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The Department of Homeland Security and state offices of homeland security were created in large scale after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Homeland security and emergency response has continued to evolve. New threats from Mexican drug cartels, cyber-attacks, lone-wolf terrorist attacks and new threats to aviation security have expanded the role and scope of homeland security organizations and personnel. Based on your collective study in Homeland Security and Emergency Management, identify two or three changes or trends you believe will occur in the Homeland Security and Emergency Response discipline in the next ten years. Identify those threats and sub-disciplines that will become more important between now and the next 10 years. What will be the new homeland security and emergency management challenges the United States will face in the next 10 years?

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g o e rn m e n ts , th e p ri a te s e c to r, a n d a c a d e m c a n d o th e
S n c e t a k n g o ff c e a s S e c e t a y o f O H S o n D e c e m b e
23, 2013,
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Meanwhile, this Nation’s homeland security architecture has matured over the past four
✓ ™and Global
its first unqualified or “clean” audit opinion; this occurred just 10 years after the
Department’s formation, which was the largest realignment and consolidation of Federal
Through the U.S. Government’s counterterrorism efforts, we have degraded the ability of
Qa’ida’s senior leadership in Afghanistan and Pakistan to centrally plan and execute
Qa’ida
Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula, which has made repeated attempts to
based “lone
offenders” and those who are inspired by extremist ideologies to radicalize to violence and
“If You See Something, Say Something™” and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting
—
—is also consistent with American values and our Nation’s heritage. We will take a
Federal Government’s coordinator of efforts to counter cyber threats and other hazards to
secure the Federal Government’s
positioned a greater number of resources; and strengthened the Nation’s ability to respond
Finally, we recognize that we operate at a time when the public’s confidence in the
government’s ability to function and work for them is low. DHS is unique among federal
land ports of entry. Thus, the public’s attitude toward the entire Federal Government can
TABLEOFCONTENTS
Letter from the Secretary……………………….……………….…………………………….3
Executive Summary………………………………………………………………….………..5
Legal Requirement for the Review and Report…………………….……….………….11
The Purpose of the Second Quadrennial Homeland Security Review..….…….…….…13
The Strategic Environment.……………………….…………….………….…….……17
Guiding Principles.…………………………….…………………….…….……….….30
Strategic Priorities.……………………………….………….…….…….….…………33
Securing Against the Evolving Terrorism Threat..…………………….…….……….33
Safeguard and Secure Cyberspace…………………….…………….…….………….39
A Homeland Security Strategy for Countering Biological Threatsand Hazards…..….46
..………………………………………….……………………….….….…….53
…………………………………………………….….……….….……..…….58
Areasof Ongoing Priority and Emphasis………………………………….….….….…62
Nuclear Terrorism Using an Improvised Nuclear Device……..…..………….…….…..62
Immigration………………………………………………………………..….…….65
National Preparedness and the Whole Community Approach…..…….………..…….71
Mission Framework In Depth…………………………………………….…..….…….75
Conclusion………………………………………………………….….……..……….81
HOMELAND SECURITY ROLESAND RESPONSIBILITIES………..…..…..…….83
PROCESSAND STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT ACTIVITIES…………..…….…94
the homeland security of the Nation (in this section referred to as a “quadrennial
homeland security review”).
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HOMELAND SECURITY VISION
Ahomelandthat issafe, secure, and
resilient against terrorismandother
hazards, whereAmericaninterests,
aspirations, andway of lifecanthrive.
Nation’s long
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—
review provides an updated view of the Nation’s homeland security mission goals and
This Nation’s homeland security architecture has matured over the past four years, as
✓ ™and Global Entry demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of
received its first unqualified or “clean” audit opinion; this occurred just 10 years after the
Department’s formation, which was the largest realignment and consolidation of federal
Nation’s homeland security interests. The first step in understanding threats and hazards
—
–
Qa’ida’s senior leadership to launch sophisticated external attacks, although the
Qa’ida have emerged with the intent
Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula is currently the al Qa’ida affiliate of the greatest concern
Qa’ida’s international
“Theevolutionof theterrorist threat demandsa
well-informed, highly agile, andwell-networked
groupof partnersandstakeholders…”
Qa’ida, its affiliates, and adherents also use propaganda to inspire U.S.
