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Question Description

I’m working on a management multi-part question and need guidance to help me learn.

This week I would like you to review the sample rock climbing assessment plan. It provides a working example of the ch. 5 and ch. 6 content. Once you have read the slides and the sample plan, please select a high risk adventure sport and answer the following 3 questions using the sample rock climbing plan as your template.

1.Description of your selected high risk adventure sport

2. List of safety equipment, waivers, and facility needs

3. Identify 4 hazards/risks associated with your sport- be broad and use injuries only as one of the four issues. Think about facility issues, equipment issues, lack of coaching or certification in your sport as a risk management issue.

C H A P T E R
5
Programming for Risks
Chapter 7 Programming for Risks
Programming for Risks
• Traditionally, safety managers seek to
eliminate any and all risks.
• The recreation and park field and the
outdoor field in particular embrace risk as
an important component in challenge
activities.
• The question becomes how to properly
program for risks.
2 x 2 Risk Matrix
• Compares the relationship of actual versus
perceived risks when designing programs
• Complements the adventure experience
paradigm (AEP)
• Focuses on designing an activity that
provides the appropriate experience
• Four quadrants of actual and perceived risk
(continued)
2 x 2 Risk Matrix (continued)
High Actual and High Perceived Risks
• Participants recognize that a high-risk
situation is high risk.
• Participants tend to be receptive to the risks
present.
• For those seeking mastery, actual risks are
an integral part of the activity.
• Example: The Upper Youghiogheny River
Low Actual and Low Perceived Risks
• The actual risks present are low and the
participants perceive the risks as low.
• Example: A lazy river ride
High Actual and Low Perceived Risks
• Participants do not recognize the high risks
present.
• This category is potentially dangerous for
recreation programmers.
• This category requires educating
participants of the dangers or mitigating the
actual risks on behalf of the participants.
• Example: The drowning trap
Drowning Trap
Low Actual and High Perceived Risks
• This category is full of chills and thrills but
is relatively safe.
• This is a good programming strategy for
activities in which participants do not seek
mastery.
• Example: A roller coaster
AEP
• Built on optimal arousal theory and flow
concepts
• Inverted-U curve and flow models
• Superimposes a participant topology on the
flow model (risks and challenges)
(continued)
AEP (continued)
• Perform slower than optimum and
performance decreases because participant
becomes bored.
• Perform faster than optimum and
performance decreases because of errors.
• Perform at optimum level and flow-type
experience can result.
Inverted-U Curve
Five Categories of the AEP
• Devastation and disaster
• Misadventure
• Peak adventure
• Exploration and experimentation
• Adventure
AEP Integrates Inverted-U and Flow
Models
Adventure Categories
• Peak adventure occurs when the resultant outcome
matches perceived challenges with participant’s
competency.
• Misadventure or devastation and disaster result
when actual risks significantly exceed perceived
risks.
• Adventure or exploration and experimentation
occur when competence exceed risks.
AEP From the Participant’s
Perspective
• The paradigm juxtaposes participant’s
perceived risks and participant’s actual
competence.
• The resultant outcome is the relationship
between the perceived risk and actual
competence.
(continued)
AEP From the Participant’s
Perspective (continued)
Programming Implications
• 2 x 2 risk matrix and AEP provide
programming strategies.
• They provide situations to avoid.
– Devastation and disaster, misadventure
– Situations that are high in actual risk and low in
perceived risk
• The models provide strategies to help
optimize the experience provided.
Legal Implications
• Know and practice the common practices of
the activity and the standards of the
industry serving the activity.
• Know which risks contribute to the
experience and which do not (e.g., a wornout climbing rope does not increase the
challenge in a climbing activity).
Summary
• The recreation and park industry tends to
embrace risk as an integral component of
their programs.
• For general recreational activities, consider
those low in actual risk and high in
perceived risk (e.g., a roller coaster).
• The AEP is applicable to most recreational
experiences involving mastery or challenge.
C H A P T E R
5
Programming for Risks
Chapter 7 Programming for Risks
Programming for Risks
• Traditionally, safety managers seek to
eliminate any and all risks.
