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I have a paper that talks about Evaluative Annotated Bibliography. I attached the important information for this assignment and the rubric. Also, I attached some examples of how the paper should look like (3 samples of Annotated Bibliography). please read the instructions carefully and do your best to make a paper similar to the examples that I sent you.

thanks a lot

SPRING 2021 –Dr. Tetteh-Batsa
Assignment 1: Evaluative Annotated Bibliography
Assignment Overview
Often as a student and as a professional, you will be required to “get up to speed” on a topic or issue so
that you know the common understandings about the topic, including identifying key voices in the
conversation, and what questions remain. This initial gathering of information is the beginning of a
research process.
For this assignment you will “get up to speed” by first defining an initial question about your topic or
issue and then compiling a set of relevant, credible sources which address some aspect of the question.
After reviewing your sources, you will provide annotations, or formal notes, for each source. Specifically,
for each source you will document the publication information and provide an evaluative annotation
that summarizes the source and comments on the source.
The Rhetorical Situation
Genre: Annotated Bibliography.
Organizationally, annotated bibliographies are arranged by bibliographical or publication information for
each source. The formatting of the publication information will depend upon the particular style guide
chosen. For this assignment you should use MLA 8th edition. See below for reference link/help:
The final set of entries should be alphabetized by author’s last name. The end commentary will be
written in paragraph form at the end of the document.
Within each annotation, begin with a brief summary or description of the source’s key contributions to
the overall conversation. For evaluative annotative bibliographies like this one, you will also include a
brief analysis to help you [and any readers of your annotation] understand the quality and perspective
of each source and its contribution to your specific question or topic. Your annotations, then, will
include both “They Say” and an informed “I Say.”
You will include a brief end commentary [2-3 paragraphs] that gives readers the SO WHAT/WHO CARES
commentary; the big picture commentary on why we should care and who should care.
Determine a specific research question relevant to your topic, drawing from the common readings and
class discussion. Once you have your question, select 5 articles or secondary sources from credible,
library-quality sources, one of which can be from our common readings. These will be your texts to
summarize accurately and analyze carefully, revealing the larger conversation about your question.
To complete the task, you must read and understand the sources’ main arguments and consider what
motivates the author(s) of each source, as well as how each source fits into the larger body of
information, stances, and questions.
SPRING 2021 –Dr. Tetteh-Batsa
Since the bibliography is structured to summarize and comment on each source individually, your brief
end commentary (2-3 paragraphs) will need to give your readers the “bottom line” takeaways from
considering all the sources together. If you are familiar with the term “so what” from They Say, I Say,
think of the end commentary as the “so what” of the entire bibliography.
Grading Criteria
Selection of sources is based on a specific research question or topic
Sources are credible, relevant to the question, and represent different
perspectives on the question
Sources are summarized fairly and accurately, highlighting aspects of each source
that relate directly to the question
Evaluative commentary in annotations help readers understand the quality and
perspective of the source, and its contribution to the larger
End commentary on the bibliography presents a reasonable and fair overview of
the sources’ contribution to understanding the question, and identifies more
focused or specific questions or issues for further research
Demonstrates careful attention to language through correct spelling and grammar
and appropriate usage and style
Follows appropriate formatting and citation practices for the annotated
bibliography genre
Possible Points
How does parental educational achievement influence their child’s education?
“College Experiences.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 33, no. 3, Sept. 2007, pp. 41–45.
This article addresses different outside factors that affect college students, such as
socioeconomic status (SES), parental income, parental education, and parental occupation.
