to such censures
as would have reflected dishonor upon myself, and given pain to my friends. This, I am sure, could not,
and ought not to be pleasing to you, and must have lessened me considerably in my own esteem. I
shall rely therefore, confidently, on That Providence which has heretofore preserved, and been
bountiful to me, not doubting but that I shall return safe to you in the fall. I shall feel no pain from the
Toil or the danger of the Campaign. My unhappiness will flow, from the uneasiness I know you will
feel from being left alone. I therefore beg of you to summon your whole fortitude and Resolution, and
pass your time as agreeably as possible–nothing will give me so much sincere satisfaction as to hear
this, and to hear it from your own Pen.
If it should be your desire to remove into Alexandria (as you once mentioned Upon an occasion of this
sort) I am quite pleased that you should put it in practice, and Lund Washington may be directed by
you, to build a Kitchen and other Houses there proper for your reception–if on the other hand you
should rather Incline to spend good part of your time among your Friends below, I wish you to do so.
In short, my earnest, and ardent desire is that you would pursue any Plan that is most likely to
produce content, and a tolerable degree of tranquillity as it must add greatly to my uneasy feelings to
hear that you are dissatisfied, and complaining at what I really could not avoid.
As Life is always uncertain, and common prudence dictates to every Man the necessity of settling his
temporal concerns while it is in his power–and while the mind is calm and undisturbed, I have, since I
came to this place (for I had not time to do it before I left home) got Colonel Pendleton to Draft a Will
for me by the directions which I gave him, which Will I now inclose. The Provision made for you, in
case of my death, will, I hope, be agreeable; I have included the Money for which I sold my own land
(to Doct’r. Mercer) in the Sum given you, as also all other Debts. What I owe myself is very trifling-Cary’s Debt excepted, and that would not have been much if the Bank stock had been applied without
such difficulties as he made in the Transference.
I shall add nothing more at present as I have several Letters to write, but to desire you will remember
me to Milly and all Friends, and to assure you that I am, with the most unfeigned regard, my dear
Patsy, Yr Affect.
George Washington
4. Account of the Execution of Maximilien Robespierre – 1794
The following is an eyewitness account from the day French Radical Maximilien
Robespierre went to the guillotine. What are your reactions to the description of the
event? Why do you think such executions were so well-attended by the public? What
does that say about humanity in general?
“On 10 Thermidor [the 11th month of the French calendar at the time, July-August
in modern form], at four in the afternoon, the sinister procession moved out of the
courtyard of the Palais de Justice. No crowd of such a size had ever been seen in
Paris. The streets were choked with people. Spectators, men and women of all ages,
filled every window, and men had climbed on to the rooftops. There was universal
jubilation coupled with popular fury. The long-suppressed hatred against these
criminals now exploded with doubled force. Everyone applauded wildly and seemed
to be sorry they could not do more.
Most of the watchers fixed their gaze on the cart in which Robespierre, his brother,
Caution and Henriot were riding. These miserable creatures were all mutilated and
covered with blood. They looked like a band of brigands the gendarmes had
surprised in the forest and were unable to arrest without inflicting serious wounds
upon them.
It would be difficult to describe the appearance of Robespierre. His face was
wrapped in a bandage of dirty, bloodstained linen; his features were horribly
disfigured. A pale pallor made it even more repulsive. He kept his eyes downward
and almost closed; whether that was from the pain of his wounds or an awareness
of his misdeeds, one cannot say.
Just before arriving at the place of execution, Robespierre was shaken out of his
lethargy by a woman who forced her way through the crowd and rushed up to the
cart carrying this cannibal. She grasped the cart rail with one hand and threatened
Robespierre with the other, saying “Monster spewed from Hell. The thought of your
punishment intoxicates me with joy”. Robespierre opened his eyes and looked at
her sadly as she said: “Go now, evildoer, go down into your grave carrying the
curses of the wives and mothers of France!”
When the cart had reached the foot of the scaffold, the executioners carried the
tyrant down and laid him out prone until it was his turn for execution. While his
accomplices were being beheaded, Robespierre appeared not to be taking notice;
he kept his eyes shut and did not open them until he himself was carried up the
scaffold. Some said that when he saw the instrument of death, he heaved a sigh of
pain, but before dying he had to endure bitter suffering. After having thrown down
his coat, the executioner roughly tore away the bandage and splint which the
surgeon had put on his wounds. This unhinged his lower jaw from the upper jaw
and caused the blood to flow in torrents.
The wretched man’s head was now no more than an object of horror and repulsion.
When at last it was severed from his body and the executioner held it by the hair to
show to the people, it presented an indescribably horrible sight. Thus perished the
fiercest of the savage beasts, the most monstrous criminal that nature ever
conceived. On the two days that followed, 83 other rebels were put to death, mainly
members of the Commune or their outlawed accomplices.”
5. Letter to George Washington from Benedict Arnold, 1780
The following is a letter written by Benedict Arnold to George Washington following the former’s defection to
the British side. What does Arnold request from Washington? What is his tone? Is he sorry for his actions?
Record any other observations.
On Board the Vulture Sepr 25th 1780
The Heart which is Concious of its Own rectitude, Cannot attempt to paliate a Step, which the world may
Censure as wrong; I have ever acted from a Principle of Love to my Country, since the Commencement of the
present unhappy Contest between Great Britian and the Colonies, the same principle of Love to my Country
Actuates my present Conduct, however it may appear Inconsistent to the World: who very Seldom Judge right
of any Mans Actions.