• The recreation and park field and the
outdoor field in particular embrace risk as
an important component in challenge
activities.
• The question becomes how to properly
program for risks.
2 x 2 Risk Matrix
• Compares the relationship of actual versus
perceived risks when designing programs
• Complements the adventure experience
paradigm (AEP)
• Focuses on designing an activity that
provides the appropriate experience
• Four quadrants of actual and perceived risk
(continued)
2 x 2 Risk Matrix (continued)
High Actual and High Perceived Risks
• Participants recognize that a high-risk
situation is high risk.
• Participants tend to be receptive to the risks
present.
• For those seeking mastery, actual risks are
an integral part of the activity.
• Example: The Upper Youghiogheny River
Low Actual and Low Perceived Risks
• The actual risks present are low and the
participants perceive the risks as low.
• Example: A lazy river ride
High Actual and Low Perceived Risks
• Participants do not recognize the high risks
present.
• This category is potentially dangerous for
recreation programmers.
• This category requires educating
participants of the dangers or mitigating the
actual risks on behalf of the participants.
• Example: The drowning trap
Drowning Trap
Low Actual and High Perceived Risks
• This category is full of chills and thrills but
is relatively safe.
• This is a good programming strategy for
activities in which participants do not seek
mastery.
• Example: A roller coaster
AEP
• Built on optimal arousal theory and flow
concepts
• Inverted-U curve and flow models
• Superimposes a participant topology on the
flow model (risks and challenges)
(continued)
AEP (continued)
• Perform slower than optimum and
performance decreases because participant
becomes bored.
• Perform faster than optimum and
performance decreases because of errors.
• Perform at optimum level and flow-type
experience can result.
Inverted-U Curve
Five Categories of the AEP
• Devastation and disaster
• Misadventure
• Peak adventure
• Exploration and experimentation
• Adventure
AEP Integrates Inverted-U and Flow
Models
Adventure Categories
• Peak adventure occurs when the resultant outcome
matches perceived challenges with participant’s
competency.
• Misadventure or devastation and disaster result
when actual risks significantly exceed perceived
risks.
• Adventure or exploration and experimentation
occur when competence exceed risks.
AEP From the Participant’s
Perspective
• The paradigm juxtaposes participant’s
perceived risks and participant’s actual
competence.
• The resultant outcome is the relationship
between the perceived risk and actual
competence.
(continued)
AEP From the Participant’s
Perspective (continued)
Programming Implications
• 2 x 2 risk matrix and AEP provide
programming strategies.
• They provide situations to avoid.
– Devastation and disaster, misadventure
– Situations that are high in actual risk and low in
perceived risk
• The models provide strategies to help
optimize the experience provided.
Legal Implications
• Know and practice the common practices of
the activity and the standards of the
industry serving the activity.
• Know which risks contribute to the
experience and which do not (e.g., a wornout climbing rope does not increase the
challenge in a climbing activity).
Summary
• The recreation and park industry tends to
embrace risk as an integral component of
their programs.
• For general recreational activities, consider
those low in actual risk and high in
perceived risk (e.g., a roller coaster).
• The AEP is applicable to most recreational
experiences involving mastery or challenge.
C H A P T E R
6
Risk Management
Plans
Chapter 8 Risk Management Plans
CAPRA Standards
• In the recreation and park field, it is an
industry standard for each agency to have a
risk management plan.
• Agencies must follow the risk management
plan.
• See figure 8.1 in the text.
Risk Management Process
• Step 1: Identify the risks.
• Step 2: Assess the risks (i.e., probability,
impact, and severity).
• Step 3: Develop risk strategies (i.e., reduce,
avoid, transfer, retain).
• Step 4: Evaluate and continually assess the
risks.
Table 8.1
Step 1: Identification of Risks
• Identify both internal and external sources
of risk.
• Types of risks or hazards
– Environmental
– Infrastructure
– Program
– Crisis management
– Transportation
Sources of Information
• Heuristics
• Historical records
• Similar organizations and programs
• State or national professional organizations
• Accreditation bodies
• National statistics
Step 2: Assessment of Risks
• Determine severity (column 7 of table 8.1).