Studies found that first-generation college students, low income students, and students with low
SES backgrounds were all less involved socially and academically while in school. Firstgeneration students were also found to work more, however they completed fewer credit hours
and received lower grades than non-first-generation students. This may be a result of their low
levels of involvement. The article argues that involvement “result[s] in greater intellectual and
social engagement,” and “higher levels of persistence, aspirations, and attainment.” Overall, the
article analyzes differing situations of college students and how they impact their educational
This is an academic journal article. It is most likely for students looking to get a college
education, so if they are facing the same situations addressed (such as coming from low SES
status, a low income family, or being a first-generation student), they know of mistakes from past
students like them, and they know how to try and not make the same ones (for example, they
should make sure to get involved socially and intellectually). It could also be for college faculty,
so they know the challenges some students face, and can help address them. It has a section for
each situation addressed, and includes sources used by the author. The main problem with this
article is that while it has good information, it doesn’t focus solely on the topic of first-
generation students, it also discusses other disadvantages students may face. It would be a better
article for my research if it had more information on first-generation students. I question that if
first-generation students and other students with disadvantages were able to get more involved,
like the author discusses, would they still not do as well as the non-first-generation students? I
believe that the author is correct in the regard that if the students aren’t as involved, they may not
do as well, however I think that if a first-generation student gets involved and follows the same
path as non-first-generation students, they can succeed to the same level, if not higher. Overall,
this is a good article to give a brief intro to issues that first-generation students may face,
however it should have more data and information to be considered a thorough article.
Gibbons, Melinda M., et al. “Gifted Students From Low-Education Backgrounds.” Roeper
Review, vol. 34, no. 2, Apr. 2012, pp. 114–122. EBSCOhost,
This article discusses struggles that first-generation students often face when it comes to
college. Gibbons states that students who come from low-educated families are less likely to
enroll in college than those from college-educated families, citing a source stating 59%
compared to 93%. A probable cause for this substantial difference is that first-generation
students have less knowledge of the preparation and application process for colleges, and less
support from their families. Gibbons also discusses some challenges first-generation students
face once enrolled in college. Many of them choose to live at home instead of on campus,
causing them to feel less connected with the college community. They often aren’t as involved in
extracurricular activities, and struggle with time management as many of them work part-time
jobs while attending school. Next, Gibbons provides an interview with a young girl (age 10) and
her mother, who did not attend college. The author shows how their responses to some of the
questions asked show certain characteristics of other first-generation students who also struggled
with going to college. For example, it seems like neither the girl nor her mother have any
specific plans, financially, or academically, for the young girl to go to college. The young girl
also feels a lack of social support for her academic future, not having a higher-educated person to
mentor her through that era of her life. Overall, the author spent much of the article discussing
difficulties faced by first-generation students, and analyzing the interview as further evidence to
support her points. Gibbons also goes on to suggest that more research should be done with more
in-depth interviews, and she suggests that teachers and school staff give more information and
support to first-generation students related to postsecondary planning.
This is an academic journal article targeted towards school faculty, first-generation
students, and their families. It helps make faculty and family members aware of the support firstgeneration students need, so they can insure to provide the necessary information to their
students. It also helps the students themselves learn more about mistakes of students like them in
the past. For example, after reading that many first-generation students struggled because they
didn’t get involved in the community and they struggled with time management, hopefully a
first-generation student reading this article will make a mental note of that and be sure to focus
on not making that same mistake. Including the primary research of the interview also helps
readers relate more to the situation, and have a more emotional attachment to this topic. A
limitation to this article is that it didn’t discuss issues first-generation students face while
attending college very thoroughly, it mainly focused on hardships they face to go to college in
the first place. In the interview, the mother states that there is “[n]othing at all,” standing in the
way of her daughter going to college. However, in the section below the interview, the author
disagrees with this statement and brings up the issue of finances they will most likely face. A
question I am left with after reading this article is if a first-generation student has a collegeeducated mentor to walk them through the steps of applying and going to college, will they be
more likely to succeed, or are there more factors than just that main one the author brings up?
This article makes a strong argument that first-generation students often face more of a struggle
to get to college, and it’s show well through the author’s use of statistics and references to other
sources. However, I believe the interview would have been more effective if the young girl was
older, a bit closer to the age of actually going to college (she was only 10 years old at the time of
the interview). What I find most useful in this article is the primary source (the interview), and
the discussion of the difficulties many first-generation students face just to enter college. Overall,
it only has a brief section on struggles first-generation students face while in college, however it
brings up good points regarding their journey to enroll and attend a university.
Jury, Mickaël, et al. “When First-Generation Students Succeed at University: On the Link
between Social Class, Academic Performance, and Performance-Avoidance Goals.”
Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 41, Apr. 2015, pp. 25–36. EBSCOhost,
This article discusses three studies that were done to observe performance-avoidance
goals adopted by first-generation in comparison to continuing-generation students. The studies
not only compared first-generation and non-first-generation students, but also high achieving and
low achieving students. The first study was more general, applying to one’s studies, the second
being applied to one’s class, and the third being for one exam. The results from all three studies
found that high achieving first-generation students endorsed performance-avoidance goals the
most, meaning they focused the most on not failing instead of doing things to make them
succeed. This is focusing on a negative, which the author refers to as a “maladaptive strategy.” A
probable explanation the author offers for the results of the study is that because high achievers
are closer to the upward mobility process (going from being a first-generation student to a
successful, high achieving student), they will feel identity change the most. They may feel
threatened by this sudden leap and become scared, deciding to focus on not failing (adopting
performance-avoidance goals), instead of what they can do to succeed above and beyond. Other
feelings that add to it include fear of failure, negative emotions, and academic achievement.
Study three helps support this idea, because after doing well on an exam, high achieving firstgeneration students were found to endorse even more performance-avoidance goals. Looking
specifically at genders, women were found to adopt more performance-avoidance goals relative
to their men peers, which also supports the idea that social position can affect performanceavoidance goal endorsement (given that men are often paid higher wages, thought to be more
competent, and have better social positions). Overall, this article provided a good analysis with
studies to support the idea that even when first-generation students succeed at a university, it is
still harder for them to accept that success and they have a harder time with it than non-firstgeneration students.
This article is an academic journal article most likely targeted for other psychologists,
given that it’s a very specific mental mindset they’re analyzing in first-generation college
students. However, it could also be used by a first-generation college student to help bring
awareness to them, and help them identify if they themselves are adopting performanceavoidance goals, and try to stop this negative mindset. A problem with this article is that while it
has good data and multiple studies, the author states that “Cronbach’s alphas ranged from poor
(.50) to acceptable (.76) across the three studies.” This means that the data may not be entirely
reliable. A question I’m left with is how do they measure high achieving students versus low
achieving students, and how specific are the requirements to be considered each? However, the
author makes many good points with his graphs and statistics, arguing well his overall point that
at high levels of academic achievement, first-generation students adopt more performanceavoidance goals because they feel threatened by the sudden upward social mobility process.
Miller, Margaret A. “The Privileges of the Parents.” Change, vol. 40, no. 1, Jan. 2008, pp. 6–7.
EBSCOhost, doi:10.3200/CHNG.40.1.6-7.
In this article, Miller argues that getting a college education is extremely important. He
analyzes how students with highly educated parents often do better in school, and the parents
know more of what is needed to support their child academically. They’re better able to walk
their child through the steps needed to apply for college, prepare for college, and encourage them
to be involved. First-generation college students are less likely to be involved in collegiate
activities, resulting in lower student success. Because of this, the author argues that instead of
searching out the best, we should look out for the most promising first-generation students.
This is an editorial used to bring attention to readers such as students, families, and
college admissions faculty. It focuses on the importance of college and many struggles firstgeneration students face. The author believes that first-generation students should get priority,
and that college-admissions officers shouldn’t always just look for the best and brightest; they
should also take into account if a student is first-generation or not. This article includes personal
stories which helps to evoke emotion in the reader while helping them connect to the issue more,
and statistics to support Miller’s argument. A limitation of this article is that it’s brief, and
doesn’t include much data. However, it’s brief, interesting, and brings up good points regarding
struggles first-generation students face that non-first-generation students may not even think
about. Overall, Miller strongly believes that parental education levels are very important, and
that first-generation students should have priority because they face many more challenges than
continuing-generation students. I believe that this article is useful for discussing how non-firstgeneration students are often able to succeed more in school, giving them advantages when it
comes to postsecondary education. It’s also useful to see how much coming from a highly
educated family can help a student.
Pascarella, Ernest T., et al. “First-Generation College Students.” Journal of Higher Education,
vol. 75, no. 3, May 2004, pp. 249–284. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1353/jhe.2004.0016.
