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In Module 1, you submitted drafts of three important components for your Final Project; these components are essential parts of any research:

The

problem statement

describes one research problem supported by the latest and greatest research in your field. Remember to start with a social problem and move from there to the research problem, which is supported by and identified as a gap in the literature.

The

purpose statement

flows from the problem statement, and identifies how your particular study will address the problem.

The

research questions

align with the purpose and the problem. In other words, answering your research questions will address the purpose and the problem of your study. The design of your study must help you answer the research questions.

In this FPM Assignment, you revisit these three components, submitting any revisions you have made based on new learning. In addition, you justify the use of MMR, and select a conceptual framework for your Final Project. Note that your conceptual framework can be constructed from your understanding of important theories and/or from important concepts you find in the literature.

For more information about how to structure conceptual frameworks, review Chapter 3 of the Maxwell text, the Conceptual Frameworks Learning Object, and the Dawidowicz article on alignment located in the Learning Resources.

To prepare:

Think about the revisions you need to make to the Final Project elements you submitted last week: problem statement, purpose statement, and research question(s).

Review your Assignment from this Module, in which you applied Figure 1.6 from the course text to research studies in a field that interests you. Think about how those analyses may inform your own research and writing.

Review the Discussion in this Module, in which you explained your framework and the alignment of problem, purpose, questions, and so forth. Think about how the feedback from your peers and the instructor can help you enhance your framework and your rationale for the use of MMR.

By Day 7 of Week 5

Submit a five-page paper that includes the following components:

Revised versions of your problem, purpose and research questions. Be sure to identify revisions made on the work you submitted for the Module 1 Final Project Milestone.

A completed version of Figure 1.6 for your proposed study.

Justification of the use of MMR, based on the readings and on the peer feedback you received in the Discussion.

A conceptual framework appropriate for your study, and an explanation for your choice. Describe how the framework you chose informs your questions and your planned MMR approach.

Citations and References in APA.