—
Qa’ida affiliates—
Qa’ida. In addition,
Qa’ida, its adherents, and its affiliates, these other
While violent extremists’ mistakes have sometimes contributed to intelligence and law
—
—
Climate change and associated trends may also indirectly act as “threat multipliers.” They
The Nation’s critical infrastructure provides the essential services that underpin the
become outdated as everything becomes linked to cyberspace. This “cyber
convergence” has changed the risks to critical infrastructure in sectors ranging from energy
Critical infrastructurearethosesystemsand
assets, whether physical or virtual, sovital to
theUnitedStatesthat theincapacity or
destructionof suchsystemsandassetswould
haveadebilitatingimpact onsecurity, national
economicsecurity, national publichealthor
safety, or any combinationof thosematters.
‒ Presidential Policy Directive 21, “ Critical
Infrastructure Security and Resilience” (2013)
weakens our resilience and can affect our Nation’s security and prosperity. Infrastructure
Nation’s bridges are either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. Though growth in
Due in large part to financial constraints, the Nation’s public health capacity has eroded in
—
—
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infringing goods, adversely impact our nation’s economy. Unauthorized migration is
economic and policy assumptions underpinning the President’s 2015 Budget submission
thirds of the nation’s 30 largest metro regions
POTENTIAL “ BLACK SWANS”
manner and have been referred to by economists and sociologistsas“ black swans.”
While not an exhaustive list, there are four potential “ black swans” that could
—
—
—
—
—
today’s conflicts in Syria, Somalia, and Yemen—
The decentralized nature of today’s threat demands that we continue to move away from
✓ ™, and the
—
—
gatherings, and critical infrastructure. To enhance our ability to protect these “soft”
sector partners as well as with the public. The DHS “Security Strategy for Mass Transit and
Passenger Rail” illustrates how we have employed this approach to improve the security
support multilateral efforts, such as the World Customs Organization’s Program Global
—
called “big data” challenge—
Initiative. Another source is the “If You See Something, Say Something ” campaign, which
ensuring information is quickly reviewed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI’s)
like “weather maps” for cyberspace. These situational awareness capabilities will support
—
—
We must draw on the Nation’s full range of expertise and resources—
—
Infrastructure Cybersecurity (2013), and Presidential Policy Directive 21, “Critical
Infrastructure Security and Resilience” (2013), establish a risk
Nation’s cybersecurity objectives by investigating a wide range of cybercrimes, from theft
protecting victims’ privacy and ongoing investigations.
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—
—
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being of the Nation’s people, animals, and plants. These
—referred to here as “priority biological threats
and hazards”—
referred to here as a “priority biological incident.”
the principal federal agency for protecting the Nation’s health and providing essential
federal support, at levels of capacity sufficient to address a “mid range” incident (see
Figure 3). Biological incidents with a “mid range” level of risk are those that stress state,
these “mid range” incidents with some federal assistance, DHS and our federal partners
Figure 3: Priority biological incidents with a “mid range” level of risk, accounting for both
and consequences that characterize a “mid range” incident vary by priority biological
Presidential Policy Directive 8, “National Preparedness” (2011). This strategy is balanced
“mid range” risk, and on
for “mid range” priority
constitutes “mid range” may
“mid range” risk.
address what might be expected from a “mid range” priority biological incident (see
—
—
transnational criminal organizations’ perception of risk through targeted interdiction and
Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula’s
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—
President Obama stated in his speech at South Korea’s Hankuk University in March 2012,
—
“We know that just the smallest amount of plutonium—
one of the greatest threats to global security.” A terrorist nuclear attack on the Nation
build the U.S. Government’s global nuclear detection capability through the Global Nuclear
Nation’s nuclear forensics capability is continually advancing and is ready to respond to a
on great risks to come to our country and seek to work and contribute to America’s
—
—
—
While we use many means to effectively secure the Nation’s interior, these efforts can only
numerical limits within our immigration system ignore the needs of today’s economy and
law. Following DHS’s decision
—
—
—
—
is “[a] secure and resilient Nation with the capabilities required across the Whole
threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk.”
