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7 must-have project management skills | CIO

2. Rate yourself: Discuss which of these project management skills you think you have mastered. (Write a minimum of 4 sentences.)

3. Discuss the skills you think you still need to work on. (Write a minimum of 4 sentences.)

2.read intelligent enterprise

then answer questions.

1. How is AI impacting business process automation? (Write a minimum of 4 sentences)

2. How is AI impacting cyber-security? (Write a minimum of 4 sentences)

3. How is AI impacting data management? (Write a minimum of 4 sentences)

4. Define the following three terms used in the article: adaptive response, the cyber-human learning loop, and adhocracy (as opposed to hierarchy). (Write a minimum of 4 sentences for each term = 12 sentences)

3. read

19 Data and Analytics Predictions Through 2025 – Business 2 Community

1. Which one of the predictions in the article surprises, impresses, or even scares you the most, and why? (Write a minimum of 4 sentences)

2. Respond to another student’s posting. (Write a minimum of 4 sentences)

E X E C U T I V E | S C H O L A R E XC H A N G E
The Dawn of the
Intelligent Enterprise:
Artificial Intelligence and
Machine Learning Power
the New Workforce
E X E C U T I V E | S C H O L A R E XC H A N G E
AI-powered systems are increasingly joining humans in
the workforce. The following perspectives from an industry executive and a scholar explore how
these systems will change the enterprise and require new strategies for process and organizational design.
Dain Hansen
VP Cloud Business
product marketing,
EXECUTIVE: Artificial intelligence
warehouse stocks are depleted, and flagging financial trans-
(AI) is transforming many aspects of
actions that appear to be fraudulent. According to De’Onn
our personal and professional lives,
Griffin, research director at Gartner, during the next 10 years,
from logistics systems that select
CIOs need to prepare for this “killer combo” of people plus
the fastest shipping routes to dig-
technology.1 The digital component of most jobs will acceler-
ital assistants that unlock doors,
ate, she predicts, putting an emphasis on “digital dexterity”
turn on lights, and get to know our
within the workforce — that is, the ability to use technology for
shopping preferences. The most
better business outcomes.
advanced AI systems use machine
learning technology to analyze
AI is having a particular impact on information technology (IT)
current conditions and learn from
operations such as cybersecurity, database management, and
experience. Within the workplace,
business process automation. In all three cases, the whole —
these self-directed agents are giving rise to the intelligent
people plus technology — is quickly becoming greater than the
enterprise: organizations where people make decisions with
sum of its parts.
the help of intelligent machines.
Business Process Automation
AI is no longer the far-out realm of science fiction. These
AI is reshaping the business applications we use every day.
autonomous agents enhance the routine decisions people
For example, an HR department can use AI to identify the best
make every day. They are ideally suited for analyzing real-time
possible candidates for open positions. If a recruiting manager
conditions to optimize business activities, such as pricing
is filtering graduates from nearby colleges and universities,
products based on shifting demand, replenishing inventory as
an autonomous agent can help identify ideal candidates, such
as multidisciplinary students who combine a degree in the
AI is having a particular impact
on IT operations such as
cybersecurity, database
management, and business
process automation.”
sciences with strong communication skills.
Thanks to machine learning techniques, the more data that is
introduced to these intelligent agents and the more people who
interact with them, the more accurate and personalized the responses become, allowing HR pros to quickly narrow down the
most promising candidates. As the system filters prospective
employees, it will gradually become aware of relevant trends,
perhaps noting schools that produce greater numbers of >>>
D. Griffin and M. Coleman, “How We Will Work in 2028,” Gartner, February 2018,
E X E C U T I V E | S C H O L A R E XC H A N G E
graduates with engineering majors and liberal arts minors.
operating separately? Within the realm of database manage-
This insight could direct the company to host job fairs on those
ment, the answer is a resounding yes. Autonomous databases
campuses or in the towns where those schools are located,
can automate routine maintenance, monitoring, and tuning
maximizing the use of its recruiting resources.
tasks, while also assisting with security, data encryption, backups, and many infrastructure-management tasks. Machine
learning algorithms can monitor workload fluctuations and
