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In your last entry, you identified and discussed one of your personal stressors you would like to work on

.

Now for this PSMJ 3, you will be creating a small,

1-week plan

to manage your chosen stressor, complete the plan, and write about how your plan works or does not work. There are three parts to this project. The first part is the planning part, the second part is implementing your plan, and tracking by taking notes, etc. The third part is writing up your experience. I have also created this assignment in word format so you can work through the steps in the word format then detail/paste your completed info. Make sure to work through all 6 pages of details. Then, make sure to delete and paste your information as you go so that way when it is complete and time to turn it in, you can upload all your work onto the one-word document.

Below are all parts described as well as what exactly you will be turning in. This project is a three-week project so please make sure you balance your time accordingly. Here is a timeline for each part below:

Part 1 Create a Stress Management Plan

(Take from 3/22 – 3/28)

Part 2. Put Your Plan Into Action for 1-week

:

(Take from 3/29 – 4/4)

Part 3. Formally written reflective summary paper/video:

(Take from 4/5 – 4/11 to write up)

ALL Parts/project due by April 15th at the latest.

PART 1. Create a Stress Management Plan (Take from 3/22 – 3/28)

You are going to create a thoughtful plan for addressing 1 primary stressor in your life. Below is the process/outline broken down into more defined steps. Address each prompt below in order to create a personal stress management plan to address the personal stressor you have chosen to focus on:

1. Identify one stressor

in your life which you would like to manage better

2. In your textbook on page 543-546

, read & review the ”

Creating Your Own Stress- Management Program

3. Pick one chapter from Part 3 (Chapters 9-17)

of your textbook to use as a

reference and resource

for creating a plan to managing your identified stressor. Describe how you plan to apply the material to your plan for stress management.

4. Pick 2 worksheets from part 3-coping strategies in your workbook that you have not already done.

Complete them and discuss how they assisted you in managing or understanding your stressor.

5. Combine

what you have learned from the textbook, worksheets, and class in general with your own ideas and

form a plan to manage your stressor.

Remember to follow the S.M.A.R.T. principles when making any goal. Here is a

link for some example

(Links to an external site.)

:

https://www.developgoodhabits.com/smart-goals-stud…

6 . Give a brief summary of the plan you create including…

Identify and describe specific things you will do to reduce the amount of stress you experience. Be specific as you can (S.M.A.R.T. goals).

Identify and describe how you will implement at least one coping skill you will practice.

Identify at least one behavior you plan to change and how you plan to change it. (Remember Chapter 10 on Behavior Modification).

Describe the change you expect. Describe your expectations for results.

Discuss your rationale for the plan. Remember to cite and reference the research part you have completed in the workbook and textbook, etc.

What you will be turning in for PART 1:

1) Your answers to all questions in either:

Question answer format (Still need to follow APA guidelines with formatting using citing within the paper, double spaced, cover page, reference page, etc.) Needs to be at least 5 sentences per answer or more.

The essay format following the same APA guidelines as above and at least 5 sentences per question explained or more with references to what question you are addressing with8in the paper.

Or video following APA guidelines of citing within your video. For example, as you talk about a worksheet, you will mention the chapter and page number of that information. Same with any other information used. You will then also include the reference information when you submit your video or you can even show in the video a reference page created at the end. The video needs to be at least 4 minutes and no longer than 8 minutes. Make sure it follows the video guidelines describes in the discussion board protocol even though this is not a discussion board.

Worksheets

– Remember to include in your summative results of the worksheet answers within your part one paper and cited after the results you mention WITHIN the paper. Notice and talk about how the worksheets you complete and chose are used as part of helping you explore your stressor and create your plan. Make sure to also reference the worksheets in your reference page or along with your video using the textbox or showing it at the end of the video).

2) S.M.A.R.T. plan outline

. Remember, use the link given in Part 1 that shows examples of your goal being specific, measurable (number), accurate, realistic, and time-bound to a specific date and time.

PART 2. Put Your Plan Into Action for 1-week: (Take from 3/29 – 4/4)

Put your plan into action for 1-week

and

track/take notes on your progress

. Feel free to do video diaries if you wish instead of notes. IF you have an app that will help, please make sure to reference that and share!

Create “products”

from your work as evidence of your plan in action. These products would include the completed exercises from the workbook, an example of work created from ideas described in the chapter you chose from the textbook,(for example, journaling, expressive art, cognitive restructuring exercises), etc.

What you will be turning in for PART 2:

Tracking info from the source. Can be an image pasted into this section of the assignment.

Create “products” from your work as evidence of your plan in action.

PART 3. Formally written reflective summary paper/video: (Take from 4/5 – 4/11 to write up)

Describe the results of your plan and what you learned from your experiences

. Grading will be based upon the student’s thorough and detailed coverage of each prompt along with formatting APA. You can do this in

essay format, video format, or question/answer format.

Whichever format you choose, make sure you

cite

correctly as well as include a

reference page

so I can refer to what was used. Also, make sure to still follow APA guidelines as outlined in the “

How to do well on writing assignments

” portion and “

APA

info” section. Just like in part 1 write-up, the same requirements for length/word count apply.

For example, I’d like you to consider —

What you learned about the coping strategy you used to manage the stressor;

differences between what you expected would happen and the reality of how your plan worked;

Describe what you learned about yourself as you implemented your plan — behaviors, insights, emotions, etc.

What worked, what did not work, what will you continue to do/use.

Instructions for your formally written APA formatted reflective paper/Video. Include all of the following:

1)

A detailed description of your stressor

, and an explanation for why you chose this stressor.

2)

Describe your reasons for choosing the coping strategy/chapter from your textbook to address your stressor

. Why this chapter and not another one?

3)

Describe your expectations for results

. What kind of change did you expect to achieve after implementing your stress management plan for a week?

4)

Describe what happened

— what was achieved/worked and what did not work. Using specific examples from your experiences paired with references to your textbook and workbook, describe how, what you applied from your learning to your stressor

.

Use descriptive language to illustrate what you used from your readings and how you applied the knowledge to better manage your stressor.

5) Talk some more about the actual results of what you learned from this activity

. Include information about:

What you learned about the coping strategy you used;

Differences between what you expected and the reality of how your plan worked;

Describe what you learned about yourself — behaviors, insights, emotions, etc.

6) What would you do differently to make your plan even more successful?

Are there modifications you could make which would have helped you to be more successful in managing your stressor?

7) What are your thoughts and opinions on this approach to stress management.

8) Will you try using the approach you used for another stressor? Why or why not?

What you will be turning in for PART 3:

1)

Your formally written, APA formatted reflective

paper or video

describing the results of your plan along with what you learned from your experience and all mentioned within part 3. As mentioned in part 1, remember the length and time requirements.

**Remember to cite within the paper correctly and include a reference and cover page.

Also, a reference in your essay paper which question you are answering or restate the question.

*

Remember you can do the paper in question-answer format but you will still follow the APA guidelines including a cover page, reference page, and citing. See requirements explained in parts above for length, etc.

ALL Parts/project due by April 15th at the latest.

What you will be turning in for ALL parts 1-3:

What you will be turning in one ONE linked document unless you do the video which might be two (video and reference page) :

Your part 1 answers

Your SMART plan outline for part 1

Tracking notes as described in part 2

One of the “products” you created connects back to the textbook used in part 2

Your formally written, APA formatted reflective paper or video described in part 3

Repeated Summary of turn in points from part:

What you will be turning in for PART 1:

1) Your answers to all questions in your chosen format as described in part 1.

2) S.M.A.R.T. plan outline

.

What you will be turning in for PART 2:

Tracking info from the source. Can be an image pasted into this section of the assignment. So if you handwrite tracking, you do NOt need to retype. Just take a picture of your tracking notes, upload them, copy/paste it into your project paper.

