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I am a mechanical engineer please solve the question below :

Discuss the role of engineer toward all functions of engineer (Research, Development, Design, Construction, Production, Operation, and Management) with respect to environmental responsibility, give example for each from your specialization for each function.

you can use the presentation as a referance

Discuss the role of engineer toward all functions of engineer (Research, Development, Design,
Construction, Production, Operation, and Management) with respect to environmental responsibility,
give example for each from your specialization for each function.
Environmental Ethics
The expression to refer to
(1)the study of moral issues concerning the
environment.
(2)moral perspectives on those issues.
• The term environmental ethics influence on a large
range of disciplines including environmental law,
environmental sociology, ecotheology, ecological
economics, ecology and environmental geography
Why need to study Environmental
Ethics?
To overcome the following questions.
1. What are the environment damage
produce by the present generation?
2. What acts must be give up to slow such damage?
Major issues that concern
environmental ethics today
• Anthropocenterism or human centredness in development is one
of the reasons for several environmental issue
• Conservation of biodiversity in biosphere Energy conservation
including nuclear energy
• Global climate changes
• Over population and destruction of forests or animal habitats
• Exponential increase in depletion of natural resources
• Impact of Genetic engineering, cloning, genetically modified
crops
• Water disposal and e-waste
• Intensive farming and over use of pesticides
• Ozone layer depletion
ENGINEERING FUNCTIONS:
Research. The research engineer seeks new principles and processes by employing
mathematical and scientific concepts, experimental techniques, and inductive
reasoning.
Development. The development engineer applies the results of research to useful
purposes. Ingenious and creative application of new knowledge may result in a working
model of a new electronics circuit, a chemical process, an industrial machine, or a
gadget of optronic.
Design. In designing a structure or a product, the engineer selects methods, specifies
materials, and determines shapes to satisfy technical requirements and to meet
performance specification.
Construction. The construction engineer is responsible for preparing the site,
determining procedures that will economically and safely yield the desired quality,
directing the placement of materials, and organizing the personnel and equipment.
Production. Plant layout and equipment selection, with consideration of human and
economic factors, is the responsibility of the production engineer. He chooses processes
and tools, integrates the flow of materials and components, and provides for testing
and inspection.
Operation. The operating engineer controls machines, plants, and organizations
providing power, transportation, and communication. He determines procedures and
supervises personnel to obtain reliable and economic operation of complex equipment.
Management and other functions: analyze customer requirements, recommend units
to satisfy needs economically, and resolve related problems. In some industries, too,
engineers decide how assets are to be used.
Environmental Damage
1) Pollution:
• Air pollution
• Water pollution
• Land pollution
2) Resource depletion:
• Depletion of Species & Habits
• Depletion of Fossil fuels etc..
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
is defined as “development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs.”
ASCE defines sustainable development as “a process of change in
which the direction of investment, the orientation of technology,
the allocation of resources, and the development and functioning
of institutions [is directed] to meet present needs and aspirations
without endangering the capacity of natural systems to absorb the
effects of human activities, and without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs and aspirations”.
• SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT negatively, the term was invented
to underscore how current patterns of economic activity and
growth cannot be sustained as populations grow, technologies
are extended to developing countries, and the environment is
increasingly harmed.
• SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT positively, the term implies the
crucial need for new economic patterns and products that are
sustainable, that is, compatible with both ongoing technological
development and protection of the environment.
Three pillars of Sustainable Development
• All engineers
should reflect
seriously on
environmental
values and how
they can best
integrate them
into
understanding
and solving
problems
Six Principles of Sustainability
1. Maintain and, if possible, enhance, its residents’ quality of life:
Components are: income, education, health care, housing,
employment, legal rights on the one hand; exposure to crime,
pollution, disease, disaster, and other risks on the other.
2. Enhance local economic vitality: A viable local economy is
essential to sustainability. This includes job opportunities, sufficient
tax base and revenue to support government and the provision of
infrastructure and services, and a suitable business climate.
3. Promote social and intergenerational equity. A sustainable
community‘s resources and opportunities are available to everyone,
regardless of ethnicity, age, gender, cultural background, religion, or
other characteristics.
4. Maintain and, if possible, enhance, the quality of the