This article argues that parental education levels play a significant role in their children’s
academic experiences and achievement. According to the studies, first-generation students are
less likely to go to selective schools, and they’re found to complete fewer credit hours while
working more hours than their non-first-generation peers. They’re less likely to live on campus,
are less involved in the college community, and often receive lower grades. However, firstgeneration students who did become involved in extracurricular activities seemed to gain more
benefit from it than their non-first-generation peers. Sadly, this isn’t true with all activities, as the
author says that “[v]olunteer work, employment, and participation in intercollegiate athletics all
tended to have a more negative impact on first generation students.” The author states that
without having college-educated parents to walk them through the process, first-generation
students are often less prepared to make “informed choices about institutions and involvements
during college that potentially maximize educational progress and benefits.” However, first-
generation students demonstrate resilience to overcome these disadvantages they have, and it’s
said their “college experiences have a bigger bang-for-the buck.” When looking at educational
future plans, however, the author states, “first-generation students made significantly smaller
increases in the highest degree they planned to obtain than did the high parental education
group.” First-generation students may not know the full opportunities of even higher education,
such as masters degrees or getting a PhD. It also may be a matter of payment, as many firstgeneration students come from low SES backgrounds, and not receiving sufficient financial aid
can “impede the opportunities of first-generation students to participate fully in the college
experience.” Overall, the author summarizes many struggles first-generation students face in
college while also addressing the pros and cons of different aspects of college for first-generation
and non-first-generation students.
This is an academic journal article, and it’s most likely for any people looking to learn
more about studies and in-depth research regarding first-generation college students. This could
include first-generation college students themselves, their families, psychology students studying
the impact of first-generation, or college faculty. It goes through each study separately, laying it
out, including tables and charts. At the end, the summary and conclusion lay out the general
findings of the studies, discussing what it all means. A problem is that being such a long article,
I’m not able to read all of it and get all of the specific information, however it was a very
thorough and comprehensive article, and gave new perspectives on things I hadn’t thought about
before. Overall, the article discussed challenges first-generation students face, however it also
brought up pros about being a first-generation student. It’s very useful because it has so much
data, and it shows both the good and bad about being a first-generation student, instead of just
the bad.
End Commentary
Overall, many of these articles agree that first-generation students face more challenges
than their non-first-generation peers. All of the sources (with the exception of Jury) argue that
first-generation students are less likely to be involved in their college community, and “College
Experiences,” Gibbons, and Pascarella all argue that first-generation students often work more.
“College Experiences” and Pascarella both state that first-generation students complete fewer
credits and receive lower grades in them. Gibbons and Pascarella also bring up the fact that firstgeneration students don’t have parents to walk them through the process of applying and
succeeding in college. They also both state that many first-generation students choose to live at
home instead of on campus. One article that brought up an interesting study not mentioned by
the others was written by Jury. He brings up studies that were done analyzing performanceavoidance goals of high achieving first-generation students, showing that they’re more likely
than low achieving and non-first-generation students to focus on avoiding the negatives in their
goals, rather than focusing on things that they can succeed greatly at. Jury also brings up the fact
that there are high achieving first-generation students, while many of the other authors only
discuss the setbacks and disadvantages they face. Pascarella also brings up pros of being a firstgeneration student, such as getting more “bang for their buck” in college, and benefiting more
from being involved in extracurricular activities. In summary, while many of these articles focus
on the negatives of being a first-generation college student, some articles offer interesting
perspectives to consider regarding how low parental education levels may actually benefit their
This topic is very important in today’s society, as more first-generation students enter
universities. If we don’t address this gap in college education, our society will continue to grow
farther and farther apart. Without getting a good education, we’re not able to move forward in
important matters that require a higher education, for example research, allocative efficiency,
and societal acceptance. I still have a few questions to research. To start, what motivates most
first-generation students to get a college degree in the first place? If a parent has a college degree
but doesn’t use it for their job or gain anything from it, will it still impact their child being a nonfirst-generation student? All in all, this is an essential topic that needs to be brought to light to
help our society become more educated and keep our world progress moving forward.