I have no favor to ask for myself, I have too often experienced the Ingratitude of my Country to Attempt it: But
from the known humanity of your Excellence I am induced to ask your protection For Mrs Arnold from every
Insult and Injury that the mistaken Vengence of my Country may expose Her to: It ought to fall only on me She
is as good, and as Inocent as an Angel, and is Incapable of doing Wrong. I beg She may be permitted to return
to Her Friends in Philada or to come to me as She may choose; from your Excellencey I have no fears on Her
Account, but She may Suffer from the mistaken fury of The Country.
I have to request that the Inclosd Letter may be delivered to Mrs Arnold, and She permitted to write to me.
I have also to Ask that my Cloths & Baggage which are of little Consequence may be Sent to me, If required
their Value shall be paid in Money. I have the honor to be With great reguard & Esteem Your Excellencys Most
Obedt Hble Servt
B. Arnold
N. B. In Justice to the Gentlemen of my Family Colonel Varick & Major Franks, I think myself in honor bound to
declare, that they as well as Joshua Smith Esqr. (who I know is suspected) are totally Ignorant of any
transactions of mine that they had reason to believe were Injurious to the Public.
6. Indian Removal Act Political Cartoon – c. 1830
A lot is happening in this political cartoon, published c. 1830. It is difficult to make out
everything, but describe a little bit of what you see. What symbolism is used here?
7. “On Indian Removal” – Andrew Jackson, 1830
The following is a transcript of Andrew Jackson’s message to Congress concerning the
Indian Removal Act of 1830. What stands out to you? Is he sincere in his wording and
message concerning the natives? What sort of precedent does this set concerning
ideas like “separate but equal”?
It gives me pleasure to announce to Congress that the
benevolent policy of the Government, steadily pursued for
nearly thirty years, in relation to the removal of the Indians
beyond the white settlements is approaching to a happy
consummation. Two important tribes have accepted the
provision made for their removal at the last session of
Congress, and it is believed that their example will induce
the remaining tribes also to seek the same obvious
The consequences of a speedy removal will be important to
the United States, to individual States, and to the Indians
themselves. The pecuniary advantages which it promises to
the Government are the least of its recommendations. It puts
an end to all possible danger of collision between the
authorities of the General and State Governments on account
of the Indians. It will place a dense and civilized population
in large tracts of country now occupied by a few savage
hunters. By opening the whole territory between Tennessee
on the north and Louisiana on the south to the settlement of
the whites it will incalculably strengthen the southwestern
frontier and render the adjacent States strong enough to
repel future invasions without remote aid. It will relieve the
whole State of Mississippi and the western part of Alabama
of Indian occupancy, and enable those States to advance
rapidly in population, wealth, and power. It will separate the
Indians from immediate contact with settlements of whites;
free them from the power of the States; enable them to
pursue happiness in their own way and under their own
rude institutions; will retard the progress of decay, which is
lessening their numbers, and perhaps cause them gradually,
under the protection of the Government and through the
influence of good counsels, to cast off their savage habits and
become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community.
What good man would prefer a country covered with forests
and ranged by a few thousand savages to our extensive
Republic, studded with cities, towns, and prosperous farms
embellished with all the improvements which art can devise
or industry execute, occupied by more than 12,000,000
happy people, and filled with all the blessings of liberty,
civilization and religion?
The present policy of the Government is but a continuation
of the same progressive change by a milder process. The
tribes which occupied the countries now constituting the
Eastern States were annihilated or have melted away to
make room for the whites. The waves of population and
civilization are rolling to the westward, and we now propose
to acquire the countries occupied by the red men of the
South and West by a fair exchange, and, at the expense of the
United States, to send them to land where their existence
may be prolonged and perhaps made perpetual. Doubtless it
will be painful to leave the graves of their fathers; but what
do they more than our ancestors did or than our children are
now doing? To better their condition in an unknown land
our forefathers left all that was dear in earthly objects. Our
children by thousands yearly leave the land of their birth to
seek new homes in distant regions. Does Humanity weep at
these painful separations from everything, animate and
inanimate, with which the young heart has become
entwined? Far from it. It is rather a source of joy that our
country affords scope where our young population may
range unconstrained in body or in mind, developing the
power and facilities of man in their highest perfection. These
remove hundreds and almost thousands of miles at their
own expense, purchase the lands they occupy, and support
themselves at their new homes from the moment of their
arrival. Can it be cruel in this Government when, by events
which it can not control, the Indian is made discontented in
his ancient home to purchase his lands, to give him a new
and extensive territory, to pay the expense of his removal,
and support him a year in his new abode? How many
thousands of our own people would gladly embrace the
opportunity of removing to the West on such conditions! If
the offers made to the Indians were extended to them, they
would be hailed with gratitude and joy.
And is it supposed that the wandering savage has a stronger
attachment to his home than the settled, civilized Christian?
Is it more afflicting to him to leave the graves of his fathers
than it is to our brothers and children? Rightly considered,
the policy of the General Government toward the red man is
not only liberal, but generous. He is unwilling to submit to
the laws of the States and mingle with their population. To
save him from this alternative, or perhaps utter annihilation,
the General Government kindly offers him a new home, and
proposes to pay the whole expense of his removal and

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