Create “products” from your work as evidence of your plan in action. See part 2 for a reminder of details. For example, might be a piece of art from art therapy.

What you will be turning in for PART 3:

Your formally written, APA formatted reflective

paper or video

describing the results of your plan along with what you learned from your experience and all mentioned within part 3. As mentioned in part 1, remember the length and time requirements. In your last entry, you identified and discussed one of your personal stressors you would like to work on

.

Now for this PSMJ 3, you will be creating a small,

1-week plan

to manage your chosen stressor, complete the plan, and write about how your plan works or does not work. There are three parts to this project. The first part is the planning part, the second part is implementing your plan, and tracking by taking notes, etc. The third part is writing up your experience. I have also created this assignment in word format so you can work through the steps in the word format then detail/paste your completed info. Make sure to work through all 6 pages of details. Then, make sure to delete and paste your information as you go so that way when it is complete and time to turn it in, you can upload all your work onto the one-word document. Below are all parts described as well as what exactly you will be turning in. This project is a three-week project so please make sure you balance your time accordingly. Here is a timeline for each part below:

Part 1 Create a Stress Management Plan

(Take from 3/22 – 3/28)

Part 2. Put Your Plan Into Action for 1-week

:

(Take from 3/29 – 4/4)

Part 3. Formally written reflective summary paper/video:

(Take from 4/5 – 4/11 to write up)

ALL Parts/project due by April 15th at the latest.

PART 1. Create a Stress Management Plan (Take from 3/22 – 3/28)

You are going to create a thoughtful plan for addressing 1 primary stressor in your life. Below is the process/outline broken down into more defined steps. Address each prompt below in order to create a personal stress management plan to address the personal stressor you have chosen to focus on:

1. Identify one stressor

in your life which you would like to manage better

2. In your textbook on page 543-546

, read & review the ”

Creating Your Own Stress- Management Program

3. Pick one chapter from Part 3 (Chapters 9-17)

of your textbook to use as a

reference and resource

for creating a plan to managing your identified stressor. Describe how you plan to apply the material to your plan for stress management.

4. Pick 2 worksheets from part 3-coping strategies in your workbook that you have not already done.

Complete them and discuss how they assisted you in managing or understanding your stressor.

5. Combine

what you have learned from the textbook, worksheets, and class in general with your own ideas and

form a plan to manage your stressor.

Remember to follow the S.M.A.R.T. principles when making any goal. Here is a

link for some example

(Links to an external site.)

:

https://www.developgoodhabits.com/smart-goals-stud…

6 . Give a brief summary of the plan you create including…

Identify and describe specific things you will do to reduce the amount of stress you experience. Be specific as you can (S.M.A.R.T. goals).

Identify and describe how you will implement at least one coping skill you will practice.

Identify at least one behavior you plan to change and how you plan to change it. (Remember Chapter 10 on Behavior Modification).

Describe the change you expect. Describe your expectations for results.

Discuss your rationale for the plan. Remember to cite and reference the research part you have completed in the workbook and textbook, etc.

What you will be turning in for PART 1:

1) Your answers to all questions in either:

Question answer format (Still need to follow APA guidelines with formatting using citing within the paper, double spaced, cover page, reference page, etc.) Needs to be at least 5 sentences per answer or more.

The essay format following the same APA guidelines as above and at least 5 sentences per question explained or more with references to what question you are addressing with8in the paper.

Or video following APA guidelines of citing within your video. For example, as you talk about a worksheet, you will mention the chapter and page number of that information. Same with any other information used. You will then also include the reference information when you submit your video or you can even show in the video a reference page created at the end. The video needs to be at least 4 minutes and no longer than 8 minutes. Make sure it follows the video guidelines describes in the discussion board protocol even though this is not a discussion board.

Worksheets

– Remember to include in your summative results of the worksheet answers within your part one paper and cited after the results you mention WITHIN the paper. Notice and talk about how the worksheets you complete and chose are used as part of helping you explore your stressor and create your plan. Make sure to also reference the worksheets in your reference page or along with your video using the textbox or showing it at the end of the video).

2) S.M.A.R.T. plan outline

. Remember, use the link given in Part 1 that shows examples of your goal being specific, measurable (number), accurate, realistic, and time-bound to a specific date and time.

PART 2. Put Your Plan Into Action for 1-week: (Take from 3/29 – 4/4)

Put your plan into action for 1-week

and

track/take notes on your progress

. Feel free to do video diaries if you wish instead of notes. IF you have an app that will help, please make sure to reference that and share!

Create “products”

from your work as evidence of your plan in action. These products would include the completed exercises from the workbook, an example of work created from ideas described in the chapter you chose from the textbook,(for example, journaling, expressive art, cognitive restructuring exercises), etc.

What you will be turning in for PART 2:

Tracking info from the source. Can be an image pasted into this section of the assignment.

Create “products” from your work as evidence of your plan in action.

PART 3. Formally written reflective summary paper/video: (Take from 4/5 – 4/11 to write up)

Describe the results of your plan and what you learned from your experiences

. Grading will be based upon the student’s thorough and detailed coverage of each prompt along with formatting APA. You can do this in

essay format, video format, or question/answer format.

Whichever format you choose, make sure you

cite

correctly as well as include a

reference page

so I can refer to what was used. Also, make sure to still follow APA guidelines as outlined in the “

How to do well on writing assignments

” portion and “

APA

info” section. Just like in part 1 write-up, the same requirements for length/word count apply.

For example, I’d like you to consider —

What you learned about the coping strategy you used to manage the stressor;

differences between what you expected would happen and the reality of how your plan worked;

Describe what you learned about yourself as you implemented your plan — behaviors, insights, emotions, etc.

What worked, what did not work, what will you continue to do/use.

Instructions for your formally written APA formatted reflective paper/Video. Include all of the following:

1)

A detailed description of your stressor

, and an explanation for why you chose this stressor.

2)

Describe your reasons for choosing the coping strategy/chapter from your textbook to address your stressor

. Why this chapter and not another one?

3)

Describe your expectations for results

. What kind of change did you expect to achieve after implementing your stress management plan for a week?

4)

Describe what happened

— what was achieved/worked and what did not work. Using specific examples from your experiences paired with references to your textbook and workbook, describe how, what you applied from your learning to your stressor

.

Use descriptive language to illustrate what you used from your readings and how you applied the knowledge to better manage your stressor.

5) Talk some more about the actual results of what you learned from this activity

. Include information about:

What you learned about the coping strategy you used;

Differences between what you expected and the reality of how your plan worked;

Describe what you learned about yourself — behaviors, insights, emotions, etc.

6) What would you do differently to make your plan even more successful?

Are there modifications you could make which would have helped you to be more successful in managing your stressor?

7) What are your thoughts and opinions on this approach to stress management.

8) Will you try using the approach you used for another stressor? Why or why not?

What you will be turning in for PART 3:

1)

Your formally written, APA formatted reflective

paper or video

describing the results of your plan along with what you learned from your experience and all mentioned within part 3. As mentioned in part 1, remember the length and time requirements.

**Remember to cite within the paper correctly and include a reference and cover page.

Also, a reference in your essay paper which question you are answering or restate the question.

*

Remember you can do the paper in question-answer format but you will still follow the APA guidelines including a cover page, reference page, and citing. See requirements explained in parts above for length, etc.

ALL Parts/project due by April 15th at the latest.

What you will be turning in for ALL parts 1-3:

What you will be turning in one ONE linked document unless you do the video which might be two (video and reference page) :

Your part 1 answers

Your SMART plan outline for part 1

Tracking notes as described in part 2

One of the “products” you created connects back to the textbook used in part 2

Your formally written, APA formatted reflective paper or video described in part 3

Repeated Summary of turn in points from part:

What you will be turning in for PART 1:

1) Your answers to all questions in your chosen format as described in part 1.