Eric Doe 1
Topic: What factor does social class have on mental health among college students?
Annotated Bibliography
Ibrahim, Ahmed, K. Kelly, and Shona Glazebrook. “Socioeconomic Status and the Risk of
Depression among UK Higher Education Students.” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric
Epidemiology 48.9 (2013): 1491-501. Print.
The research in this article aims to uncover a trend linked to one of the most widely
known mental health disorder, depression. The UK study looks specifically for the main factors
that may attribute to symptoms of depression in college age students. Students surveyed filled
out information on their socioeconomic status and their feelings of hopelessness or lack of
control over their own lives, which are emotions commonly experienced by depressed people.
The findings indicated that as perceived socioeconomic status increased, feelings of hopelessness
and lack of control decreased, and vice versa. The survey also viewed the education level and
employment of student’s parents and found that having a highly educated mother on average
produced the lowest rates of depression. These survey results are important for the topic as they
view not just the socioeconomic status of students, but also a possible correlation between
parents and depression.
Jetten, Jolanda, Frank Mols, Nikita Healy, and Russell Spears. ““Fear of Falling”: Economic
Instability Enhances Collective Angst among Societies’ Wealthy Class.” Journal of
Social Issues 73.1 (2017): 61-79. Web.
Eric Doe 2
The authors of this article viewed the different levels of anxiety or angst as well as how
competent individuals viewed themselves. These studies were given to people who fit into one of
three different groups, people who claimed to have a high social economic status, those with
somewhat high social economic status, and people who associated with the low social economic
status. The results of the survey are important as they showed that anxiety was considerably
higher in lower economic status individuals than in higher status individuals. The results also
showed that lower economic status individuals rated themselves lower in terms of competency
than members of higher status, which could indicate a lower self-esteem for members of lower
social classes. If students enter college already experiencing more anxiety than their wealthier
classmates, they are at a disadvantage. More anxious individuals will also on average view
themselves as less competent than students of higher economic status. This study is important to
my topic as it shows that members of lower economic status will be affected two-fold in a
damaging psychological way. The only problem I have with this survey and report is the lack of
defining the characteristics needed to be in the lower social class vs the higher social classes.
Peltzer, Karl, and Supa Pengpid. “Heavy Drinking and Social and Health Factors in University
Students from 24 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries.” Community
Mental Health Journal 52.2 (2016): 239-44. Print.
This study aimed to pin possible factors that could contribute towards causing heavy
drinking in university students. Many factors were used to identify any possible trends, such as
religious affiliation, tobacco use, drug use, gambling, knowledge on alcohol, and socioeconomic
status to name a few. The study found that individuals with low religious affiliation and coming
from a poor or low socioeconomic status family as well as living in a middle-income country all
Eric Doe 3
contributed to causing higher rates of heavy alcohol use for both men and women. This is
important information as it shows that lower economic status individuals will turn to alcohol to
deal with problems more than individuals form higher socioeconomic statuses. This study also
shows that lower socioeconomic class individuals experience more than just higher rates of
depression and anxiety but that it extends to how they cope with stresses and anxiety as well.
Sahin Kiralp, F. Sülen, and Serin, Nergüz B. “A Study of Students’ Loneliness Levels and Their
Attachment Styles.” Journal of Education and Training Studies 5.7 (2017): 37-45. Print.
The objective of this research was to find any correlation between social patterns of
students attending four-year schools and feelings of loneliness or insecurity. The survey was
conducted on about 250 undergraduate college students with most being freshman and
sophomores. On average the survey found that students that identified their socioeconomic
situation as bad or poor experienced more feelings of loneliness than students that believed their
socioeconomic status was good. This could mean that just by being in a lower socioeconomic
group, students may feel lonelier even if they truly are not. Feeling poor can cause students to
feel lonely even if they have good support groups and friendships.
Sonneville, K. R., and S. K. Lipson. “Disparities in Eating Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment
According to Weight Status, Race/ethnicity, Socioeconomic Background, and Sex among
College Students.” International Journal of Eating Disorders 51.6 (2018): 518-26. Web.