Today’s security operations teams struggle to make sense of a
automatically adjust query execution plans and indexes to max-
relentless barrage of alerts about everything from system and
imize performance. By eliminating these management chores,
application logs and user session activity to how sensitive IT
database administrators have more time to work with devel-
resources are being accessed and security configurations
opers, collaborate with data scientists, as well as architect,
are being changed. AI can help cybersecurity professionals
model, and tune critical business applications. AI technology
correlate events and apply heuristics to detect patterns, trends,
also makes these workers more productive by detecting pat-
and anomalies in the data, then forward the insights to a human
terns within large data sets and uncovering insights that may
agent who can intervene, if necessary. Ideally, these self-
be difficult for humans to discern. In this sense, an autonomous
learning systems get smarter over time — to the point where
database augments human skills rather than replacing them.
the machines can secure themselves without assistance. The
more users they get to know and the more applications that
A Forward-Looking View
come under their purview, the better they can identify rogue or
As these examples illustrate, autonomous systems can help
suspicious behavior, such as when a finance user tries to access
people work smarter, more efficiently, and more securely, while
an HR database or an employee who works in Canada suddenly
improving service levels and increasing application perfor-
appears to be trying to log in from Ukraine.
mance. By 2020, Oracle predicts that 90% of all applications
and services will incorporate AI at some level and that more
Thanks to machine learning, these security algorithms gradually
than half of all enterprise data will be managed autonomously.
learn to distinguish normal from abnormal behavior — a
While some workers fear a future in which artificial intelligence
capability known as adaptive response — and automatically
and machine learning will make the current workforce obsolete,
detect and fix problems. For example, an autonomous database
history suggests otherwise. Spreadsheets didn’t put accoun-
can temporarily lock out users, issue second-level security
tants out of work; they simply helped them do more work in
challenges, and escalate issues to a human agent to determine
less time and expanded the horizon of possibilities by handling
if legitimate account credentials have been hijacked or
routine calculations and solving equations much more quickly
compromised. It can take fast action to stop a security breach or
than humans could do.
minimize its impact. These self-securing and self-repairing capabilities can have a tremendous effect on a company by preventing
AI tools will not replace humans; today they are helping us
breach costs, potential reputation damage, and revenue loss.
invent new jobs, improve productivity, and ultimately improve
business outcomes.
Data Management
Businesses are interested in the promise of freeing employ-
Of course, to fully leverage the rise of AI-based systems in
ees from mundane or repetitive tasks, but can a human agent
the workplace, we must design different workflows and
with an autonomous assistant do more than either entity
systems. Humans must learn to work with machines >>>
E X E C U T I V E | S C H O L A R E XC H A N G E
synergistically, which means business leaders must plan for
the impact of autonomous technologies on staffing, processes, and management.
Clearly, working with intelligent information systems requires
an adjustment. But while some workers may be leery about an
incursion onto their traditional turf, forward-looking businesses see the potential of AI to liberate their employees from
routine activities. As workers take on new responsibilities
We’ll have to be ready to
adapt to the changing
capabilities of computers, the
changing roles of people, and
the changes in what needs to
be done in the first place.”
and focus on the valuable, strategic tasks that require human
knowledge and discernment, AI gives the business a faster path
reengineering. In a certain sense, BPR was one of the early
to insights, innovation, and ultimately, time to market. Q
ways of using computers to automate and redesign work. But
when people did BPR, they would typically say something like,
“We’re going to have this big reengineering project. We’re going
Dain Hansen is vice president of product marketing in Oracle’s
to analyze everything. We’re going to come up with a way of
Cloud Business Group. He is responsible for driving marketing
making everything much better using new technology. We’ll do
vision and strategy across Oracle’s key platform and infra-
a whole lot of work to make it happen, and then, we’ll breathe
structure offerings, including autonomous databases, cloud
a big sigh of relief and say, ‘Whew. Now we can relax and just