2) S.M.A.R.T. plan outline

.

What you will be turning in for PART 2:

Tracking info from the source. Can be an image pasted into this section of the assignment. So if you handwrite tracking, you do NOt need to retype. Just take a picture of your tracking notes, upload them, copy/paste it into your project paper.

Create “products” from your work as evidence of your plan in action. See part 2 for a reminder of details. For example, might be a piece of art from art therapy.

What you will be turning in for PART 3:

Your formally written, APA formatted reflective

paper or video

describing the results of your plan along with what you learned from your experience and all mentioned within part 3. As mentioned in part 1, remember the length and time requirements.

Epilogue
Creating Your Own
Stress-Management Program
Human beings are like tea bags. You don’t know your strength until
you’re pur in hot water
—Bruce Laingen
Former Chargé D’affaires,
American Embassy in Iran
reating a stress-management program is a
very individual undertaking. There is no
set formula or series of dogmatic guidelines,
only suggestions. If there is a secret to suc-
cessful stress management, it is to cultivate and utilize
your inner resources. Just like Dorothy, who all along
had the ability to leave Oz and return home, you have
the power of your inner resources. Inner resources are
those abstract qualities and characteristics that become a
tangible bridge over the chasm of chaos. These include,
among others, intuition, creativity, willpower, faith,
humor, love, courage, self-reliance, and optimism.
After these are nurtured, how does one access inner
resources? The answer begins with awareness and the
desire to grow. From this desire comes a greater con
sciousness
of yourself and the events and circumstances
in your environment. Ultimately, these circumstances
contribute to your growth and maturation. Awareness
and desire serve as catalysts for positive change.
No one relaxation technique works for everyone. Nor is
one coping strategy applicable in every stressful situa-
tion. Both focus on a wide range of functions. Exposure
to an array of coping strategies and relaxation tech
niques allows you to pick and choose those that are most
appropriate and will ensure the greatest returns. The
which can be found online, is perhaps the best template
to build your foundation of a personal stress manage-
ment program.
The following are my best suggestions for constructing
the best personal stress-management program:
1. Make a habit of spending some quality time each
day to get to know yourself. Take perhaps half an
hour every day for self-exploration, whether in
the form of journal writing, art therapy, music
therapy, exercise, or something else. Be selfish.
Believe that you deserve this time, and you will
find it takes priority in your life. Time manage-
ment is one of the major cornerstones of a success
ful stress-management program; allocate time for
this self-development
. Keep in mind that there is
a fixed amount of time in a day and that when a
new activity is planned, an old one must be edited
out of the daily agenda. Survey your daily routine
to note where you can squeeze in a block of time
for this purpose. If half an hour seems too long,
start with five minutes and build from there. And
remember that the occasion when you feel you do
not have time for self-exploration is when you
need it most
2. Make a habit of reading your emotional barom-
Former Charge D’affaires,
American Embassy in Iran
reating a stress management program is a
very individual undertaking. There is no
set formula or series of dogmatic guidelines,
only suggestions. If there is a secret to suc-
cessful stress management, it is to cultivate and utilize
your inner resources. Just like Dorothy, who all along
had the ability to leave Oz and return home, you have
the power of your inner resources. Inner resources are
those abstract qualities and characteristics that become a
tangible bridge over the chasm of chaos. These include,
among others, intuition, creativity, willpower, faith,
humor, love, courage, self-reliance, and optimism.
After these are nurtured, how does one access inner
resources? The answer begins with awareness and the
desire to grow. From this desire comes a greater con-
sciousness of yourself and the events and circumstances
in your environment. Ultimately, these circumstances
contribute to your growth and maturation. Awareness
and desire serve as catalysts for positive change.
No one relaxation technique works for everyone. Noris
one coping strategy applicable in every stressful situa-
tion. Both focus on a wide range of functions. Exposure
to an array of coping strategies and relaxation tech-
niques allows you to pick and choose those that are most
appropriate and will ensure the greatest returns. The
initial purpose of this book was to do just that: to pro-
vide as great an exposure as possible. Now, knowledge
can certainly be gained by reading a book such as this;
and our educational system is based on this premise. But
it has been demonstrated time and time again that peo
ple are less likely to forget something when they have
experienced it for themselves. Thus, putting the con-
cepts in this book into practice is where the real learning
will take place. The Art of Peace and Relaxation Workbook,
which can be found online, is perhaps the best template
to build your foundation of a personal stress manage
ment program.
The following are my best suggestions for constructing
the best personal stress-management program:
1. Make a habit of spending some quality time each
day to get to know yourself
. Take perhaps half an
hour every day for self-exploration, whether in
the form of journal writing, art therapy, music
therapy, exercise, or something else. Be selfish.
Believe that you deserve this time, and you will
find it takes priority in your life. Time manage
ment is one of the major cornerstones of a success
ful stress-management program; allocate time for
this self-development. Keep in mind that there is
a fixed amount of time in a day and that when a
new activity is planned, an old one must be edited
out of the daily agenda. Survey your daily routine
to note where you can squeeze in a block of time
for this purpose. If half an hour seems too long,
start with five minutes and build from there. And
remember that the occasion when you feel you do
not have time for self-exploration is when you
need it most.
2. Make a habit of reading your emotional barom-
eter. Recognize the times when you feel angry,
frustrated, anxious, and guilty. When you catch
yourself feeling a certain emotion, ask yourself,
What triggered this response? Why did this
emotion surface? What is the most appropri-
ate action or behavior to resolve the feeling?
Emotional well-being is the ability to feel and
express the full range of emotions, but it also
means being able to control these emotions. On
543
544
Epilogue
average, people laugh 15 times a day. Make sure
you fill this quota.
3. Practice the art of unconditional love. Self-esteem
is so critical to effective stress management that it
should be given top priority in the design of your
stress-management program. Focus on your posi-
tive attributes, not what you perceive to be your
negative ones, and work to enhance these. Don’t
just think of yourself as a physical entity: appre-
ciate your intellectual, emotional, and spiritual
aspects, as well. Self-esteem is the seed of uncondi
tional love. “To say hello, to smile, to share a song, to
give positive feedback-these are all expressions
of love. And when these behaviors are practiced,
they seem to double our own sense of self-esteem
and self-love.
4. Nurture your creativity skills. Creativity is second
in importance only to self-esteem as a means to
manage stress. Creativity plays a direct role in
problem solving and an indirect role in distract-
ing attention from stressful episodes during
moments of play.” Don’t let childhood memo
ries suffocate your creative abilities.
5. Balance all components of your well-being and take
time to nurture them. Stress is often expressed in
terms of things being out of balance. In physiolog-
ical terms, this is called lack of homeostasis. But
our mental, emotional, and spiritual components
can also lack homeostasis. Search out and practice
ways to help you achieve mental homeostasis by
learning how to either stimulate or desensitize
your intellect, depending on its current state. Be
attentive to your emotional component, as well,
by being aware of emotional states as they arise.
Learn to express, not suppress, your emotions,
but do it in a way that is both therapeutic and dip
lomatic. Take good care of your body. Exercise
it regularly. Feed it good nutrients, and get ade
quate amounts of sleep. Finally, give attention to
your spirit by taking steps to enhance the matura-
conform to adult expectations, they are rich in
curiosity, imagination, and creativity. These and
other characteristics of young children can be
relearned if we take the time to do so.
Designing and implementing a stress-management
program of your own may not seem casy at first, but it
doesn’t have to be difficult. It just takes a little desire,
some discipline, and the realization that you are worth