Research was done on students from twelve colleges and universities from across the
country totaling over one thousand seven hundred students. The study provided was used to
determine any identifiable patterns in students that presented with eating disorders or some
characteristics that could indicate a possible eating disorder. The different categories included
Eric Doe 4
items such as age, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic affluency, and weight. The
surveyed students were also asked to report whether they felt they needed to receive treatment
for an eating disorder. This study is important as the results presented evidence that students
associated with the lower socioeconomic status perceived a lower need for treatment of an eating
disorder and received less treatment than members of higher socioeconomic statuses. This notion
supports the idea that lower socioeconomic groups are less served by specialists in healthcare
due to monetary restraint.
In general, most of the authors’ findings pointed to the same concept that students that
identify with lower social classes are hit harder by many if not all types of mental health
concerns than other individuals who make up the higher social classes. I did find it shocking that
none of the papers I read addressed what characteristics were required to be part of a certain
social class, but instead usually allowed the respondents to identify what class they were in. I
was also not able to do articles on both drug addiction and suicide, which would have been very
interesting topics to include and are very well-known mental health problems. From what I found
one point still sticks out as interesting, though not part of this paper’s research. In the final
article, the authors bring the point that lower social class individuals may have need for
professional health care but not seek it out. An interesting follow up to this may be how many
people fall into this group that does not seek help when they should, especially people showing
signs of suicide or majorly harmful behaviors. Then building upon the number of how many
would be how much worse do these mental health concerns become because of the lack of
treatment. Overall the mental health of college level students is something everyone should take
Eric Doe 5
very seriously. People in college are the future of our nation and their success is a success for the
nation. College is a time in a person’s life to enjoy and look back on with a smile, but for too
many it is anxiety inducing and harmful to their self-esteem.
Topic: Is there a correlation between socioeconomic status and undergraduate
performance and college major choice?
Evaluative Annotated Bibliography
Leppel, Karen, et al. “The Impact of Parental Occupation and Socioeconomic Status on Choice
of College Major.” Journal of Family and Economic Issues, vol. 22, no. 4, Dec. 2001,
pp. 373-394. SpringerLink, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012716828901.
This source analyzes how factors of parental occupation and socioeconomic status
(SES) contribute to a student’s choice of college major. The researchers find that students
who are focused on financial success are more likely to pursue a business degree. They
also find that as SES increases for students, both male and female students are more
likely to gravitate towards humanities and social science degrees. This effect was found
to be more significant in women than men, which is theorized to be a result of the social
expectation that men should be breadwinners and have a career that can provide for a
family. This information is important to universities as they try to attract different
students to many different degrees. Studies like these provide a basis of understanding for
universities trying to estimate how many students they will receive in various
departments based on the demographic of incoming students.
Ma, Yingyi. “Family Socioeconomic Status, Parental Involvement, and College Major
Choices—Gender, Race/Ethnic, and Nativity Patterns.” Sociological Perspectives,
vol. 52, no. 2, Jun. 2009, pp. 211-234. SageJournals.
This article is a more recent study that analyzes how male and female students’
college major choice is affected by parental involvement and socioeconomic status. The
researchers find that students from a higher SES often value intrinsic rewards greater than
students from a lower SES, who are more likely to value extrinsic rewards. It is believed
that this is because low SES students see college as an opportunity for social mobility and
status improvement. They also find that the fact that students from a lower SES pursue
lucrative ideas could “weaken the intergenerational transmission of inequality.” This
study gives validity to the less recent study by Leppel (2009 vs 2001) and my paper
because the two studies received very similar results. This knowledge is important for
universities and professors to understand what is motivating students to pursue their
degree in order to better connect with them and teach them.
Metheny, Jennifer, et al. “Contributions of Social Status and Family Support to College
Students’ Career Decision Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations.” Journal
of Career Assessment, vol. 21, no. 3, Jan. 2018, pp. 378-394. SageJournals.
