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Write two summaries.

Write two summaries for the below two article,
Each summary should be 150-200 words.
Make sure you are paraphrasing. Remember that your paraphrased version should
have no more than 2-3 words in sequence that are the same as the source article.
The articles:
Almendingen, K., Morseth, M. S., Gjølstad, E., Brevik, A., & Tørris, C. (2021).
Student’s experiences with online teaching following COVID-19 lockdown: A
mixed methods explorative study. PLoS ONE, 16(8), 1–16.
(You can access this paper through:
February 16). COVID-19 is Changing Our World: It’s Time to Rethink
International Education The Globe and Mail.
There is a sample of academic summary, and a guide to review first.
Please upload on time and no plagiarism.
Academic Summary
Thomas-Bailey, C. (2010, November 13). Grubs Up: Eating insects. The Guardian.
In the news article, “Grubs’ up: Eating Insects,” Carlene Thomas-Bailey discusses the
topic of eating insects (2010, Nov. 13). She suggests that people should try to consider
insects as a source of protein because eating bugs not only helps to improve the environment,
but also provides the same amount of protein as the other kind of meats, but with no fat at all
(2010, Nov. 13). Thomas-Bailey notes that more than 1,000 types of insects are considered as
a safe food to eat in 80% of the nations (2010, Nov. 13). However, some people still find the
idea repulsive and that is the primary reason why Marc Dennis, also known as an amateur
chef and an entomaphagist, came up with the idea to host dinner parties which serve bugs, for
example, roasted cricks, caramel coated crickets and waxworms (Thomas-Bailey, 2010, Nov.
13). Mr. Dennis also points out some benefits of eating bugs, including limiting the amount
of toxic gas produced due to the cattle industry (Thomas-Bailey, 2010, Nov. 13). Therefore,
eating insects can help to improve the environment (Thomas-Bailey, 2010, Nov. 13). Ms.
Thomas-Bailey notes that even a workshop which was held by the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations in 2008 has the same opinion as Marc Dennis (ThomasBailey, 2010, Nov. 13). Eating bugs can also be a healthier way to consume the amount of
protein by humans with no fat at all (Thomas-Bailey, 2010, Nov. 13). Marc Dennis suggest
that people should only buy insects from reliable sources to avoid consuming toxic insects
(Thomas-Bailey, 2010, Nov. 13). In conclusion, Thomas Bailey shows that eating insects is
good for people and the environment (2010, Nov. 13).
Lecture 5.2
How to Write an Academic Summary
• In the previous lecture, we practiced paraphrasing – that is, putting an author’s ideas
into your own words.
• It because apparent how much easier it is to use the ideas when we use language
that feels comfortable
• The next technique we will learn is how to summarize.
• Both paraphrasing and summarizing are important techniques when you write for
the workplace or in an academic setting.
Why Summarize?
• If you used the original writer’s language without any changes, it limits your own
learning; by paraphrasing and summarizing, you make a piece of information
your own and you understand it better.
• The original writer(s) likely wrote for a specific audience and made choices
about language and vocabulary that is specific to that audience. This language
may not be suitable for your audience.
• What authors write is considered to be their property, just like a coat or a car; by
copying it (without giving credit), you can be accused of plagiarism.
• Summarizing shortens the text and makes the ideas more manageable
A Good Summary:
• Focuses on the key ideas
• Omits details, graphs, charts
• Is objective; you report on what the author has written, but remain neutral
• Is short
• Uses clear and simple language
• Keeps the original order of the ideas
• Avoids quotations unless it is essential. Typically, people quote because they do
not understand the original.
• Provides in-text citations and a full citation for the source that is summarized
Where do we look for key ideas?
Check the essay’s title/header. It often identifies the focus of the essay.
If there is a Abstract, look here first. The Abstract is like a movie trailer for an
academic article
Check the Introduction and look for a thesis statement as this will provide a
clear idea of what is to be discussed
In an academic article, look at the Results and Discussion section as there will
be a summary of what the authors found in their study
Check the conclusion, where authors often restate their ideas
In a news article, look at the topic sentence of each paragraph. This is the
organizing principle upon which a paragraph constructs itself.
Highlight these main ideas
Format for an Academic Summary
• Name the author and the source (book or article) early, usually in the first sentence.
• Use the reporting verbs for this purpose. For example, you might write: “According to
[the author]…”; “In his/her book [title], [the author] states that …”
• To make it clear that the ideas presented are the author’s and not your own, you
should frequently use signal phrases such as “[The author] also states that…”
• Offer a broad overview or the main idea of the material (one or two sentences),
• Develop the main idea with examples and specifics
• Use quotation marks and page references whenever a phrase, a part of a sentence,
or a complete sentence is taken directly from the source text. Quote selectively and
• Be brief, but thorough
• It is an accurate reflection of the author’s viewpoint throughout. Careful reading of
the source is essential.
Reminder: What are the differences between quoting,
paraphrasing and summarizing?
• These are three ways of incorporating other writers’ work into your own writing. They
differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.
• Quotations must be identical to the original and use a narrow segment of the source.
They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the
original author. The quoted material must be identified by the use of quotation marks
and an in-text citation with a page number and a full citation are required.
• Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from the source material into your own
words. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage. A paraphrase
might take a somewhat broader segment of the source and condense it slightly. The
paraphrased material requires an in-text citation and a full citation.
• Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only
the main point(s). Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a
broad overview of the source material. Once again, it is necessary to attribute
summarized ideas to the original source with an in-text and full citation.
Important Considerations for Summary Writing
• A paraphrase is when you express a writer’s ideas in your own words. It’s
important to remember these are NOT your ideas. That is why they must be
introduced as not your own.
• It is also important to know that paraphrasing with proper citation is a key and
encouraged aspect of writing in university. You never need to feel any shame or
embarrassment for paraphrasing the ideas of other people and providing correct
citation. This is what you are supposed to do and will be seen favourably by your
• Please REVIEW APA Citation Guide and APA In-Text Citation handout.
• A template has been provided for you to get you started on the academic
• The summary should be prefaced by the full citation. Note that for an essay, the
full citation page (References) goes at the end of the essay on the last page, but
for an Academic Summary, it is found at the beginning.
• On the slide following the template is the list of reporting verbs that you have
seen previously. These reporting verbs should be used in the summary.

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