the effort. Most important, you don’t have to be hit with
an avalanche of stressors to begin the process of creating
a sense of calm in your life. You can begin right now,
gradually, one step at a time.
The following strategic plan takes into account insights
and wisdom from the previous chapters in the book. As
you take yourself through the progression of steps, feel
free to embellish this plan to make it as personal for
your situation as possible
Step 1. Identify Your Stressors. List your top five
stressors (from most stressful to least stressful) and
explain cach with a sentence. The purpose of this
exercise is to identify the problem, which is the first
step in resolving it
1.
2
3.
4.
5.
Step 2. Interventions. Now, look at your list of
stressors. Ask yourself which problems trigger a sense
of fear and mark these with an F. Next, ask yourself
which of these issues promote feelings of anger (and
remember-anger can surface in a great many ways,
from impatience to rage and hostility). Place an A next
to all of these. It’s okay if you mark one or more items on
your list with both an A and an F. Remember, after you
have identified the underlying emotion associated with
the problem, it becomes easier to address and resolve it.
some discipline, and the realization that you are worth
the effort. Most important, you don’t have to be hit with
an avalanche of stressors to begin the process of creating
a sense of calm in your life. You can begin right now,
gradually, one step at a time.
The following strategic plan takes into account insights
and wisdom from the previous chapters in the book. As
you take yourself through the progression of steps, feel
free to embellish this plan to make it as personal for
your situation as possible.
Step 1. Identify Your Stressors. List your top five
stressors (from most stressful to least stressful) and
explain each with a sentence. The purpose of this
exercise is to identify the problem, which is the first
step in resolving it.
2.
negative ones, and work to enhance these. Don’t
just think of yourself as a physical entity; appre
ciate your intellectual, emotional, and spiritual
aspects, as well. Self-esteem is the seed of uncondi
tional love. To say hello, to smile, to share a song, to
give positive feedback-these are all expressions
of love. And when these behaviors are practiced,
they seem to double our own sense of self-esteem
and self-love.
4. Nurture your creativity skills. Creativity is second
in importance only to self-esteem as a means to
manage stress. Creativity plays a direct role in
problem solving and an indirect role in distract-
ing attention from stressful episodes during
moments of “play.” Don’t let childhood memo
ries suffocate your creative abilities.
5. Balance all components of your well-being and take
time to nurture them. Stress is often expressed in
terms of things being out of balance. In physiolog-
ical terms, this is called lack of homeostasis. But
our mental, emotional, and spiritual components
can also lack homeostasis. Search out and practice
ways to help you achieve mental homeostasis by
learning how to either stimulate or desensitize
your intellect, depending on its current state. Be
attentive to your emotional component, as well,
by being aware of emotional states as they arise.
Learn to express, not suppress, your emotions,
but do it in a way that is both therapeutic and dip-
lomatic. Take good care of your body. Exercise
it regularly. Feed it good nutrients, and get ade-
quate amounts of sleep. Finally, give attention to
your spirit by taking steps to enhance the matura-
tion of your higher consciousness. Practice cen-
tering, emptying, grounding, and connecting on
a regular basis. Search for and fulfill your pur-
4.
5.
Step 2. Interventions. Now, look at your list of
stressors. Ask yourself which problems trigger a sense
of fear and mark these with an F. Next, ask yourself
which of these issues promote feelings of anger and
remember-anger can surface in a great many ways,
from impatience to rage and hostility). Place an A next
to all of these. It’s okay if you mark one or more items on
your list with both an A and an F. Remember, after you
have identified the underlying emotion associated with
the problem, it becomes easier to address and resolve it.
Step 3. Integration. Stress affects all aspects of our
being: mind, emotions, body, and spirit.
Mind: Do you feel overwhelmed or bored with
your problems? If you feel overwhelmed, this is
a sign that there is too much on your plate; some
things need to be edited out or eliminated. If you
feel bored, your threshold of stimulation prob-
ably is not being reached, and you might want to
pose in life.
6. Be like a child. Children, like adults, experi-
ence acute stress, but they have not yet learned
to be self-conscious about giggling or to sup
press their tears. Before children are taught to
Creating Your Own Stress Management Program
545
consider changing or adding something to achieve
this balance Mental well-being also involves at-
titudes and perceptions
Describe one thing you can do to find mental
balance
Take a look at the list of stressors that you completed
in step 1. Try to match at least three effective coping
skills with each stressor
Skills that you are now using:
2.
3.
– Emotions: The spectrum of stress-based emotions
is rather wide, yet each emotion can be traced to
some element of fear or anger. In the course of
your day, ask yourself how you feel (not think, but
feel). If you find that stress emotions occupy more
than 50 percent of your time on a regular basis, this
indicates an emotional imbalance.
Describe one thing you can do to find mental
balance.
4.
6.
Skills that you would like to incorporate:
1.
Body: As you have learned throughout this book,
stress can and will affect physical well-being. Do
you have any health problems that you can associ-
ate with stress?
Describe one thing you can do to establish mental
balance
2.
3.
4.
5.
Spirit: Take a look at your current list of stressors.
How many of your stressors involve relationships,
values (or value conflicts), and a meaningful pur
pose in life? Spiritual balance can be attained in a
great many ways, from time spent alone in medi
tation to support groups or prayer.
Describe one thing you can do to find mental
balance
6.
Relaxation skills include any and all activities that
return you to a sense of calm and tranquillity.
Skills that you are now using:
Self-esteem is a part of spiritual well-being.
Low self-esteem sets the stage for problems rang
ing from a bad hair day to the day from hell.
Describe one thing you can do to find mental
balance.
2.
your day, ask yourself how you feel (not think, but
feel). If you find that stress emotions occupy more
than 50 percent of your time on a regular basis, this
indicates an emotional imbalance.
Describe one thing you can do to find mental
balance
5
6
Skills that you would like to incorporate:
1
• Body: As you have learned throughout this book,
stress can and will affect physical well-being. Do
you have any health problems that you can associ-
ate with stress?
Describe one thing you can do to establish mental
balance
2
3
5
Spirit:Take a look at your current list of stressors.
How many of your stressors involve relationships,
values (or value conflicts), and a meaningful pur-
pose in life? Spiritual balance can be attained in a
great many ways, from time spent alone in medi
tation to support groups or prayer.
Describe one thing you can do to find mental
balance
6
Relaxation skills include any and all activities that
return you to a sense of calm and tranquillity.
Skills that you are now using:
1.
Self-esteem is a part of spiritual well-being.
Low self-esteem sets the stage for problems rang
ing from a bad hair day to the day from hell.
Describe one thing you can do to find mental
balance.
2.
3.
Step 4. Your Personal Stress-Management Strategy
Coping skills are mental and emotional skills that
help you change a threatening perception to a non-
threatening perception. Humor, reframing, time
management, creativity, prayer, and social orchestra
tion are just a few examples of coping skills.
5
6.
546
Epilogue
Skills that you would like to incorporate
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Time management plays a huge role in putting stress-management strategies to work, especially relaxation tech-
question to ask yourself: Where can I find a block of time (15 to 30 minutes) to sit or lie
down comfortably and
niques. Here is an importar
REFERENCES
Carlson, R. Don’s Shoes Small Stuff. Hyperion Books, New
York, 1998.
Kirsta, A. The Book of Seress Surial: How to Relar and Live
Positisely. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1987.
Seaward, B. L. The Art of Calm: Relevation through the Five
Senses. Health Communications, Deerfield Beach, FL, 1999.
Wheeler, C. M. 10 Simple Solutions to Stres. New Harbinger
Publications, Oakland, CA, 2007
CHAPTER 9
Cognitive
Restructuring
Reframing
Everything can be taken away from man but one
thing—the last human freedom, to choose one’s
attitude in any given set of circumstances.
–Viktor Frankl
employs favorably
bounced check. The roommate from hell.
A flat tire. Alcoholic parents. Stresas come
in all shapes, sizes, and degrees of intensity.
Scholars concur that it is not the circum.