Final Project Milestone: Justifying Mixed
Methods Research
In Module 1, you submitted drafts of three important components for your Final Project;
these components are essential parts of any research:
• The problem statement describes one research problem supported by the latest and
greatest research in your field. Remember to start with a social problem and move
from there to the research problem, which is supported by and identified as a gap in
the literature.
• The purpose statement flows from the problem statement, and identifies how your
particular study will address the problem.
• The research questions align with the purpose and the problem. In other words,
answering your research questions will address the purpose and the problem of
your study. The design of your study must help you answer the research questions.
In this FPM Assignment, you revisit these three components, submitting any revisions you
have made based on new learning. In addition, you justify the use of MMR, and select a
conceptual framework for your Final Project. Note that your conceptual framework can be
constructed from your understanding of important theories and/or from important
concepts you find in the literature.
For more information about how to structure conceptual frameworks, review Chapter 3 of
the Maxwell text, the Conceptual Frameworks Learning Object, and the Dawidowicz article
on alignment located in the Learning Resources.
To prepare:
• Think about the revisions you need to make to the Final Project elements you
submitted last week: problem statement, purpose statement, and research
question(s).
• Review your Assignment from this Module, in which you applied Figure 1.6 from the
course text to research studies in a field that interests you. Think about how those
analyses may inform your own research and writing.
• Review the Discussion in this Module, in which you explained your framework and
the alignment of problem, purpose, questions, and so forth. Think about how the
feedback from your peers and the instructor can help you enhance your framework
and your rationale for the use of MMR.
By Day 7 of Week 5
Submit a five-page paper that includes the following components:
• Revised versions of your problem, purpose and research questions. Be sure to
identify revisions made on the work you submitted for the Module 1 Final Project
Milestone.
• A completed version of Figure 1.6 for your proposed study.
• Justification of the use of MMR, based on the readings and on the peer feedback you
received in the Discussion.
• A conceptual framework appropriate for your study, and an explanation for your
choice. Describe how the framework you chose informs your questions and your
planned MMR approach.
• Citations and References in APA.
1
Analyzing Mixed Methods Research (MMR) Studies
Analyzing Mixed Methods Research (MMR) Studies
RSCH 8460: Advanced Mixed-Methods Reasoning and Analysis
Noonan, A. S., Velasco-Mondragon, H. E., & Wagner, F. A. (2016). Improving the health of
African Americans in the USA: an overdue opportunity for social justice. Public health
reviews, 37(1), 1-20.
The rationale
2
In the United States, racial minorities have endured a substantial disease burden and poor
health outcomes due to their racial identity and social biases. This is linked to black minorities’
lower socioeconomic status. The inequality in health outcomes that African Americans
experience in the United States is the focus of the research being conducted. In this article, we
will be using a revised version of the social-ecological model to conduct a literature and statistics
review on the subject of the health of African Americans. The social determinants of health are
examined to understand the causes that contribute to African Americans having
disproportionately poorer health outcomes.
The Research questions
The authors of this article aimed to address the issue of health disparities among African
Americans in the United States. The researcher specifically wanted to highlight the importance of
addressing this issue from a social justice perspective. Additionally, the authors hoped to provide
possible solutions for improving the health of African Americans in the United States. The author
tries to establish the need to identify the various risk factors contributing to the development of
health disparities among various ethnic groups and how the race and ethnic disparities influence
healthcare among African-American groups. The research investigates the ways in which policies
in the United States, infrastructure, poverty, incarceration, racial discrimination both now and in
the past, violence, and other environmental exposures influence a variety of health conditions
among African Americans, which ultimately results in poor health outcomes for this ethnic group
in the country.
Assumptions, biases, and points of view
3
The underlying premise is that people of African American descent in the United States
do not receive the same standard of medical treatment as people of other ethnicities in the
country. The fact that there are differences in healthcare based on race provides the foundation
for this claim. As a result, African Americans in the United States have poorer health outcomes
than other groups in the country, and they have a higher risk of dying from diseases that could
have been prevented. However, in this article, from the very beginning, the author intends to
present a historical explanation of the poor health outcomes of African Americans. While the
history of slavery and subsequent systemic discrimination has a major role to play in the current
predicament of African Americans. This article presumes that position already and consequently
bases its argument on this fact. While it may be accurate, there is minimal room for other
explanations for the cause of healthcare disparities.
Quantitative and qualitative elements
The article effectively combines quantitative and qualitative aspects of research. In terms
of quantitative analysis, the information on which the article is based is obtained through data
and statistics regarding health phenomena in the United States. Qualitative data is through the
review of current literature on African American health. In their research on how the health of
African Americans in the United States can be improved, the researchers took both qualitative