• Severity is a composite index.
• Probability (column 3 of table 8.1) is the
likelihood that the event will occur.
• Impact (column 5 of table 8.1) is the effect of
the event on the organization and its future
operations.
Determine Probability
• Probability (column 3 in table 8.1) is the
likelihood that the event will occur.
• Probability levels
– High: Occurs commonly or semicommonly
– Medium: Occurs occasionally
– Low: Occurs infrequently; people are surprised when
it occurs
• Actual probabilities (0-1) can also be used.
Table 8.2
Determine Impact
• Impact (column 5 in table 8.1) is the effect of
the event on the organization.
• Impact levels
– High: Major loss; loss of programs or community
support or going out of business
– Medium: Some media attention, some decrease in
participation, community support may wane
– Low: Little or no interruption to program
Table 8.3
Determine Severity
• Severity (column 7 of table 8.1) is a
composite index of probability and impact.
• Use table 8.4 to calculate severity.
• Generally, events with high probability and
high impact have high severity.
Table 8.4
Step 3: Risk Management Strategies
• Mitigating or managing risks
• Four approaches
– Reduce: One takes measures to reduce the
likelihood that an incident will occur
– Avoid: Elimination of the risk or the hazard that
results in the risk
– Transfer: Insurance, waivers, contracting
– Retain: Organization absorbs the risk
Mitigation and Contingencies
• Using the risk management strategies of
reduction and avoidance, reassess severity.
• Mitigation reduces probability and
contingencies reduce impacts.
• Calculate effective probability (column 4 of
table 8.1) and effective impact (column 6 of
table 8.1).
• Calculate effective severity (column 8 of table
8.1).
Table 8.6
Calculating Change in Effective
Severity
• Convert severity and effective severity to
probability (high: 0.8; medium: 0.5; low:
0.2).
• Total and calculate percentage change.
• The percentage change is the reduction in
severity due to risk management strategies
(23%, see table 8.8).
Table 8.8
Step 4: Evaluate and Assess Risks
• The risk management plan is a working
document.
• Organizations can keep the plan up to date
by reassessing the following:
– Policies and practices
– Procedures and forms
– The risk assessment (step 1)
Risk Management Manual
• The manual includes the organization’s risk
management plan.
• Section 1: Purpose, stakeholders, and
guiding principles
• Section 2: General principles
• Section 3: Human resources
(continued)
Risk Management Manual (continued)
• Section 4: Program-related functions (e.g.,
leases, contracts, waivers, warning, and
health forms)
• Section 5: Risk management practices and
procedures for facilities and developed
areas (e.g., design, management, repair, and
maintenance)
(continued)
Risk Management Manual (continued)
• Section 6: Equipment needs (e.g., the
purchase, lease, rental, maintenance, and
repair of equipment)
• Section 7: Crisis management and
emergency care
• Section 8: Transportation (e.g., coverage,
required safety courses, rules and
procedures, insurance, and reporting
accidents and injuries)
Summary
• Having a risk management plan is
considered an industry standard.
• Risk management is broader in scope than
accident prevention.
• Assess the probability, impact, and severity
of the risks.
• Place the risk management plan in the risk
management manual.
Risk Assessment for Rock Climbing
Reviews
Completed By
Revision Date
Approved By
Approval Date
R Shanks
24/07/2018
D Davidson
24/07/2018
Risk level
Medium
Some chance or an incident or injury requiring
first aid
171 Nojoor Road
Twin waters QLD 4564
P: 1300 122677
Apexcamps.com.au
Action required/approval
 Document controls in planning documents and/or complete this
Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment.
 Consider obtaining parental/carer permission.
Minimum Supervision
At least 1 qualified Activity Instructor are to be present to run Rock Climbing as well as another Activity Instructor, Total 2
Recommendations
Rock Climbing is recommended for grade 4 and 8 years old and above
It is strongly recommended that at least 1 group teacher/supervisor are present to assist with student behaviours
Qualifications
All Apex staff and contractors hold at a minimum ,one of the following qualifications /skills sets or other recognised skill sets/qualifications from
another jurisdiction, along with mandatory First Aid/ CPR and QLD Blue Card, working with children check.