stance that is stressful, but the percept
the circumstance. We w komprecation
wor
w
if the perception
ability. Whatever
the
is negative, it can become both a mental and physical li-
ne event, perceptions can become
distorted and magnified entirely out of proportion to
their seriousness. This is referred to as cognitive distor-
tion (mole hills into mountains), and it
problems into gigantic
stic monsters. Attempesta been
made to deal with the stress monster” from all angles,
including decreasing
orary informa
tion and teaching people to
the stress response
by employing various relaxation techniques. Perhaps
the coping skill most advocated_which goes right to
the heart of the matter but is initially very difficult to
altering the stressful perception
of the circumstance that has p
anger and/or fear. This
alreception is made
through changes in cognition. Cognition is the mental
process that includes an assortment of thinking and rea-
soning skills. Across the country, this cuping technique
goes by several names:cognitive restructuring.cognitive
feelings of
Cognitive distortion: Distorting a situation beyond
how bad it actually is.
Chapter 9 Cognitive Restructuring: Reframing
215
Phase 2: Proin pul
– போகக்யாயாக்க
2
Pasning
Analying
Mertery
Coraca
சோ
pride
பா
Pha 1 cÀ
fight and
andate
Phase 3 O
( dan, buanian
FIGURE 0.1 The information processing model
of hurtian thought
reappraisal, cognitive relabeling, cognitive reframing,
cognitive therapy, and attitude adjustment. Despite the
variations, they all suggest the same approach to favor
ably alter the current mind frame to a less threatening
perception, from a negative, self-defeating attitude to a
positive one, which may then allow the initiation of the
steps toward a peaceful resolution.
The series of cognitive therapy toxik root in 1962 with the
work of Albert Ellis in what he referred to as rational
emotive behavior therapy (EBT). The premise of El-
lis’s work was that stress-related behaviors are initiated
by perceptions and that these self-defeating perceptions
can be changed. He explained that all stimuli sent to
the brain go through a process of interpretation. When
enough stimulation is interpreted as threatening, it be-
comes a critical mass of negative thought. Ellis was of the
opinion that once a critical mass of perceived stress aries,
it dims the ability to think rationally. As a result, a self-
defeating attitude becomes reinforced day after day. year
after year, through internal dialogue that is scripted by the
tone of these irrational thought processes. Halliscame
convinced that people could be educated and trained to
favorably alter negative or stress-related perceptions –
rational thoughts) into positive attitudes, which in turn
would decrease the intensity of perceived stress. In a 2x
news briefing, author J.K. Rowling of the Hurry Power
series shared publicly her experience with depression and
thoughts of suicide, and she credited the use of RENT 25
what pulled her though her darkest hour. The term cogni.
tive restructuring was trained by Meichenbaum in 1975 to
describe a coping technique for patients diagnosed with
stres-related
disorders. This caping style aimed to modify
internal self-dialogue by tuning into the conversation
within the mind. The practice of cognitive restructuring
was an important step in what Meichenbaum referred to
as stress inoculation, a process to build up positive thoughts
when negatively perceived events are encountered. Work
by Bandura in 1977 and Bleck in 1976 also supported the
concept of cognitive change of perceptions as a means to
effectively deal with stres. To understand how stimuliare
interpreted and how interpreted thoughts are structured
from stimuli, let us take a closer look at how the human
thought process works.
A Thinking-Process Model
The human mind is an extremely complex phenomenon,
and one that we are just beginning to comprehend. Schol
ars in the discipline of cognitive science have created a a
theory, the information
processing model, to attempt
to explain exactly how the mind processes information
FIG. 0.1. This theory suggests that sensory input
leg, a flashing blue light in your rearview mirme), sen-
sory manipulation (e.3.,danger, speeding violation, slow
down, court hearing), and cognitive
behavioral output
ler
R., foot on the brake, pull over to the side of the road,
pray), as well as a feedback system to correct or refine
this mechanism (eg, several officers going to the scene
of an accident, calm down), are synthesized to produce
a linear progression of mental processes. Each cognitive
deciphering process begins with an interpretation of the
stimulus that comes into any of the five (possibly six)
senses to determine its threat potential. In simple terms,
stimuli can be interpreted as either threats or nonthreats.
Resulting attitudes can be labeled in one of three ways:
(1) defensive (negative), (2) neutral (incs), or (3)
offensive positive). Fragments of information, as well
a memories of previous similar experiences, are then
Rational amotive behavior therapy (RENT):
Developed by Albert Ellis as a means to help people
cope with auciety by changing the perceptions
associated with the stressor
Cognitive restructuring: A coping techniques substi
tuting negative, self-defeating thoughts with posi
tive, affirming thoughts that change perceptions of
stressors from threatening to nonthreatening.
Information processing model: A model that
reveals how we potentially perceive sensory
information, for better or worse
216
Part 3 Coping Strategies
manipulated in a process that results in the accessing and
utilization of either left analytical) or right-receptive)
brain cognitive functions, or a combination of both. In the
final outcome, perceptions and attitudes are by-products
of the interpretation of all sensory information. It is
both the manipulation of stimuli and the subsequent
interpretation process that are targeted in cognitive
restructuring to convert negative thoughts into neutral
of positive ones
The purpose of cognitive restructuring is to widen one’s BM 88
conscious perspective and thus allow room for a change in
perception. The ability to expand perception is not merely
a poetic expression. Research by optometrist Jacob Laber-
man (1991) shows that an individual’s perceptual field of
vision actually constricts (myopia) under stress. Thus, one
literally ses less than the whole picture. Data analysis by
FIGURE 9.2 Silent film actor Buster Keaton was
Anderson and Williams (1989) corroborates this evidence, famous for his “kick the hat routing, in which he
showing a cual relationship between perceived stress and would accidentally drop his hat and try to pick it up
loss of peripheral field of vision. As Laerman points with his hand only to repeatedly kick it out of reach
stress forces one to see through a small hole rather than before he could grab it. This routine is the perfect
view the entire field of vision or whole picture
metaphor for how the conscious mind and ond’s sub-
Unconsciously, many people use a nonproductive cop
sequent behavior (the hand) are greatly influenced
by the unconscious mind (the foot kicking the hat).
ing technique called rationalization that they think is
To change behavior, one has to unite the powers of
one and the same as cognitive restructuring. Cognitive both the conscious and unconscious minds.
restructuring should not be confused with this defense
mechanism. Rationalization is making excuses, blam-
ing, and shifting responsibility away from oneself
toward someone or something else. Freud referred to
this as denial of reality. Cognitive restructuring on the
of ego-driven thoughts from the subconscious mind
other hand, involves assuming responsibility, facing
(a portion of the unconscious mince). So much of our
the reality of a situation, and taking the offensive to
behavior (some experts think all of it) is directed by cur
resolve the issues causing stress. Creating and adopt-
unconscious minds. Perhaps this concept is best illus
ing a positive mind frame take some work. People trated by the famous actor Buster Keaton (and imitated
(
often find it simpler to avoid this responsibility and be
by Johnny Depp in the movie wny and for) who tries
consumed by their own negative thinking styles, which
in vain to pick up his hat but repeatedly seems to kick
produce a preponderance of toxic thoughts.
it out of his reach before he can grab it AG. 02.
the conscious mind and the unconscious mind are not
Two Minds Are Better Than One acting together, all the intentions and reframing in the
world aren’t going to help. In the field of psychology
A documentary video called The Send madeinternational
this is known as the unconscious resistance,” a self-
headlines on the Oprah show and Larry Kingle Using sabotaging
.
the Power of Attraction as its promise, several popular self-
sabotaging effect that undermines the conscious mind’s best
efforts to make (positive) things happen. It is the foundation
help gurus spoke to the nature of achieving ultimate goals
of the negative self-fulfilling prophecy. Coaches see this
of wealth and relationships merely by thinking positive
about these cas. Contess examples were reenacted to
all the time with promising athletes. Physicians see this