and quantitative methods. The statistical evidence revealed that the health results of African
Americans in the United States are lower than those of other groups in the country. According to
the findings from the qualitative research, African Americans are less likely to have faith in the
nation’s healthcare system and less access to medical treatment.
The methodology
4
The methodology makes sense as a way of answering the research question. MMR is
important in this study because it measures healthcare disparities. The study uses a modified
social-ecological model to review the literature and nationwide statistics on the topic of African
American health. This study highlights the significance of the MMR because it is a measurement
of healthcare inequities. Because the MMR for African Americans in the United States is higher
than it is for other groups in the country, people of that race have a greater risk of passing away
from diseases that may have been prevented.
The findings
The research presents the general inference from literature and statistics that African
Americans are the least healthy ethnic group in the United States. The study also reveals that the
situation is due to systemic causes such as the legacy of slavery and racial discrimination,
incarceration, poverty, and violence at higher levels than the rest of the ethnic groups. The
authors’ research questions are well-focused, and their methodology is appropriate for answering
these questions. In addition, the use of data from multiple sources adds credibility to their
findings.
The credibility
The conclusion drawn from the assessment is that the social conditions of the African
Americans constitute a suboptimal environment that leaves them at a higher-than-normal risk of
various comorbidities. Furthermore, the research identifies the various social factors and backs
them up with statistics that show differences between African Americans and other races.
Therefore, the proposed correlation between poorer social conditions and comorbidities can be
credible because both theory and data back it.
5
Missing information and holes
The authors did not examine the role of specific social justice interventions in improving
health outcomes. Despite these limitations, this study provides valuable insights into the
relationship between social justice and health outcomes in African Americans. The study has
data on the different conditions of African Americans in the United States. The data includes
historical information and residences, which are then utilized to explain suboptimal health
among African Americans. However, the researchers explicitly indicate that a direct causal
pathway between the social status showing a disadvantaged population and health status remains
elusive. This is the missing link in otherwise compelling research.
Value of the study
The audience that would find this study valuable are health professionals, policymakers,
and researchers interested in improving African Americans’ health in the USA. I would
recommend this study to MMR colleagues because it provides an overview of African
Americans’ current state of health in the USA and discusses potential interventions to improve
their health. In addition, the study identifies possible solutions to address the current problem. It
is proposed that there is a need for systemic solutions such as social development programs,
investment in education, and improving accessibility and participation of African Americans in
policy formulation. Therefore, the research offers solutions to bridge the gap in healthcare
quality.
Recommendation
I could recommend this research to colleagues. It combines a qualitative and quantitative
approach to data collection and analysis, providing a broader view of the topic. Furthermore, I
6
find it exceptionally reliable because it uses current statistics to explain the phenomenon.
Therefore, it is possible to trust the research process and reproduce results in case it is necessary
to prove its validity and applicability.
References
7
Baciu, A., Negussie, Y., Geller, A., Weinstein, J. N., & National Academies of Sciences,
Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). The state of health disparities in the United States.
In Communities in action: Pathways to health equity. National Academies Press (US).
Noonan, A. S., Velasco-Mondragon, H. E., & Wagner, F. A. (2016). Improving the health of
African Americans in the USA: an overdue opportunity for social justice. Public health
reviews, 37(1), 1-20.
The following are the background and purposes of this study
The background about the study Noonan, A. S., Velasco-Mondragon, H. E., & Wagner, F. A. (2016). Improving the health of African Americans
The Health of African American in the US Health disparities
Social determinants of health
MMR
MMR Rationales
DEFINITIONS
Quantitative and Qualitative analysis
Hypothesis
Research Design
Experimentation Results
Conclusion
MMR Research
Design
MMR Quality
MMR and other
approaches
PERSONAL CONTEXTS
INTERPERSONAL CONTEXTS
SOCIAL CONTEXTS
Baciu, A., Negussie, Y., Geller, A., Weinstein, J. N., & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). The state
of health disparities in the United States.
Interventions to address
disparities
Health disparities
Policies
Access
Social determinants of health
Health Risks
Introduction
Background
Race
Poverty
Hypothesis
Research Design
Experimentation
Results
Conclusions
Research Design
Hypothesis
Morbidity
Findings
Burden of
disease
Gender
PERSONAL CONTEXTS
Utilization
Mortality
INTERPERSONAL CONTEXTS
SOCIAL CONTEXTS
Mental Health
Learning Resources
Course Toolbox
Document: RSCH 8460 Final Project Guidelines (PDF)
Document: Research Design Alignment Grid (PDF)
Walden University. (2016). How do I find a measurement, test, survey, or instrument?
Retrieved from http://academicanswers.waldenu.edu/faq/72673
Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (n.d.). Institutional Review
Board for Ethical Standards in Research. Retrieved from
http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/orec
Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (n.d.) MMR Dissertation
Checklist. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu. edu/researchcenter/osra/phd
Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (n.d.) Professional Doctorate
Capstone Checklist (depending upon your degree). Retrieved from