This article looks beyond college major and studies the effect of social status
combined with family support on a college student’s self-efficacy and expectations for a
future career. Researchers use data collected from open-ended questions about students’
future aspirations to find a correlation between participant’s socioeconomic status and the
perceived ability to achieve goals themselves. They find, surprisingly, that there was no
positive relationship between SES and career decision self-efficacy. They did find,
however, that the support a student feels from his family can affect his or her perception
on their social standing in relation to others in society. This information is very relevant
to parents. If a parent’s support can affect their kids’ perception of status which in turn
may affect their decision in college major (based off previous studies), then this study
provides applicable knowledge that is important for parents to understand.
Generalizations based off this article, however, should be made with caution as the
sample group was predominantly white and female.
O’Donnell, Cullen T. “Status Frustration among College Students: The Relationship between
Socioeconomic Status and Undergraduate Performance.” Deviant Behavior, vol. 39,
no. 6, Jun. 2018, pp. 679-693. TaylorandFrancisGroup.
This very recent study examines a correlation between socioeconomic status and
undergraduate performance/participation in deviant behavior. They find that a much
smaller percentage of first-generation graduates receive their bachelor’s degree within
eight years than continuing generation graduates. Researchers also look at educational
and social opportunities in college and find that because low SES students are often
working more, they frequently miss out on unpaid internships, sports,
fraternities/sororities, and other activities that help build social and leadership skills.
When surveying for a relationship between SES and academic performance, they found
no correlation. The study finds also finds no correlation between GPA and perceived
class difficulty. However, they do find a positive correlation between GPA and perceived
opportunities. This is surprising, but they theorize the reason for this is due to selfreporting bias in their survey. Student involvement centers in universities across the
nation could use this information to find ways they could accommodate students from a
low SES. This information is also relevant to financial aid offices, whose scholarships
greatly affect the time a student feels they must spend working.
Tablante, Courtney B., et al. “Teaching Social Class.” Teaching of Psychology, vol. 42, no. 2,
Feb. 2015, pp. 184-190. SageJournals. https://doi.org/10.1177/0098628315573148
This article explores the effect of stereotypes and stereotype threat on students
from a low SES. They found students were likely to perform poorly on intelligence tests
if stereotypes of being poor were placed on them. They also find that people classify
members of lower classes (working class) as being less qualified. Lastly, they find that
college students expect other students from a higher SES to be more competent. This is a
relevant and surprising study because it contradicts American society’s push to be
“classless,” not judging people based on their socioeconomic background. As an extra
note, some of the experiments examined in this study were done in both France and the
United States, receiving similar results in both countries. This possibly points to a more
universal stereotype and social infrastructure.
The sources in this bibliography range in copyright date from 2001 to 2018. While there
were a few discrepancies among articles, much of the data and correlational trends have stayed
consistent for over a decade. As a general basis, all articles regarding the choice of college major
agree that undergraduate students from a low SES are likely to pursue a lucrative/technical
degree that is typically thought to have more extrinsic rewards that intrinsic rewards. The articles
also coincide each other with the idea that students from a lower SES are often stereotyped as
being less competent, lazier, or deserving of the status they are in. One of the discrepancies I find
between articles is the correlation between SES and academic performance. The article by
Tablante states that students stereotyped as being from a low SES perform worse on standardized
tests than high SES students. However, the study done by O’Donnell finds no correlation
between perceived social status and GPA. The methods used in the tests were slightly different
but regardless, the results do seem to conflict from a conceptual point of view.
I find the information presented by these articles intriguing and, from my own
experience, quite valid. As a friend to students from both high socioeconomic statuses and low
socioeconomic statuses, I often see the latter of the two in technical degrees. Furthermore, I do
see them perform quite well academically. However, I do also see many students from a high
SES wanting to maintain their family’s status also pursue technical degrees associated with wellpaying careers. I am curious as to how this plays a role into the intergenerational transmission of
wealth and status. How often do students actually improve the SES that they grew up in? How
many higher SES students end up in a lower SES than the one they grew up in as a result of
pursuing a nonlucrative degree? While these questions would require answers from a study far
more longitudinal, it would make a very relevant contribution to my research.

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