illustrate the abundance of the universe and the power of
in many of their patients to specifically with patients
intention. If they could do it, surely you could, tool The
who say they want to be healed, yet have too much of
problem is… it’s not this simple
their identity wrapped up in the disease to leave it behind
Here is another common example: Consciously, you want
What the makers of the video failed to include (although to find that perfect person to go out with (or marry) and
this may be revealed in subquent sequels) is the power you set your intention Consciously, you believe you are
Chapter 9 Cognitive Restructuring: Reframing
217
attracting your soul mate. But nothing happens. Perhaps that can steer you in the direction and to the destination
the reason why is because unconsciously you like your you wish to go? When you can answer these questions
carefree lifestyle and really don’t want to change. Perhaps you have really disawered the secret.”
unconsciously, you still believe that you are not worthy
of a quality relationship. Regardless of the reason, some Toxic Thoughts
helief system (usually an egg, fear-based one) hikken in
the depths of the unconscious mind is holding on to old
Negative perceptions are often the result of low self
esteem. They also perpetuate it by suppressing or
ways, thus negating the law of attraction to its highest
ahliterating feelings of self-worth and self-acceptance.
potential. This is the real secret: The unconscious mind
It has been suggested (Canfield, 1988; Ingerman, 2007)
governs 80 to 90 percent of human behavior (Lipton, 2009,
that toxic thoughts originate from repeated exposure to
Mladinow, 2012).
feelings of shame and guilt in early childhood. Canfield
Experts suggest that these old beliefs and perceptions are cites a study conclucted at the University of lowa where
learned and adopted early in lifelages 2-5) when the child’s parent-child interactions were observed over a period
brain, like a sponge, saks up sensory stimuli from the of several days. Results revealed that on average, there
child’s environment (e.g-parents, teachers, siblingsl. As were 400 negative comments for every positive one spo-
the child matures into adulthex, behavior is directed by ken to the child. It was concluded that negative thoughts
these ingrained, subconscious thought patterns and beliefs. are actually a canditioned learned) response that is then
Until they are erased and replaced with new beliefs and arried into adulthood. Catastrophic thoughts are also
perceptions, not much will change.
reinforced in the messages we receive from the headlines
To use an apt metaphor, the mind is like a radio playing
rarely does a human interest story besta cataclysmic event
music from two stations (the conscious and the unconscious),
on the six o’clock news. Disasters, world problems, and
but the station you want to hear is being drowned out by
crimes permeate the news, which tends to condition our
the one you don’t want to hear. In the case of the radio, thinking toward the negative side of things. Many coun-
fine-tuning is in order. In the case of the mind, it is coming
selves, therapists, and psychologists suggest that negative
to terms with old, fear-based thought patterns that tend to
thinking has an addictive quality to it
holl us hack from reaching our highest potential. If you
The term toxic thoughts was coined in the early 1980s
have doubts as to the power of the unconscious mind’s by several psychologists to educate their dients about the
influence, listen to the choice of your words spoken. More
than just Freudian slips,our choice of words often reveals
dangers of negative thinking. Pessimism, a personality
trait heavily grounded in negativism, promotes toxic
the ego’s hidden agenda.
thoughts. To demonstrate just how destructive they muld
Experts in the field of psychology suggest that the secret to be, Dr. Leslie Kaymen conduced a study at the University
harnessing the strength of your thoughts is to combine the of Pennsylvania in 1989 to determine the physiological
powers of the conscious and subconscious mind to achieve responses to stress between individuals who identified
one’s goals and aspirations (Taylor, 2013; Mlodinow, 2012; themselves (through a psychological survey) as either
Murphy, 2008; Hari, 2015). Bruce Lipton speaks of this optimists or pessimists. All subjects were exposed to
with regard to the health and healing proxes in which minute doses of pathogens (tetanus, mumps, and yeast)
we need to erase the subxonscious messages and rerecord which, when placed on the skin, would indicate their
new thoughts to help navigate the intended direction of stress-tolerance levels Subjects were then divided by
our lives. Some people erase and rewrite these messages attitude into two groups and both groups were given
through hypnosis Others de reprogram themselves by an impossible task to complete in a brief time period.
listening to subliminal CDs Consciously, it can be done While the pessimists quickly gave up, the optimists con-
through neurolinguistic programming (NLP). Still oth- tinued until the last possible moment. Days later, the PNI
ers do it in a relaxed state through meditation and guided
response (skin rashes) of the pessimists was significantly
mental imagery or hypnotherapy. So, here is a question greater than that of the optimists. These results revealed
for you What goals and aspirations do you have that are
sabotaged by early childhood programming (eg..trustis-
Todic thoughts: Repeated negative thought process
sues, self-esteem issues, confidence, perceptions of leisure,
money, or relationships)? How can you reprogram new
ing that tends to polite our view of our lives and
ourselves.
(positive thoughts, beliefs, and perceptions of yourself
218
Part 3 Coping Strategies
Stress with a Human Face
berpati
A tribute to Allison FisherIn the spring of 1971, I had a when I found myself in Los
remarkable student named Alison Fisher. Allison was Angeles for a book signing. We
bright, energetic, and beaming with success. At the mid- agreed to meet for lunch the
point of each semester, I invite my students to do an next day. At that time, Allison confided in me that she
Percise called “Confrontation of a Stressor.” I believe was a cancer survivor.
that the concepts of stress management remain only
concepts if they are not practiced outside the classroom. To be a cancer survivor means you confront death face to
In other words, to know and not to do is not to know. In face. You challenge it with a mindset rather than run
this exercise, students are asked to pick one of their top
from it with a defatist attitude. Being a survivor means
three stressors and are given two wools to resolve it you adopt an attitude of realistic optimism. You acknowl
with the condition that they must unter the dassroom udge the problems at hand, but you focus on the positive
with no bruses or broken bones. Although students are you live life in the present moment rather than aliving
asked to write up this assignment, on the day it’s dus we
the past or worrying about what the future may hold. You
all sit in a cirde with the lights down low and, one by breakthrough the fear of dying, the fear of the unknown,
one, under an agreement of confidentiality, we share our
and the fear of isolation, and you come through on the
stories. This particular semester Allison went first.
other side as a victor, not a victim what Joseph Camp
bell called the hero of the hero’s journey.
“My stressor is breast cancer; it runs in the family,” she
explained. “My mother has had it-my aunt and my had my first mastectomy over a year ago, my second
grandmother, too. For many years I have been scared of one several months ago. The bad news is that the cancer
breast cancer, because I know I am at risk. Upon hearing is back and this time it has spread to my lungs. I’m okay.
this assignment, I decided it was time to go for a man though.” Allison said confidently. Then Allison shared
mogram. I was extremely nervous, but last week I made with me theories and concepts that I had taught her as
an appointment with my physician.”
a student—but now she was teaching me insights and
The class was silent, all eyes fixed on Alison. With an air
wisdom known only from the perspective of a survivor.
of confidence, she concluded her story with a smile: “1 “It’s all about attitude. I’m not sure how much time
am happy to say that the test was negative!”
I have to live now, but I don’t have time for toxic
As a graduating senior with a major in broadcast journal thoughts of the fear of what might happen. I chose to
ism, Alison was looking forward to a promising broadcast-
look at the bright side of life, because I discovered long
ing career. Less than a month after her graduation, she age that that’s al that really matters. I don’t know !
found herself working for a PS affiliate Within a year’s I will be cured of my cancer, but I can tell you right now.
time, she took a job with Voice of America and then moved
I am healed of my disease, because I am at peace, and
to Los Angeles to start a highly covatad job as an anchor there is no greater foeling than this.”
reporter for Channel One, a cable program for high school Allison Fisher
Crossed the threshold of heaven on March 9.