http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/osra/professionaldoctoral
Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (n.d.) Oral Defense Archives.
Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/osra/oraldefense
Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (n.d.). Research ethics &
compliance: Application & general materials. Retrieved from:
http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/orec/application#s-lg-box-2713767
Walden University Writing Center. (n.d.) Where can I find a literature review matrix?
Retrieved from: http://academicanswers.waldenu.edu/a.php?qid=683906
Walden University Library (Director). (2016, September 22). Finding mixed methods
studies [Video file]. Retrieved November 4, 2016. https://youtu.be/VmfCUoxQHdQ.
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 2 minutes.
Walden University Library. (n.d.). Form and style checklists. Retrieved from:
http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/formandstyle/process/checklist
Required Readings
Plano Clark, V. L., & Ivankova, N. V. (2016). Mixed methods research: A guide to the field.
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
• Chapter 9, “How Do Interpersonal Contexts Shape Mixed Methods?
Considering Interactions With Research Participants, Teams and Reviewers
in Mixed Methods Research”
The authors discuss interpersonal contexts including research ethics,
relationships within and among participant and researcher groups, and
constraints of publishing requirements. Pay special attention to Tables 9.2
and 9.4.
•
Chapter 10, “How Do Social Contexts Shape Mixed Methods? Considering
Institutional, Disciplinary and Societal Influences on Mixed Methods
Research”
This chapter describes social contexts that shape research decisions and
structures. Concentrate on institutional, disciplinary and societal contexts,
particularly as they relate to social change.
•
Chapter 4, “Why use Mixed Methods Research? Identifying Rationales for
Mixing Methods”
This chapter explores reasons for using MMR, such as offsetting the strengths
and weaknesses of “only quantitative” and “only qualitative,” triangulation,
complementarity, social justice, and development.
Maxwell, J. A. (2013). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (3rd ed.).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. p. 39–72.
Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach, 3rd Edition by Maxwell, J. Copyright 2013 by Sage College. Reprinted by permission of Sage College
via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Maxwell discusses conceptual frameworks primarily from the perspective of a qualitative
researcher. However, the overall ideas and suggestions are pertinent to the conceptual
framework created for MMR. You might rely more on incorporating theory than experience
since you are using quantitative as well as qualitative data and approaches.
Required Media
Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2016a). Introduction to context, concepts,
relationships, frameworks, and alignment [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 6 minutes.
Begin each module of the course by viewing the introduction video, in which experienced
statistics instructor Dr. Annie Pezalla provides context for new learning, explains statistical
concept and methods in easy-to-understand language, and describes the learning activities
you will need to complete.
Final Project Milestone: Justifying Mixed Methods Research
In Module 1, you submitted drafts of three important components for your Final Project;
these components are essential parts of any research:
• The problem statement describes one research problem supported by the latest and
greatest research in your field. Remember to start with a social problem and move
from there to the research problem, which is supported by and identified as a gap in
the literature.
• The purpose statement flows from the problem statement, and identifies how your
particular study will address the problem.
• The research questions align with the purpose and the problem. In other words,
answering your research questions will address the purpose and the problem of
your study. The design of your study must help you answer the research questions.
In this FPM Assignment, you revisit these three components, submitting any revisions you
have made based on new learning. In addition, you justify the use of MMR, and select a
conceptual framework for your Final Project. Note that your conceptual framework can be
constructed from your understanding of important theories and/or from important
concepts you find in the literature.
For more information about how to structure conceptual frameworks, review Chapter 3 of
the Maxwell text, the Conceptual Frameworks Learning Object, and the Dawidowicz article
on alignment located in the Learning Resources.
To prepare:
• Think about the revisions you need to make to the Final Project elements you
submitted last week: problem statement, purpose statement, and research
question(s).
• Review your Assignment from this Module, in which you applied Figure 1.6 from the
course text to research studies in a field that interests you. Think about how those
analyses may inform your own research and writing.
• Review the Discussion in this Module, in which you explained your framework and
the alignment of problem, purpose, questions, and so forth. Think about how the
feedback from your peers and the instructor can help you enhance your framework
and your rationale for the use of MMR.
By Day 7 of Week 5
Submit a five-page paper that includes the following components:
• Revised versions of your problem, purpose and research questions. Be sure to
identify revisions made on the work you submitted for the Module 1 Final Project
Milestone.
• A completed version of Figure 1.6 for your proposed study.
• Justification of the use of MMR, based on the readings and on the peer feedback you
received in the Discussion.
• A conceptual framework appropriate for your study, and an explanation for your
choice. Describe how the framework you chose informs your questions and your
planned MMR approach.
• Citations and References in APA.
Learning Resources
Course Toolbox
Document: RSCH 8460 Final Project Guidelines (PDF)
Document: Research Design Alignment Grid (PDF)
