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Description

DIRECTIONS:

Use the picture provided to answer work sheet

Interpretation of DAP (Simplified)

Use of Psychodynamic theories.

It is assumed that the drawing will be how the person presents himself or herself

Descriptions of the drawing are useful in deriving a meaningful hypothesis

The goal is really to identify the areas of conflict, exaggeration, omission, and distortion.

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Write your general comments, interpretations, and hypothesis. In the usual DAP testing final report, this is the outline.

Description of testing situation and reaction of the subject to testing.

Brief description of subjects attitude to DAP

General Impressions conveyed by figures drawn.

Differential treatment of male and female figures

Discussion of interpretative hypotheses elicited from the catalog

Summary and recommendation

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General Impression Conveyed by figures drawn

IN sex of the drawing congruent to the sex of the subject?

Interpretative hypotheses

More information provided in the attachment

DAP – Score Sheet
__________ Initials
Gender: ___________
CLASS A
CLASS B
Date: __________
Score: __________
Preliminary Stage in which the drawing cannot be recognized as a human figure:
1. Aimless uncontrolled scribbling – score 0.
2. Lines somewhat controlled – approaches crude geometrical form – score 1.
All drawings that can be recognized as attempts to represent the human figure. Each point is scored
plus or minus. One credit for each point scored plus and no half credits given.
GROSS DETAIL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Legs present.
Arms
3. present
Trunk
4. present
Length
5. of trunk greater than breadth.
Shoulders
6.
are indicated (abrupt broadening of trunk below neck)
1.
2.
3.
Arms
2. and legs attached to trunk at correct points.
Neck
3. present.
Outline
4. of neck continuous with that of head, trunk, or both.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Nose
2. present
Mouth
3. present
Nose
4. and mouth in two dimensions, two lips shown.
Nostril
5. shown
Hair6.shown
Hair7.on more than circumference of head and non-transparent – better than a scribble.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Two2.articles of clothing non transparent (ex. Hat, trousers)
Entire
3. drawing free from transparencies – sleeves and trousers must be shown.
Four4.articles of clothing definitely indicated. *should include 4 – hat, shoes, coat, shirt, necktie, belt, trousers*
Costume
5.
complete with incongruities *business suit, soldier’s costume and hat, sleeves trousers and shoes must be
shown*
1.
2.
3.
4.
Correct
2. number of fingers shown
Fingers
3. in two dimensions – length greater than breadth, angle subtended not greater than 180 degrees
Opposition
4.
of thumb clearly defined
Hand
5. shown distinct from fingers and arm
1.
Leg 2.
joint shown – knee, hip, or both
ATTACHMENTS
HEAD DETAIL
CLOTHING
HAND DETAIL
JOINTS
PROPORTION
1. Arms
2. equal to trunk but not reaching knee
2. Legs3.not less than trunk not more than twice trunk size
3. Feet4.in 2 dimensions – not more than 1/3 or less than 1/10 of leg
4. Both5.arms and lens in two dimensions
MOTOR COORDINATION
1. Lines
1. firm without marked tendency to cross, gap, or overlap.
2. All lines
2. firm with correct joining.
3. Outline
3. of head without obvious irregularities. Develop beyond first crude circle. Conscious control apparent.
4. Trunk
4. outline. Score same as #3.
5. Arms
5. and legs without irregularities. 2 dimensions and no tendency to narrow at point of junction with trunk.
6. Features
6. symmetrical (more likely to credit in profile drawings)
FINE HEAD DETAIL
1. Ears2.present in correct position and proportion.
2. Eye3.
details – brow or lashes shown.
3. Eye4.
detail – pupil shown.
4. Eye5.
detail – proportion. Length greater than width.
5. Eye6.
detail – glance – only plus in profile.
6. Chin7.and forehead shown.
PROFILE
1. Heel2.clearly shown
2. Body
3. profile – head, trunk, and feet without error.
3. Figure
4. shown in true profile without error or transparency.
DIRECTIONS: “I want you to make a picture of yourself as a whole person. Make the very best picture that you can. Take your
time and work very carefully. Try very hard and see what a good picture you can make.”
TIME:
No time limit.
Interpretation of DAP (Simplified)
•
•
•
•
Use of Psychodynamic theories.
(Projective – you express what is unconscious and what is hidden to you.)
It is assumed that the drawing will be how the person presents himself or herself
Descriptions of the drawing is useful in deriving meaningful hypothesis
The goal is really to identify the areas of conflict, exaggeration, omission and distortion.
Write your general comments, interpretations, and hypothesis. In usual DAP testing final report, this is the outline.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Description of testing situation and reaction of the subject to testing.
Brief description of subjects attitude to DAP
General Impressions conveyed by figures drawn.
Differential treatment of male and female figures
Discussion of interpretative hypotheses elicited from catalogue
Summary and recommendation
I.
II.
III.
General Impression Conveyed by figures drawn
IN sex of the drawing congruent to the sex of the subject?
Interpretative hypotheses
I. General Characteristics
1. Pressure factors
2. Stroke line characteristics
3. Size of Drawing