. Staff trained for correct use of “Gri Gri” safety device lowering rock climbing .
• Certificate 3 Outdoor Recreation specialising in Rock Climbing & Abseiling Natural or Artificial Surfaces
• Certificate 4 Outdoor Recreation specialising in Rock Climbing & Abseiling Natural or Artificial Surfaces
• Diploma Outdoor recreation specialising is Rock Climbing & Abseiling Natural or Artificial Surfaces
• Perform Vertical Rescue also Haul system abseil only.
Through the use of well maintained equipment, training and accredited staff and sound operating procedures and policies Apex Camps control the
“real risks” associated with this activity
In assessing the level of risk, considerations such as the likelihood of an incident happening in combination with the seriousness of a consequence
are used to gauge the overall risk level for an activity. The matrix below has been used as a guide to assist with developing the risk assessment:
Consequence
Likelihood
1 Insignificant
2 Minor
3 Moderate
4 Major
5 Critical
Medium
Medium
High
Extreme
Extreme
4 Likely
Low
Medium
High
High
Extreme
3 Possible
Low
Medium
High
High
High
2 Unlikely
Low
Low
Medium
Medium
High
1 Rare
Low
Low
Low
Low
Medium
5 Almost Certain
Risk Level
Low
Little chance of incident or serious injury.
Medium
Some chance of an incident and injury requiring first aid.
High
Likely chance of a serious incident and injury requiring medical treatment.
Extreme
High chance of a serious incident resulting in highly debilitating injury.
Minimum Equipment/Facilities
First aid kit suitable for activity
Communication system
Electronic and other equipment that can be damaged by water is to be carried in water resistant containers.
Leaders are responsible for determining the equipment to be carried by all participants. The following communication equipment should be appropriate
for the activity and area of operations.
 Phone-line at location
 Mobile phone
 UHF Radio
Sun Safety equipment (hat, sunglasses, sunscreen, shirt etc)
Appropriate clothing and footwear (no singlets, skirts, short shorts, thongs, crocs etc)
Gloves, backpacks to carry equipment, edge protectors to protect ropes from abrasion damage
Leader will inspect the area and ensure its soundness before commencing the activity
Equipment use and maintenance log to be kept and documented each session
Drinking water (students should not share drinking containers)
Spare equipment to be available in case of emergency
Vehicular access to within a reasonable distance of the activity in case of emergency
Minimum Equipment/Facilities
Harness and helmet for all participants in line with the following standards and practises.
• Harnesses and helmets specifically designed for rock climbing/abseiling, and compliant with he International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation
(UIAA), European Committee for Standardisation standard or equivalent.
• Harnesses to be worn at all times during activity, and to be connected by a safety line (rope or tape) to an appropriate anchor point or belay where
exposure to a fall exists
• Harnesses to be retired by manufacturer’s nominated expiry date
• Helmets to be of the correct size and fit
• Helmets to be worn and secured throughout any activity session where students are exposed to typical climbing/abseiling hazards
• Helmets to remain on students until completion of the activity.
Safety ropes, harnesses, slings and all other safety equipment (karabiners, slings and chocks), manufactured specifically for rock climbing/abseiling, used
according to the manufacturer’s specifications and accepted abseiling practises and conforming to the Australian Standards and UIAA specifications.
An approved certified Rock-climbing structure or a rated anchor system eg eyebolt at a existing outdoor climbing area
All practises and processes are adopted from the Queensland Adventure Activity Standards
Hazards and Control Measures
Listed below are the indicative hazards/risks and the control measures.
Hazards/Risks
Control Measures
Biological material
• Bodily fluids (e.g. blood,
sweat, saliva)
• Comply with HLS-PR-004: Infection Control and Management of Prescribed Contagious Conditions and Infection
Control Guidelines. Students with open cuts and abrasions are to be removed from the activity and treated
immediately. If bleeding cannot be controlled completely, the participant should not be allowed to return the
activity. All clothing, equipment and surfaces contaminated by blood should be treated as potentially infectious.
