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I need a reflection paper on the topic (wright brothers) explain why you selected it, briefly summarize it, describe how significant it is to the aviation industry, and how it inspires you and leads you to choose the aviation career.

Chapter 2
Sections C&D
Eli Herren, Dan Sanders, Konner Weiss
– Modern airplane originated with Sir George Cayley

Drew the lift, drag diagram
Understood air resistance
– Henson and Stringfellow
– Completed the design for aerial steam carriage
– Monoplane built and tested
– “launch by wire”
-Octave Chanute
– Influenced the Wright brothers (read his book and met)
Review Questions
The French word empennage means what in English?
Whose writings helped out the Wright brothers?
Who thought that flight would come from ornithopters, and studied lots of birds?
Wright Patent
Wright Patent. U.S. Patent 821,393, was granted on May 22, 1906

Tried to get patented for 17 years
“Dismissed” several times
Hired an attorney and got patented
What was classified as an airplane?
Wright Flying Machine-Patent
– How the patent described the plane
– Wings
– Airfoils “aeroplane”
– Made up of spars, bows, and ribs
– Control “Operator”
– lay prone or face down on lower wing
– lean to steer and control
Wright Airplanes
Patent Delay kept them from doing an
1903 wasn’t practical
Built Flyer No. 2 in 1904
Airport/Aerodrome( Huffman Prairie)
8 miles east of Dayton, Ohio
Removed all barbed wire fencing
Had to herd horses and cows before flying
Flyer No. 2
Less camber, more horsepower
New propellor gearing
Started using assisted launch device in sept, 1904
Ran test flights to make it more practical to use
Right turns proved to be an issue, couldn’t avoid a stall
Flyer No. 3
Built in 1905
New machine, same engine
Met criteria for a practical airplane
Fixed right turn stall by technique,
49 flights
○ Several were 18-38 minute flights, 12-24 miles
Separated controls for wing warping and tail rudder
“The age of the flying machine has come to last.”
Approached US Government to market their practical airplane
Foresaw military use, military funding as sufficient pay
Known well in europe, Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
British War Dept. emissaries
Colonel J.E Capper
C.S Rolls
December 1907 United States Army Signal Corps invited proposals
41 proposals, only 3 met specifications,
Feb. 1908 accepted one contract
Refurbished Flyer No. 3
New pilot seat, passenger seat on wing
No hip cradle, hand levers
Charlie Furnas, first passenger
Model A airplane built for the army
○ Gross weight of 1360 lbs., 36’5” wingspan, length of 32’8”.
Wright model 4 engine( 25 HP, top speed 40 mph)
Crashed spet. 17, 1908, Fort Meyer, Virginia
Lt. Thomas Etholen Selfridge was the first airplane fatality
Built Model B in june 1909
European Tour
Wilbur Wright toured Europe to demonstrate the Wright airplane.
On September 16th Wilbur took his first European airplane passenger: Ernest Zens.
He raced the Hunaudieres Race and Camp d’Auvourst Course in Le Mans, France.
He won the Michelin Cup for longest flight over a closed circuit: two hours, 18 minutes
and 33 seconds.
Gave rides at Pont- long, Pau, France; Centocelle Field, Rome Italy; Tempelhof Field,
Berlin, and Bornstedy Field, Potsdam, Germany.
Military Sales
The Wright brothers’ contract with the United States government for the purchase of one heavier than
air flying machine. Wrights’ bid to furnish a flying machine to U.S. War Department for $25,000 is
Wright 1908 airplane is assembled and ready for testing at Fort Myer, Virginia.
Orville makes U.S. Army test flights at Fort Myer and establishes records with and without passengers.
Wright Company
Founded November 22, 1909
Wilber became company president
Orville vice president
First factory built in Dayton in 1910
New model were two-seat Model B and a one seater racer
Within the first year the Dayton factory reached the production level of two airplanes per
Works cited
Chapter 2
Section A & B
An intro into heavier than air flight.
Clark Philbert, Colten Westhues, Riley
Vogelsmeier, Savanna Schietzelt
Leonardo da Vinci
Flapping-wing ornithopters
Da Vinci’s attempt to define
heavier-than-air flight
The attempt was unsuccessful
Redesigned into fixed-wing gliders
Was more relative
Remained relatively unknown
and unpublicized so wasn’t a
big influence in the aircraft
Kites and Windmills
A Chinese invention
Dates back to the 1st century or earlier
“The kite is in reality a primitive aeroplane a craft supported in the air by the action of
wind upon an inclined surface – and the
windmill is a propeller.”
Originates in ancient Rome
Recognized importance as a propeller in
â–  Lead to many different inventions
● A simplistic helicopter with
rotors on both ends of a pole
● A propeller for a river boat,
and later on balloons (1785)
Sir George Cayley
Conceived the idea of the modern
In the 18th century he identified the
problem of mechanical flight
“To make a surface support a given
