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The final writing assignment requires a minimum of 5 references.

3 must be peer-reviewed academic articles

2 must be factual news articles (no Op-Eds/Editorials/Commentaries/Columns). When in doubt, message me and I will let you know if it is appropriate.

I want you to apply your topic to current events. Applying ideas is hard – so here is a chance to practice!

These 5 references cannot be ones used in lecture already. If you want to include lecture sources in your final paper, they will have to be in addition to those you find independently.

This assignment requires students to not only provide a list of possible references in appropriate APA format, but the list must also summarize and assesses the source. The first component should be a brief summary of the material in the source. The remainder should be a combination of critiquing the material and reflecting on its usefulness or importance to your final paper.

Why APA and Not MLA?
I’m still crediting the source!
• MLA is used in humanities and liberal arts
Literature, language, history, philosophy, the arts, etc.
You’ve probably have used this the majority of your education
Classic sources are as relevant at current sources
What was said is more important than when it was said
• Focus is on author and page number
• APA is predominant in social sciences
– Psychology, sociology, nursing, social work, criminology, etc.
– Ensuring sources are current and timely is important
– What was said is just as important as when it was said
• Author and year, page is used number only when it is a direct quote
For the sake of simplicity
• The rest of this lecture will focus on proper APA
citation for journal articles
• Remember that books, newspapers, government
documents, book chapters, etc.
– All have different rules when citing them for the reference
– In-text rules are a bit more universal, but always check
when in doubt
• Purdue OWL APA is helpful
– Mobile version sucks… Sorry…
In-text Citations
• Starting with the easy stuff…
• You must cite if:
– Direct quotes
– Paraphrasing
– Pretty much any time information provided
is not a universally accepted fact
• The sky is blue.
In-text Citations: Standard Format
(aka citation at the end of the sentence)
• Paraphrase: (Last name, Year).
– (Dodge, 2020).
• Direct quote: (Last name, Year, p. page #).
– (Dodge, 2020, p. 192).
– (Dodge, 2020, pp. 192-193).
• Short quotes (39 words or less)
– “Words” (Citation).
• Long quotes (40 words +)
– Block quotation (see next slide)
In-text Citations: Block Quotation
In-text Citations: Multiple Authors
• Two authors
– (Author1 & Author2, year).
– (Dodge & Moule, 2020).
• Add p. # if direct quote
• 3+ authors
– Immediately, (Author1 et al., year).
• This is a change from 6th edition APA manual
• Used to be write all names first time, et al. thereafter
• (Dodge et al., 2020).
In-text Citations: Atypical Format
(aka citation at the start of the sentence)
• Paraphrase:
– In research by Dodge (2020)…
• Direct quote:
– According to Dodge (2020), “Teaching research methods
online is hard. Taking it is probably harder” (p. 111).
• Multiple authors
– Research by Dodge and Moule (2020)…
– Dodge and colleagues (2020)…
Reference Page Citations
• Header is “References”
– Not “Works Cited” or “Bibliography”
• Alphabetized by first author
• Reference page includes all citations that
appear in the text, and only those in the text
• Double-spaced, hanging indents (I’ll
demonstrate shortly)
Reference Page Citations
Hanging indent
Reference Citations: Journal Articles
• Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of
Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy
• Authors:
• Author order is a reflection of credit on the piece
• Further from 1st author = you did less work
• Year only, no month or day needed for journal articles
• Article title is in sentence case. Only capitalize:
First word
Proper nouns
After a colon
Reference Citations: Journal Articles
• Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title
of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.
• Title of Periodical
– Capitalize all major words, aka Title Case (so not “of” “and”)
– Italicize
• Volume # vs Issue #
– Always a volume #, and it is always italicized
– If there is an issue #
• No space after volume # and parentheses
• Do not italicize
Reference Citations: Journal Articles
• Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title
of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.
• Pages
– No “p” “pp” or “pg” – just the numbers
• No article is 1 page long.
• DOI or Webpage
– This is not required for your assignment
– Best practices for APA 7th Edition, but you can stop after pages
Common Pitfalls
Using automatic citation makers
– USF Libraries is a good start, but often incomplete or formatted incorrectly
– I can tell when it is copy & pasted to your submissions (different colors)
Citing a database rather than original journal
– Journal articles will usually have all of the information necessary for a proper
citation on the first page of the article itself, make sure it matches your
• Sometimes abbreviations are used on the article, be sure to spell out the actual
journal name
Ex: J. of Crim Psych = Journal of Criminal Psychology
Punctuation and capitalization errors
– Article titles are primarily in sentence case, journal names are in title case
Citing a source not in your references or vice versa
– If it is in one part of your paper, it better be in both!
Let’s work through an example…
• First: Build the citation from the
• Then: Format the citation properly
– Hanging indent & spacing
Hanging indent instructions
• Highlight the citation
• Under “Home – Paragraph”
– Line and spacing options
– Select “Line Spacing Options” from
dropdown menu
Hanging indent instructions
• Under indents and spacing tab
– Indentation
– Special
• Select “Hanging”
– Defaults to 0.5” – Good
– Hit “OK”

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