infrastructure, integration, security, analytics, data science,
keep going with what we’ve implemented.’”
and blockchain.
But now what we will increasingly need to do is build systems
that are robust enough to handle continuing change; you won’t
have one big push, make all the changes, and then relax for a
decade. Instead, some things will get better this week, some
Redesigning Work for Human-
the following week, and some a month after that. We’ll have to
Machine Collaboration
be ready to continually adapt to the changing capabilities of
computers, the changing roles of people, and the changes in
The shifting boundaries between
what needs to be done in the first place.
what humans do and what machines
do have important implications for
The phrase I like to use to describe this is cyber-human learn-
Thomas W. Malone
managers. We will need to be
ing loops. We need to design from the beginning for the idea
Patrick J. McGovern
Professor of
MIT Sloan School
of Management
organized in such a way that we can
that there will be continuing improvement in these loops. You
accommodate continuing changes
might, for example, start out with humans doing most things.
in what people do versus what com-
But the computer systems can keep track of all the inputs the
puters do.
people see and all the actions they take in response to those
inputs. Then, looking at that data, people may see that some
Let me contrast that to what happened in the 1990s when
things they’ve been doing manually are simple enough that
there was a big emphasis on what was called business process
computers can do them. Or perhaps machine learning >>>
E X E C U T I V E | S C H O L A R E XC H A N G E
programs will see patterns in what the people are doing and
thinking about alternatives in any kind of systematic way. This
start suggesting possible actions for the people to take.
is one thing I try to teach in my MBA course called Strategic
Organizational Design. We have functional hierarchies in some
Over time, computers will do more of the work, more data will
places and matrix organizations in others, and you need to
be generated, and the people may realize that, in addition to the
be able to think about that to design traditional hierarchies.
things they’ve already automated, there are even more things
But now, there’s a whole new space of organizational design
for which they can now figure out a way to write algorithms.
possibilities opened up by these new technologies for hyper-
Later, perhaps, they might realize that it would also be better
connectivity and artificial intelligence.
to do things in a different order or make some other change.
We should be designing so that all those changes are easily
In the past, there wasn’t that much reason why anybody needed
accommodated over time instead of having one big traumatic
to think about this. Now, there are lots of opportunities to do
redesign every decade or two.
things far better using these new possibilities. Q
Management in an increasingly automated workplace also
needs to reconsider organizational structure.
Thomas W. Malone is the Patrick J. McGovern Professor of
Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management and
Much of the routine work that used to be done by large num-
the founding director of the MIT Center for Collective Intelli-
bers of humans in hierarchical organizations will increasingly
gence. He is also a professor of information technology and a
get done by computers. The things that are left to do by people
professor of work and organizational studies at MIT. His new-
will be those tasks that are less routine and require more
est book, Superminds: The Surprising Power of People and
creativity and adaptability. To manage this kind of work,
Computers Thinking Together, was published in May 2018.
organizations usually need to be less hierarchical, with more
flexibility and flatter structures. A word I like to use to describe
this structure is adhocracy. It’s not a bureaucracy, it’s an
adhocracy, because so many things change all the time.
One of the reasons for that is that when you’re depending on
people to be creative and you’re depending on them to respond
flexibly in different situations, you don’t want them to have to
get approval for everything from a manager. You do want them
to exercise their creativity. You want them to feel dedicated
to the work. Those are all things that in general work better in
decentralized organizations.
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Learn more about AI in the enterprise at oracle.com/ai.
However, we’re stuck in this centralized, hierarchical mindset,
and mostly we just do things the way we’ve seen them done
before. Most people don’t even have the basic vocabulary of
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Copyright © Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2019. All rights reserved.

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