youth. Several years later our paths would cross again. 1998 (www.allisonfishafund.org).
that an optimistic attitude was acciated with sound
physical health, whereas a negative attitude perpetuated
the mental and physical stress response. In short, negative
thoughts can have a nic effect on the bexiy. Kaymen’s data
analysis confirms the hypothesis that negative thinking
in suppress the immune system
In an updated version of Kaymen’s work, Andrew Steptoe
and colleagues (2005) designed a study with nearly 3,000
subjects to examine the biological links of positive thoughts
(moord). Results revealed that both men and women who
reported experiencing a happy mood had lower cortisol
levels, suggesting that happines and optimism reduce
biological vulnerability. Moreover, female subjects indicated
significant decreased amounts of two proteins (C-reactive
protein and interleukin 6) that are associated with infiamme
tion, a factor linked with heart disease and cancer. Steptoe
concluded that mood states are not merely hereditary, but
depend on social relationships and life purpose.
Dr. Lissa Rankin is a physician who has studied the ef-
fect that positive and negative thoughts have on health.
In her back, Mind over Medicine, she cites several studies
including one that investigated the early deaths of Chinese
Chapter 9 Cognitive Restructuring: Reframing
219
Americans who considered themselves ill-fated by being keep us from reaching our goek Over the years, NLP
bom under less than auspicious astrological signs. The has proven quite successful and is used by athletes, actors,
results revealed that the more closely they believed in ecutives, business associates, lawyers, and professional
the power of astrology, the earlier they died-deaths from all walks of life. By encouraging reprogramming
that could not be explained by genetic factors, lifestyle and eliminating from daily vernacular work, phrases, and
choices, lifestyle behaviors or any other variables. State thoughts that reinforce stress-prone behaviors, NLP helps
simply, the negative thoughts they associated with their one to unlearn old thoughts and learn a new approach
fate impacted their health. Rankin states that disesise is toward optimal excellence. NLP Comprehensive, hused
not just a consequence of our genetic make-up, patho in Boulder, Colorado, offers seminars and workshops in the
gens, or even ad luck. For better or worse, our health dynamics of NLP Understanding that one cannot change
is greatly influenced by our mindset (attitude). Negative behaviorsquickly as a result of a ne or two-day workshop
thoughts can compromise one’s level of well-being. Bar- the NLP training coaches participants through a 21-day
bara Frederickson agrees. As one of the leaders in the Achievement Program to help decondition and reprogram
positive psychology movement, Frederickson coined the the human thought process.
term positivity to express the power of optimism, 23
Far more than lawding creative and optimistic thinking
expressed through love. The new science illuminates for
styles, Western culture rewards and praises critical think-
the first time how love, and its absences, fundamentally
ing the ability to judge and analyze situations, breaking
alters the biochemicals in which your body is steeped”
them down into smaller, more manageable parts. In theory,
(Frederickson, 2013)
when problems are dismantled into smaller pieces, they
What is your POP PO stands for Positive Intelligence, a term
are essier to understand. Under stress, an emotional side
created by Stanford University lecturer, author, and CEO effect of critical thinking is that smaller pieces of stressful
of one of the largest coach training programs in the world
stimuli may be considered less theatening to the ego and
Shirzad Chamine. The premise of Positive Intelligence is to
thus help to minimize emotional pain. In practice, though,
redaim the power of your mind by disarming the stoteur
when critical thought processes are directed toward the sdf
(the verice of the ego that offers a steady stream of nega-
jaigmental and analytical thoughts often nurture a negative
tive thoughts). Chamine states that the reson why only
perspective about yourself, making youre vulnerable to
20 percent of people reach their true potential is because the
the perceptions of stres Box When threatened
mind is held hostage by negative thinking. Pleative Intel
critical thought can be a defensive weapon to protect
ligence is a program to leam to reframeone’s thoughts and
the components of your identity. In addition to critical think-
harness one’s highest potential
ing.aaumon mental attitude men in American culture is
Is it really possible to change the programming in our
victimization. Victimization is a perceptual attitude wherein
me feels specifically targeted by events or circumstances and
minds to break the habit of negative thinking Acoord- has no choice but to suffer the consequences. Individuals
ing to Richard Bandler and John Grinder (Andreas and who see themselves as victims of seek pity and sympathy
Faulkven, 1994), the answer is a definitive yes! Yesurs ago, from their friends as a means of coping with the stressors at
Bandler, a psychologis, and Grindles, a linguist, ambined hand. Through the sympathy of others, they valiclate their
their efforts to create and teach the theory and applica- own perception of personal violation. People who express
tion of changing our mental language. They called it feelings af victimization apply what psychologists refer to
neurolinguistic programming (NLP). The premise of as attribution theory, blaming other people or factors for
NLP is bad on the concept of uncovering hidden gram- perceived injustices (Taylor, 2011).
mar woven in the unconscious and anscious thoughts of
cur vernacular, systematically removing these expressions Rotter’s concept of locus of control, where people who
The concept of victimization is dosely associated with
as we think or spezik, and leaming to develop a language
of affirmative thoughts to positively change the direction
of our lives. NLP is an empowering skill to reprogram
Neurolinguistic programming (NLP): A program
the software of human linguistics so that our hurrun ener-
designed to look at how our thoughts control our lan-
gies can be focused in the direction of our highest human guage and how our language influence our behavior
potential or human excellence. Part selective awareness
Victimization: A mindset of continually seeing your
A front
part self-hypnosis, the dynamics of NLP work to climinate
self as a victim. .
the self-defeating thoughts that inhibit our energies and
220
Part 3 Coping Strategies
BOX 9.1 Cognitive Distortions: Stop the Insanity!
The human mind can be our greatest asset or our worst
Bability. Under the influence of the ago, the mind becomes
misguided and heads down a path of self-sabotage. All of
this is exacerbated in times of stress. This behavior in
poychological circles is known as agnitive distortion. It
can be said that cognitive distortions are spin-offs of
Froud’s defense mechanisms. More than the ego’s intent to
decrease pain of increase pleasure, over time these distor-
tions become a habitual mindset that can sabotage our
best efforts. David Burns writes in great detail about this
phenomenon in The Feeling Good Handbook where he
describes the ten distinct styles of cognitive distortion
that perpetuate perceptions of stress. Mental thought pro-
Cases and the behaviors they dicit cannot be changed
until they can first be identified. (It should be noted that
the benefit of meditation is to become the observer of
your thoughts.) As you read through this list, ask yourself
one or more styles sound all too familiar to your way of
stress-based thinking. If you don’t see these in yourself
ask a trusted friend to give you fodbad.
1. All-or-none thinking: There is only good or bad,
black or white, no middle ground (eg, there is
only one way to solve this problem).
2. Overgeneralization. One single negative circum-
stance manifests into a life pattern (e…. A flat tire
dicits the comment, “This always happens to me!”).
3. Mental filter: A solitary negative detail becomes
the focus of your attention, obscuring the bigger
picture (0.4., an hour drive is tainted by one
driver early on who cut you off)
4. Disqualifying the positive: A negative belief pat-
tem that eclipses positive circumstances, reduc-
ing any that surface as insignificant all the while
focusing on the negative
5. Jumping to conclusions: Affirming a negative
interpretation without supporting facts often by
insisting on a strong intuitive fool, which is little
more than projection of one’s own feelings.
6. Magnification: The classic story of making a
mountain out of a mole hill by exaggerating
facts with the end result in a myopic vision of
the situation and thus missing the big picture
7. Emotional reasoning: Living the assumption that
one’s negative emotions are a true collection of
how things really are.
8. Should statements: A thought process influenced
by a rewards and punishment mentality in
which one motivates oneself with the words
should, must, ought. This behavior often results
in feelings of guilt or resentment toward others.
9. Labeling and miskabeling: Considered an extreme