Walden University. (2016). How do I find a measurement, test, survey, or instrument?
Retrieved from http://academicanswers.waldenu.edu/faq/72673
Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (n.d.). Institutional Review
Board for Ethical Standards in Research. Retrieved from
http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/orec
Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (n.d.) MMR Dissertation
Checklist. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu. edu/researchcenter/osra/phd
Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (n.d.) Professional Doctorate
Capstone Checklist (depending upon your degree). Retrieved from
http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/osra/professionaldoctoral
Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (n.d.) Oral Defense Archives.
Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/osra/oraldefense
Walden University Office of Research and Doctoral Services. (n.d.). Research ethics &
compliance: Application & general materials. Retrieved from:
http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/orec/application#s-lg-box-2713767
Walden University Writing Center. (n.d.) Where can I find a literature review matrix?
Retrieved from: http://academicanswers.waldenu.edu/a.php?qid=683906
Walden University Library (Director). (2016, September 22). Finding mixed methods
studies [Video file]. Retrieved November 4, 2016. https://youtu.be/VmfCUoxQHdQ.
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 2 minutes.
Walden University Library. (n.d.). Form and style checklists. Retrieved from:
http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/formandstyle/process/checklist
Required Readings
Plano Clark, V. L., & Ivankova, N. V. (2016). Mixed methods research: A guide to the field.
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
• Chapter 9, “How Do Interpersonal Contexts Shape Mixed Methods?
Considering Interactions With Research Participants, Teams and Reviewers
in Mixed Methods Research”
The authors discuss interpersonal contexts including research ethics,
relationships within and among participant and researcher groups, and
constraints of publishing requirements. Pay special attention to Tables 9.2
and 9.4.
•
Chapter 10, “How Do Social Contexts Shape Mixed Methods? Considering
Institutional, Disciplinary and Societal Influences on Mixed Methods
Research”
This chapter describes social contexts that shape research decisions and
structures. Concentrate on institutional, disciplinary and societal contexts,
particularly as they relate to social change.
•
Chapter 4, “Why use Mixed Methods Research? Identifying Rationales for
Mixing Methods”
This chapter explores reasons for using MMR, such as offsetting the strengths
and weaknesses of “only quantitative” and “only qualitative,” triangulation,
complementarity, social justice, and development.
Maxwell, J. A. (2013). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (3rd ed.).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. p. 39–72.
Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach, 3rd Edition by Maxwell, J. Copyright 2013 by Sage College. Reprinted by permission of Sage College
via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Maxwell discusses conceptual frameworks primarily from the perspective of a qualitative
researcher. However, the overall ideas and suggestions are pertinent to the conceptual
framework created for MMR. You might rely more on incorporating theory than experience
since you are using quantitative as well as qualitative data and approaches.
Required Media
Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2016a). Introduction to context, concepts,
relationships, frameworks, and alignment [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 6 minutes.
Begin each module of the course by viewing the introduction video, in which experienced
statistics instructor Dr. Annie Pezalla provides context for new learning, explains statistical
concept and methods in easy-to-understand language, and describes the learning activities
you will need to complete.
Introduction to Context, Concepts, Relationships, Frameworks, and Alignment: Module 2
Introduction to Context, Concepts, Relationships, Frameworks,
and Alignment: Module 2
Program Transcript
[MUSIC PLAYING]
DR. CHRISTINA M. DAWSON: Hi, I’m Tina Dawson. And we’re going to talk
about module two, which incorporates understanding concepts, potential
relationships, alignment, and framework. And in this module, you’re going to
review the research of others, as far as how all the elements fit or don’t fit, how
well they are explained. Critiquing is an important skill for you to have as a
research consumer.
You’re going to share your own research as far as you understand it at this
moment. What are the potential relationships you’re investigating? And how are
you thinking about your framework and your alignment at this moment? And
you’re going to critique your colleagues work and give them feedback and
creative supportive suggestions.
So what does alignment mean? Alignment means that you’ve developed a
problem statement based on research. And you’ve looked at how the problem
has been addressed or not addressed. You’ve developed a purpose statement
for your particular study. And now, it’s going to address the problem.
You have chosen research questions. And the research questions illustrate and
lead you to the kinds of data that you need and have confirmed that you need to
use mixed methods to create your study.
So mixed methods research can be messy– any research with people– but
particularly, mixed methods because you’re pulling from multiple approaches and
ideas. And you’re dealing with different kinds of data. There are lots of layers-sociocultural layers, interpersonal layers, within person layers.
And as the authors of the textbook have created a framework to help explain
mixed methods research overall and to help you see different ways to structure a
mixed methods study, you are going to create a framework that informs and
supports the choices that you’ve made for yourself, your committee, and the
readers of your work.
So for example, many educators are interested in helping teachers in general
education better serve students with autism. There are many different ways to
consider that study and to turn it into two or three different kinds of studies. And