4. Placement of Drawings
5. Action or Movement
1. Pressure Factors
a) Usually heavy pressure suggests
• Extremely tense individual
• Assertive, forceful, ambitious person
• Aggressive and possible acting out tendencies
b) Usually light pressure suggest
• Inadequately adjusting individuals
• Hesitant, indecisive, timid, fearful, insecure individual
• Low energy levels
2. Stroke or Line Characteristics
a. Marked Directional Preferences
• Horizontal Movements – weakness, fearfulness, self-protective tendencies or femininity
• Vertical Movement – suggest masculine assertiveness, determination, and possible hyperactivity
• Curving Lines – healthy personality, possibly suggesting distaste for conventional
• Rigid Straight Line – rigid or aggressive tendencies
• Continuous changes in direction of stroke – low security feelings
b. Quality of Stroke
• Firm, unhesitating, determined quality – secured persistent, ambitious
• Vacillating direction, vague lines interrupted strokes – insecurity vacillating tendencies
3.
4.
5.
II.
III.
• Uninterrupted straight strokes – quick deceive, assertive person
• Interrupted curvilinear strokes – slowness, indecisive, dependent
c. Length of Strokes
• Long strokes – suggest controlled behavior sometimes point of inhibition
• Short discontinuous strokes – impulsive, excitable tendencies
• Very short, circular, sketchy – anxiety, uncertainty, depression, and timidity
• Shading and shaded strokes – Anxiety
Size of Drawing
a. Usually large drawing suggests
• Aggressive tendencies
• Expansive, grandiose tendencies
• Feelings of inadequacy with compensatory defenses
• Possible hyperactive
b. Usually small drawing suggest
• Feelings of inferiority, ineffectiveness, or inadequacy
• Withdrawal tendencies in restrained, timid, shy persona
• Feelings of insecurity
• Possible depressive tendencies
• Possible weak ego structure or low ego strength
• Regressive tendencies
• When on high page- low energy level, lack of insight, unsatisfied optimism
Placement of Drawing
a. Central placement suggests
• Normal, secure: The most common placement at all ages
• In absolute center of the page- insecurity and rigidity, especially in interpersonal relations
b. Placement on high page suggest
• High level of aspiration, striving hard for difficult goals
• Optimism frequently unjustified
c. Placement on low page suggest
• Feelings of insecurity
• Feelings of inadequacy
• Depressive tendencies perhaps with defeatist attitude
d. Placement on the edge or bottom of paper suggests
• Need for support associated with feelings or insecurity and low self-assurance
• Dependency tendencies and a fear to remain absorbed in fantasy
Action or Movements
IN sex of the drawing congruent to the sex of the subject?
Interpretative Hypotheses
1. Four Major Areas
a. Head
b. Hands, Arms, Shoulders, Chest
c. Trunk of the body
d. Legs and foot
2. Four Major Areas
a. Head
• The focus of the sense of the self or ego
• It deals perceptively with the outer world
• Sense are used to receive stimuli
• Things you need to check –
o Head, hair, facial features, eyes and eyelids, ears, nose (nostrils) mouth, chin, lips, teeth,
forehead, neck, and Adam’s Apple, beard, or moustache, cap and accessories
Head cognition neck – desire of separation between the head (cognition) and the body (desire
and needs)
o No neck – no desire for separation
o Long neck – desire for more separation
o Big or open mouth – neediness
o Cupid bow or luscious lips – sexualized needs
o Close tight mouth- denial or some passive- aggressive
o Frown, sneers and smiles – what the person in real life
b. Hands, Arms, Shoulders and Chess
• The functional unit to execute commands of the brain or the impulses of the body
• Does the subject draw the figures reacting out for help? Are they reaching out aggression? Are they
fighting the world?
• Things you need to check
o Arms, fingers, shoulders, breasts, collar, muscles, thumb
o Open arms – willingness to engage
o Closed arms – defensiveness
o Disconnected arms – powerlessness
o Balled fist –aggressive ness
o Hidden Hands – anxiety or anti-social tendencies
o Breast are seldom drawn – indicates sexual concerns and discomfort
c. Trunks of the Body
• Indicates strength features
• Things to be needed to check
o Trunks, clothing, jewelry, waistline, hips, belly buttons, belts, joints, buttocks, nude, ties,
genitals, or anatomy indication, phallic symbols, waistline, transparency, empty figures, stick
figures
o Big Robust Trunks – strength
o Less trunk – loss energy
d. Legs and Feet
• It indicates autonomy, self-movement, self-direction and balance
• Things you needed to check –
o Stance, legs, feet, knees, pockets, shoes, heels, toes
o Cut-off – loss of autonomy
o Small feet- indicates need for security
o Stable legs – power
Other Areas
a. Body Part being cut –off – obsession
b. Cutting of head – suicidal tendencies
c. Excessive erasures – doubt uncertainties
d. Shading of body parts – anxiety
e. Check on warning indication of severe mental disturbance
f. Check on normality indicators
Drawing Clowns ( hiding face and person), Robots ( loss of emotions in a psychotic way) cowboys (masculinized
needs), snowmen(regressive), stick man (childish)
Excessive details are consistent with some obsessiveness when dealing with anxiety while marked lack of detail can
indicate withdrawal, low energy or boredom
o
3.
4.
5.
Reference: Richard Niclon, Ph. D, Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Spring 2013
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