weight by the application of power to
the resistance of the air.”
Distinguished between the mechanism
for lift and the mechanism for thrust
In 1809 Cayley built a full-sized glider,
which flew unmanned successfully
â—‹ Advances continued to be made
after this success
William Samuel Henson and John Stringfellow
Englishmen who collaborated together after
being inspired by the Cayley’s successes
Henson had already experimented with gliders,
and Stringfellow had launched a couple
In 1842, Henson developed what he called the
Aerial Steam Carriage
Made a company called Aerial transit company
to raise funds, but could not raise enough to
build the full sized plane.
Aerial Steam Carriage
Although they couldn’t build the full size, they
built and tested a twenty foot model
It was a monoplane, and the wing was
cambered, braced with king posts, and
constructed with supporting spars and
connecting ribs.
Henson’s design also included a vertical
stabilizer and the steam engine powered two six
bladed pusher propellers
Failed fly, only a descending glide. Henson gave
up the project and left england.
Although his partner left, Stringfellow persisted.
In 1848, He built an an improved version of
Henson’s, which was only a 10 foot model of the
It was a “launch by wire” design, meaning it
hung from an inclined wire and slid down
creating speed
According to his biographer, stringfellow
established the first unmanned, powered,
winged flight… although this is sometimes
His success inspired many aeronautical efforts
later on and revived aviation interest
Felix du Temple
Was a French Naval Officer who developed his
own ideas and built a full-size airplane
Used a steam engine and a tractor propeller
In 1874, his plane rolled down a lift and hopped
in the air before landing
Some people claim this was the first powered
flight of a heavier than air aircraft, while others
claim it was the just the first powered take off
and landing
Otto Lilienthal
Thought that flight would come from
ornithopters, and studied lots of birds
Although he is much more well known for his
gliders, which he logged over 2,000 flights in.
He died after crashing into a hill, his last words
were “Sacrifices must be made.”
Octave Chanute
Improved Lilienthal’s design by getting rid of bat
wings and adding a Cayley-type tail, all of this
with stability in mind
An innovation he introduced was the pratt truss
to brace the wing
Because of his age, he hired a young man
named Augustus Herring as the test pilot
Chanute, Herring, and the Wright brothers
Chanutes design succeeded as Herring flew
over the Indiana Dunes on the shore of Lake
The Wright Brothers read Chanutes and
contacted him. Chanute met with the brothers
and gave them information, which encouraged
them on their journey for powered flight
Other Notable Innovations
Alphonse Penaud of France built and built the
Planophore, a plane driven by a big twisted
Penaud achieved stability with a dihedral wing
Thanks to all of the previous innovators of
aeronautics, it paved the way for the first powered
flight by the wright brothers
The Wright Brothers- Wilbur & Orville
Interest in aviation early in life.
Both bought bicycle shops
Lilienthal’s death reinspired Wilbur
Both became engineers and inventors in aviation
The biplane kite was the start
Horizontal, change in CG, & Lateral stability
Time working at the bicycle shop helped the
Funds, woodworking, cycle technology, and
importance of balance and control
The Problem of Mechanical Flight
Plane and Pilot, Stability and Maneuverability.
The Problem with stability.
First full-sized glider finished in 1900
Wing wrapping
Moveable forward elevator
Moved project to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
Each trial came with a lesson
In late 1902 the Wrights finally solved
the control issue, their next task was
solving the power issue.
“When once a machine is under proper
control under all conditions, the motor
problem will be quickly solved”
-Wilbur Wright
In 1902 the Wright brothers worked
with machinist Charles Taylor designed
and built a 12hp engine.
The engine was a water cooled
four-stroke engine that weighed 200lb
and had 4-cylinders.
They chose the reliability of water
cooling, over the weight saving air
cooled designs.
The Wright brothers soon discovered
that a propeller is an airfoil that
They opted to use two pusher
propellers, setup in a counter-rotating
Each blade was 8.5 feet in diameter
and was connected to the engine
with a modified bicycle chain.
On December 14, 1903 the Wright
brothers bring their new aircraft, Flyer,
to Kitty Hawk for the first airplane
On December 17, 1903 the Wright
brothers brought the repaired Flyer
back to the test site, and made the first
flight in an aircraft.
Orvilles first flight lasted only 12
seconds, and carried him only 120 feet.
Wilbur made the last flight of the day.
Traveling 852 feet over 59 seconds.
This is counted as the first first
manned, powered, controlled, and
sustained flight.

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