in fact, students at Walden have done this at the elementary level and at the high
school level.
© 2017-2021 Walden University, LLC
1
Introduction to Context, Concepts, Relationships, Frameworks, and Alignment: Module 2
At the elementary level, you want to think about perhaps identification of children,
how well-prepared teachers are. So then maybe you take a step back and look
at, well, how are we really helping pre-service teachers understand the needs
and helping them build confidence in approaching working with children with
autism? And maybe we need to also include the perspectives of the faculty
members who are working with those pre-service teachers.
So your framework elements are going to look at how do you inform these
perspectives. So you want to get data from the students and from the faculty
members. So perhaps you use a survey to gather multiple students’
perspectives. And then you do an in-depth interview set with faculty members to
pull the perspectives together.
So your framework elements would be, what are the similarities and differences?
What are the relationships that the faculty members have with the students?
What kinds of experiences do the students have that reflect and help create their
perspectives?
And then for practicing teachers at the elementary or high school level, the study
that was done at the high school level, then a survey was done nationally on
what are the perspectives and needs of teachers who are working with children
with autism. And then in-depth interviews followed to really get at a deeper
understanding.
So the concepts and relationships there are more about I’ve worked with these
children. I know some of the issues that I have. What are the problems that need
to be addressed?
So the frameworks would look very different and feel different. The alignment
pieces would come together similarly because the problem would be how do
educators improve the relationships and the understandings of general Ed
teachers who work with children with autism. But the settings are very different.
The potential relationships are very different. And the final ways that you put the
data together and the different data sources you consider are very different. But
all of the pieces from the literature and from the frameworks that you’ve
developed help you explain the choices and why you made them.
So what does alignment mean? Alignment means that you’ve developed a
problem statement based on the latest and greatest research. And you’ve looked
at how the problem has been addressed or not addressed. You’ve developed a
purpose statement for your particular study and how it’s going to address the
problem. You have chosen research questions. And the research questions
illustrate and lead you to the kinds of data that you need and have confirmed that
you need to use mixed methods to create your study.
[MUSIC PLAYING]
© 2017-2021 Walden University, LLC
2
Introduction to Context, Concepts, Relationships, Frameworks, and Alignment: Module 2
Introduction to Context, Concepts, Relationships, Frameworks,
and Alignment: Module 2
Additional Content Attribution
FOOTAGE:
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© 2017-2021 Walden University, LLC
3
The following are the background and purposes of this study
The background about the study Noonan, A. S., Velasco-Mondragon, H. E., & Wagner, F. A. (2016). Improving the health of African Americans
The Health of African American in the US Health disparities
Social determinants of health
MMR
MMR Rationales
DEFINITIONS
Quantitative and Qualitative analysis
Hypothesis
Research Design
Experimentation Results
Conclusion
MMR Research
Design
MMR Quality
MMR and other
approaches
PERSONAL CONTEXTS
INTERPERSONAL CONTEXTS
SOCIAL CONTEXTS
Baciu, A., Negussie, Y., Geller, A., Weinstein, J. N., & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). The state
of health disparities in the United States.
Interventions to address
disparities
Health disparities
Policies
Access
Social determinants of health
Health Risks
Introduction
Background
Race
Poverty
Hypothesis
Research Design
Experimentation
Results
Conclusions
Research Design
Hypothesis
Morbidity
Findings
Burden of
disease
Gender
PERSONAL CONTEXTS
Utilization
Mortality
INTERPERSONAL CONTEXTS
SOCIAL CONTEXTS
Mental Health
1
Analyzing Mixed Methods Research (MMR) Studies
Analyzing Mixed Methods Research (MMR) Studies
RSCH 8460: Advanced Mixed-Methods Reasoning and Analysis
PREVIOUS ASSIGNMENT
Noonan, A. S., Velasco-Mondragon, H. E., & Wagner, F. A. (2016). Improving the health of
African Americans in the USA: an overdue opportunity for social justice. Public health
reviews, 37(1), 1-20.
The rationale
2
In the United States, racial minorities have endured a substantial disease burden and poor
health outcomes due to their racial identity and social biases. This is linked to black minorities’
lower socioeconomic status. The inequality in health outcomes that African Americans
experience in the United States is the focus of the research being conducted. In this article, we
will be using a revised version of the social-ecological model to conduct a literature and statistics
review on the subject of the health of African Americans. The social determinants of health are
examined to understand the causes that contribute to African Americans having
disproportionately poorer health outcomes.
The Research questions
The authors of this article aimed to address the issue of health disparities among African
Americans in the United States. The researcher specifically wanted to highlight the importance of
addressing this issue from a social justice perspective. Additionally, the authors hoped to provide
possible solutions for improving the health of African Americans in the United States. The author
tries to establish the need to identify the various risk factors contributing to the development of
health disparities among various ethnic groups and how the race and ethnic disparities influence
healthcare among African-American groups. The research investigates the ways in which policies
in the United States, infrastructure, poverty, incarceration, racial discrimination both now and in
the past, violence, and other environmental exposures influence a variety of health conditions
among African Americans, which ultimately results in poor health outcomes for this ethnic group
in the country.