—
—
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operate our Nation’s critical infrastructure and services; perform research and develop
MISSION 1: PREVENT TERRORISM AND ENHANCESECURITY
Goal 1.1: Prevent Terrorist Attacks
Goal 1.2: Prevent and Protect Against the Unauthorized Acquisition or Use of Chemical,
Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Materialsand Capabilities
Goal 1.3: Reduce Risk to the Nation’sCritical Infrastructure, Key Leadership, and Events
Enhance security for the Nation’s critical infrastructure from terrorism and criminal
MISSION 2: SECUREAND MANAGEOUR BORDERS
Goal 2.1: Secure U.S. Air, Land, and Sea Bordersand Approaches
Goal 2.2: Safeguard and Expedite Lawful Trade and Travel
Goal 2.3: Disrupt and Dismantle Transnational Criminal Organizationsand Other Illicit
Actors
MISSION 3: ENFORCEAND ADMINISTER OUR
IMMIGRATION LAWS
Goal 3.1: Strengthen and Effectively Administer the Immigration System
Goal 3.2: Prevent Unlawful Immigration
MISSION 4: SAFEGUARD AND SECURECYBERSPACE
Goal 4.1: Strengthen the Security and Resilience of Critical Infrastructure
Goal 4.2: Secure the Federal Civilian Government Information Technology Enterprise
Goal 4.3: Advance Law Enforcement, Incident Response, and Reporting Capabilities
Goal 4.4: Strengthen the Ecosystem
MISSION 5: STRENGTHEN NATIONAL PREPAREDNESS
AND RESILIENCE
Goal 5.1: Enhance National Preparedness
Goal 5.2: Mitigate Hazardsand Vulnerabilities
Goal 5.3: Ensure Effective Emergency Response
Goal 5.4: Enable Rapid Recovery
MATUREAND STRENGTHEN HOMELAND SECURITY
Integrate Intelligence, Information Sharing, and Operations
Enhance Partnershipsand Outreach
Conduct Homeland Security Research and Development
Train and Exercise Frontline Operatorsand First Responders
Strengthen Service Delivery and Manage DHSResources
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actionable intelligence products to support the field. The Center’s unique
agencies receive products, including the Task Force’s Co
State is the President’s principal foreign policy advisor. The Department develops and
Department of Defense’s (DOD)
Department of Veteran’s Affairs
roles. The majority of the Nation’s infrastructure is owned and operated by private
—
—
are responsible for overseeing their state’s threat prevention activities as
well the state’s response to any emergency or disaster, and take an active role in
number of roles, to include serving as the state’s chief communicator and primary
the public safety and welfare of their residents, serving as their jurisdiction’s chief
question, “What is homeland security?” Building on this foundation, the second
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Each study group included a leader from PLCY’s Office of Strategy, Planning, Analysis, and
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security communities of interest, as described in “Stakeholder Engagement,” below.
stakeholders, to include the public, on the future of the Nation’s homeland security. The
through standing working groups, led by a core group of analysts from PLCY’s Office of
Security Studies and Analysis Institute, one of the Department’s federally funded research
“Homeland Security Communities of Interest,” below.
—
through DHS Science and Technology’s FirstResponder.gov Communities of Practice and
—
Advisory Committee Act “significantly reduced the role that nonfederal stakeholders played
in the [Quadrennial Homeland Security Review]…addressing the [Federal Advisory
outcome of the study group’s deliberations.” In order to remediate this issue, PLCY’s
engage DHS’s advisory committee members as individual stakeholders with relevant
of different members from across the Department’s Advisory Committees. When individual
PLCY’s Office of Strategy, Planning, Analysis, and Risk provided those briefings at the
committees’ regularly
“Quadrennial Homeland Security Review: Enhanced Stakeholder Consultation and Use of Risk Information
Could Strengthen Future Reviews,” GAO

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