environment. A sustainable community sees itself as existing within
a physical environment and natural ecosystem and tries to find
ways to co-exist with that environment. It does its part by avoiding
unnecessary degradation of the air, oceans, fresh water, and other
natural systems.
Six Principles of Sustainability
5.Incorporate disaster resilience and mitigation into its
decisions and actions. A community is resilient in the face of
inevitable natural disasters like tornadoes, hurricanes,
earthquakes, floods, and drought if it takes steps to ensure
that such events cause as little damage as possible, that
productivity is only minimally interrupted, and that quality of
life remains at (or quickly returns to) high levels.
6. Use a consensus-building, participatory process when
making decisions. Participatory processes are vital to
community sustainability. Such a process engages all the
people who have a stake in the outcome of the decision being
contemplated. It encourages the identification of concerns
and issues, promotes the wide generation of ideas for dealing
with those concerns, and helps those involved find a way to
reach agreement about solutions
Ethical Perspective
• Anthropocentric: Humans are placed in domination of nature and have
the right to use resources and abuse nature as we choose.
• Stewardship: Humans have the responsibility to manage and care for
nature. Humans and non-human forces must act together in order to
sustain life. Humans are part of nature rather than masters.
• Biocentrism: All living organisms have intrinsic values and rights
regardless whether they are useful or not.
• Animal Rights: Each individual organism is of value not the group.
• Ecocentric: Based on the view that oneself should do everything what
support’s one’s own interest and profit. The whole is more important
than its individual parts. Only oneself has an intrinsic value Other
human and nature have instrumental value Any action is based on
one’s personal wealth
• Ecofeminism: A pluralistic, nonhierarchical relationship philosophy that
suggest that humans could reconceive themselves to nature in a nondominating way.
Responsibilities toward environment
• Corporations: it is good business for a corporation
to be perceived by the public as environmentally
responsible, indeed as a leader in finding creative
solutions. This is true of corporations of all sizes.
• Government: Technology Assessment, Incentives,
Taxes. Government laws and regulations are
understandably the lightning rod in environmental
controversies.
• Market Mechanisms: Internalizing Costs
• Communities: Preventing Natural Disasters
conserve natural resources and beauty for future
generations.
Sets of measures communities can
take to avert or mitigate disasters.
1.Defensive measures consists of restrictions or requirements
imposed on human habitat. For instance, homes should not be
built in floodplains, homes in prairie country should have tornado
shelters, hillsides should be stabilized to prevent landslides,
structures should be able to withstand earthquakes and heavy
weather, roof coverings should be made from nonflammable
materials, and roof overhangs should be fashioned so flying
embers will not be trapped.
2.Strengthening the lifelines for essential utilities such as water
(especially for fire fighting) and electricity.
3.Encompasses special-purpose defensive structures that would
include dams, dikes, breakwaters, avalanche barriers, and means
to keep floodwaters from damaging low-lying sewage plants
placed where gravity will take a community’s effluents.
4.Assure safe exits in the form of roads and passages designed as
escape routes, structures designated as emergency shelters,
adequate clinical facilities, and agreements with neighboring
communities for sharing resources in emergencies.
Environmental ethics.
1. Human-Centered Ethics: Environmental ethics focuses
exclusively on the benefits of the natural environment to humans
and the threats to human beings presented by the destruction of
nature.
2. Sentient-Centered Ethics: One version of nature-centered ethics
recognizes all sentient animals as having natural worth, so that the
right action maximizes goodness for all affected to sentient
animals as well as humans.
3. Biometric Ethics: A life-centered ethics regards all living
organisms as having inherent worth. All organisms share these
natural tendencies to survive and develop, and hence
dependability requires that we confirm the inherent worth of all life.
4. Religious Perspectives: Each world religion reflects the diversity
of outlooks of its members, and the same is true concerning
environmental attitudes. Asian religions emphasize images of unity
How to reduce air pollution
• Conserve energy – remember to turn off lights,
computers, and electric appliances when not in use.
• Use energy efficient light bulbs and appliances.
• Participate in your local utility’s energy conservation
programs.
• Limit driving by using public transportation.
• Combine shopping for fewer trips.
• Keep your automobile well tuned and maintained.
• Follow the manufacturer’s instructions on routine
maintenance, such as changing the oil and filters.
• Avoid excessive using of your automobile.
• Use electric cars.
• Be careful not to spill gasoline when filling up your car or
gasoline powered Run dishwashers and clothes washers
only when full.
• Choose environmentally friendly cleaners.
• Use water-based or solvent free paints whenever
• and garden chemicals to prevent volatile organic
compounds from evaporating into the air.
• Purchase and use low-polluting engines.
• Be Believer for emission reductions from power plants
and more strict oil and filters.

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