Assumptions, biases, and points of view
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The underlying premise is that people of African American descent in the United States
do not receive the same standard of medical treatment as people of other ethnicities in the
country. The fact that there are differences in healthcare based on race provides the foundation
for this claim. As a result, African Americans in the United States have poorer health outcomes
than other groups in the country, and they have a higher risk of dying from diseases that could
have been prevented. However, in this article, from the very beginning, the author intends to
present a historical explanation of the poor health outcomes of African Americans. While the
history of slavery and subsequent systemic discrimination has a major role to play in the current
predicament of African Americans. This article presumes that position already and consequently
bases its argument on this fact. While it may be accurate, there is minimal room for other
explanations for the cause of healthcare disparities.
Quantitative and qualitative elements
The article effectively combines quantitative and qualitative aspects of research. In terms
of quantitative analysis, the information on which the article is based is obtained through data
and statistics regarding health phenomena in the United States. Qualitative data is through the
review of current literature on African American health. In their research on how the health of
African Americans in the United States can be improved, the researchers took both qualitative
and quantitative methods. The statistical evidence revealed that the health results of African
Americans in the United States are lower than those of other groups in the country. According to
the findings from the qualitative research, African Americans are less likely to have faith in the
nation’s healthcare system and less access to medical treatment.
The methodology
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The methodology makes sense as a way of answering the research question. MMR is
important in this study because it measures healthcare disparities. The study uses a modified
social-ecological model to review the literature and nationwide statistics on the topic of African
American health. This study highlights the significance of the MMR because it is a measurement
of healthcare inequities. Because the MMR for African Americans in the United States is higher
than it is for other groups in the country, people of that race have a greater risk of passing away
from diseases that may have been prevented.
The findings
The research presents the general inference from literature and statistics that African
Americans are the least healthy ethnic group in the United States. The study also reveals that the
situation is due to systemic causes such as the legacy of slavery and racial discrimination,
incarceration, poverty, and violence at higher levels than the rest of the ethnic groups. The
authors’ research questions are well-focused, and their methodology is appropriate for answering
these questions. In addition, the use of data from multiple sources adds credibility to their
findings.
The credibility
The conclusion drawn from the assessment is that the social conditions of the African
Americans constitute a suboptimal environment that leaves them at a higher-than-normal risk of
various comorbidities. Furthermore, the research identifies the various social factors and backs
them up with statistics that show differences between African Americans and other races.
Therefore, the proposed correlation between poorer social conditions and comorbidities can be
credible because both theory and data back it.
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Missing information and holes
The authors did not examine the role of specific social justice interventions in improving
health outcomes. Despite these limitations, this study provides valuable insights into the
relationship between social justice and health outcomes in African Americans. The study has
data on the different conditions of African Americans in the United States. The data includes
historical information and residences, which are then utilized to explain suboptimal health
among African Americans. However, the researchers explicitly indicate that a direct causal
pathway between the social status showing a disadvantaged population and health status remains
elusive. This is the missing link in otherwise compelling research.
Value of the study
The audience that would find this study valuable are health professionals, policymakers,
and researchers interested in improving African Americans’ health in the USA. I would
recommend this study to MMR colleagues because it provides an overview of African
Americans’ current state of health in the USA and discusses potential interventions to improve
their health. In addition, the study identifies possible solutions to address the current problem. It
is proposed that there is a need for systemic solutions such as social development programs,
investment in education, and improving accessibility and participation of African Americans in
policy formulation. Therefore, the research offers solutions to bridge the gap in healthcare
quality.
Recommendation
I could recommend this research to colleagues. It combines a qualitative and quantitative
approach to data collection and analysis, providing a broader view of the topic. Furthermore, I
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find it exceptionally reliable because it uses current statistics to explain the phenomenon.
Therefore, it is possible to trust the research process and reproduce results in case it is necessary
to prove its validity and applicability.
References
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Baciu, A., Negussie, Y., Geller, A., Weinstein, J. N., & National Academies of Sciences,
Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). The state of health disparities in the United States.
In Communities in action: Pathways to health equity. National Academies Press (US).
Noonan, A. S., Velasco-Mondragon, H. E., & Wagner, F. A. (2016). Improving the health of
African Americans in the USA: an overdue opportunity for social justice. Public health
reviews, 37(1), 1-20.

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