• Have sufficient and suitable containment material (bandages, etc) available
• Ensure that personal items are not shared.
Environmental conditions
• Weather
• Surfaces
• Surrounds
•
•
•
•
•
Equipment
• Equipment failure
• Use, maintain and store equipment according to manufacturer’s specifications
• Conduct regular equipment checks prior to start of sessions. Particular attention to fastening systems when
removable rope systems are uses
• Check for worn or faulty equipment, and adhere to manufacturer’s guidelines for life of equipment
• Ensure all safety equipment is in place and in good condition and discard immediately if not suitable
• Provide instruction in safe rappelling methods and use of equipment
• Supply all equipment in a clean and serviceable condition
• Ensure wet equipment is dried before storing
• Students must not engage in lead climbing
• Soft fall mulch to be contained at the bottom of the climbing wall
Heights
• Falling from vertical
surface
•
•
•
•
•
•
Assess weather conditions before and during activity (e.g. temperature, storms)
Check and assess surrounds for loose items, debris and hazards and suitability of participants.
The location should allow safe access to the staging areas
Visibility and access to be considered before choosing routes
Consider hazards associated with types of fencing material, gates and other infrastructure.
Use a belay system appropriate to the activity, with supervision at all times
The fitment of automatic safety device “gri gri 2 “ to be fitted to each rope line
Back up safety system to be used with a prussik connected to a backup belayer
Participants to be instructed on belay technique and supervised by two instructors at all times.
Ratio of participants to not exceed the number of rope lines in use as required by QORF.
Safety rope to be kept taught on climber at all times under supervision from instructors
Hazards/Risks
Control Measures
Physical exertion
• Strains and sprains
• Exhaustion and fatigue
•
•
•
•
•
Students
• Special needs
• High risk behaviours
• Medical conditions
• Student numbers
• Obtain parental permission including relevant medical information
• When students with medical conditions are involved, ensure that relevant medical/ emergency plans and medications are
readily available (insulin, Ventolin, Epipen, etc)
• Refer to individual education plan/Educational adjustment plan/Behaviour management plan and other student
documents.
• Where necessary, obtain advice from relevant advisory visiting teachers or specialist teachers
• Ensure there is adequate adult supervision
• Ensure long hair is tied back before participating in the activity
• Students who are actively participating in the activity, to be seen by at lease one adult at all times
• Jewellery can be a serious hazard when undertaking many activities. All forms of jewellery should be considered in terms
of the risk it presents for each activity. Procedures are in place the dissuade or protect (e.g. tape) the wearing of jewellery
accordingly.
Have appropriate warm-up and warm-down activities
Follow progressive and sequential skills development
Have ice packs available
Continuously monitor students for signs of fatigue and exhaustion
Continuously monitor students for fear and/ or hesitancy, or loss of balance
.
Emergency Procedures
1.Effect Rescue as required.
2.Conduct First Aid as required.
3.Contact Emergency Services
via mobile phone, radio.
4.Depending on injury: Stabilise
patient and await ambulance or
remove patient to appropriate
site to recover.
5.In the event of serious injury,
suspend activity until incident
can be investigated
Teacher/group leader
responsibilities
• Inform & liaise with Activity
Staff regarding any potential
issues with group
(behavioural, disabilities,
injuries)
• Listen to activity briefings and
assist Staff in procedural
aspects of session as
required, such as helping
students to belay under
supervision of Activity Staff
• Monitor & take charge of
behavioural issues if needed
and attend to any pre-existing
medical conditions
Participant Briefing
Instructor should cover:
•Challenge by Choice Philosophy
•Session Objectives
•OH&S Brief
•Safety Brief
•Equipment Familiarisation
•Skills Demo & Practice
Participant Requirements
•sunscreen, insect repellent
•medication (if relevant)
•water bottle
•fully enclosed shoes, hat
•minimum of sleeved shirt that
covers midriff when arms are
raised
•shorts/leggings that preferably
cover knees (to prevent grazes)
•hair tied back, jewellery
removed

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