form of overgeneralization statements such as
“I’m a loser,” or “He’s always a jerk.” are exam-
ples in which mislabeling involves words that are
highly charged or emotionally loaded.
10. Personalization: Taking credit or blame for events
that you had little or nothing to do with.
fed violated by stresors are more greatly influenced life’s victims (a characteristic of codependency) often see
a
by external sources than by internal strength and themselves as martyrs. This is a socially rewarding role,
inspiration. Here is a simple test to detect use of the vic so they find it difficult to change their perceptions.
timization attitude: During the next casual conversation
you encounter, listen obtively to what is said and notice
Can optimism be learned According to Martin Selig-
man the answer is yes In his much-acclaimed book
how often people appear to fall victim to their besses,
Lamed Optimism, Seligman states that we are most likely
spouses, roommates, kids, traffic, the weather, or any other
circumstance in the vicinity. Next, listen objectively to how
to learn the traits of optimism or pessimism from our
parents, but even if the environment in which we were
you present your perceptions to others when you describe
raised was a negative one, we can altivate the aspect of
your own levels of stress. Do you consciously or unco-
optimistic thinking and gravitate toward a peative ap
sciously label yourself
as a victim? Many people take great
comfort in being a victim because it fulfills an immediate
proach to life Seligman studied several rationally ranked
!
swimmers prior to the 1992 Clympics and soon realized
need to feel needed, as well as the instant gratification of
that optimism is not only an inherent trait, but cine that
sympathy and pity. People who take on the role of one of
can be augmented or learned. Using a term he coined,
Chapter 9 Cognitive Restructuring: Reframing
221
petals, some people sense the pain of the thorns. Cog-
nitive restructuring is a way to focus on the rose petals.
Here is the lesson: very situation has a good side and a
hal side. Each moment… you decidel During World
War II, a song by Johnny Mercer and Harold Arlen hit
the air waves and quickly became a national hit. It was
called “Accentuate the positive, Eliminate the Negative.”
and this song was one of many credited with helping the
mation deal with the consequences of war FIG.O.O.
LA
“No, I don’t think you’ve way. La mastofu
you’re just a vetim of haaramning.”
FIGURE 0.3
The Choice to Choose
Our Thoughts
In his book Man’s Search for Meaning, Frankl creditel
his survival in Auschwitz to his ability to find meaning
in his suffering a meaning that strengthened his will
power and choice of attitude. Frankl noted that despite
the fact that prisoners were stripped of all their material
possessions and many essential human rights, the one
thing concentration camp officials could not take away
was the ability of prisoners to choose their perceptions
of their circumstances
flexible optimism, Seligman states that although the trait
of optimism is not a panacea for the bumps in the road of
life, we can harness the power of positive thinking to help
us achieve our goals and promote a greater state of health
and well-being (HGO)
The dialogue mentioned earlier that seems to run non-
stop in our minds is referred to a self-talk, and it has
been observed that the preponderance of this is negative
self-thoughts. Schafer (1999) has identified several types
of negative self-talk thinking patterns that preluce and/
or perpetuate the toxic thought process. He lists them
in the following categories: pessimism, or looking at the
worst of almost every situation; catastrophizing, making
the worst of a situation; blaming, shifting the responsi
bility for circumstances to someone other than yourself;
perfectionism, imposing above-human standards on
yourself; polarized thinking, where everything is seen
as an extreme (good versus bal) and there is no middle
ground; should-ing, reprimanding yourself for things you
should have done; and magnifying, blowing problems
out of proportion
One technique to convert negative thoughts to
neutral thoughts, similar to Ellis’s REBT, is called
thought stopping. When you catch yourself thinking
negatively. you interrupt the flow of consciousness and
say to yourself, “Stop this thought. With practice,
thought stopping can help to disarm your negative critic
and give balance to your emotional thoughts.
As you can see, toxic thoughts are very real. Over time,
these can have consequential effects on the body as well.
But stimulation received by the brain is open to reinter-
pretation, and perceptions can change. Metaphorically
speaking, some people appreciate the luty of these
Flexible optimism: A term coined by Seligman to
convey that we can all harness the power of opti-
mism into positive thinking.
Self-talk: The perpetual conversation hard in the
mind, usually negative and coming from the critical
(ago), which rarely has anything good to say.
Pessimisme Looking at the worst of every situation
situat Nabing the worst out of every
:
.
Blaming Shifting the responsibility of a problem
away from yourself
Perfectionism: Perpetually imposing above-human
standards on oneself
Polarized thinking Acondition where things are
always viewed in extremes, either tremely good or
horribly bad.
Should-ing Reprimanding yourself for things you
should have done.
MagnifyingAtorm to describe blowing things out
of proportion
Thought stopping: A coping techniques where one
consciously stops the run of negative thoughts going
through one’s head.
222
Part 3 Coping Strategies
meaning in the suffering) and then move on to personal
resolution and growth. When many people are introduced
to the concept of cognitive restructuring, they incorrectly
sense they must adapta “Pollyanna” ar cheerful attitude and
that grief is not an appropriate sensation to acknowledge
As a result, they reject the entire idea of looking at the
“brighter side of a situation. Until feeling of suffering.no
matter how big or small, are brought to awareness, it will
be difficult to adopt a new frame of mind. Frankl wrote
that even in suffering there can be tragic optimism; the
discovery of light-hearted moments and personal mean
ing in the saddest of times. Even in the death-grip of the
concentration camp, Frankl found it possible to laugh at
many of life’s absurdities. Moments like these helped him
get through his caresal.
Comparisons between war and sports are not uncommon
A winning attitude is everything. Tennis champion Andre
Agassi explained his reframing style from an athlete’s
FIGURE 0.4 In this photo, a recording of opera singer perspective in his best-selling back Open: “I’ve won 869
Luciano Pavarottiis projected into a small sample of
water. The wave trains in the water oveal the delicate
matches in my career, fifth on the all time list, and many
harmonic pattern of the audio frequencies of his voice
were won during the afternoon shower.”
From this, and many similar images, one can begin to In her classic book Minding the Hody Mending the Mind,
appreciate the impact (either harmonious or discordant) Borysenko refers to the preponderance of negative thoughts
that spoken words and even our thoughts—which are as awfulizing. The process of awfulizing consists of judg-
more subtle forms of vibration can have on our bod mental and analytical thoughts that greatly narrow one’s
is, which are composed mostly of water.
perspective and put our mental processes into a shallow,
one-track mode. The result is what Borysenko calls re-
gressive coping, a nonproductive coping skill. Awfulizing
creates worst case scenaris for every situation. Although it
One concept that evolved from Frankl’s theory of logo
is good to prepare for all possibilities, a worst-case scenario
therapy is brief grief, which means acknowledging and
is onlycine in a wide spectrum of possibilities
mouring an unmet expectation but not prolonging the Psychologists lise the termself-fulfilling prophecy to describe
grieving process beyond arraxinable period of time. Death the link between perceptionsbeliefs and their related
education experts suggest there are three basic stages of behaviors. The self-fulfilling prophecy can work to one’s
grief:shock (denial), anger (depression, and understanding
advantage as well as one’s disadvantage Sports events are
(ameptance). The time for each stage will vary depending filled with stories of athletes who believed they were winners
on the person as well as the magnitude of loss. Feelings of and proved that indend they were. In highly competitive
loss, sadness, anger, pain, and fear are all natural, but not events like the Olympics, the difference between a gold
for prolonged periods of time. To deny these feelings is medal and a silver or bronze is not only a superlative athletic
unhealthy, just as it is abnormal to prolong these feelings body, but an accompanying winning attitude. Many an
,
beyond their purpose. Brief grief is a strategy to allocate athlete has lost an event, and thus failed to meet an expec-
the correct amount of time to the grieving process finding tation, because a seed of self-doubt tock root somewhere
(
between the starting black and the finish line. Individuals
Brief griaf. A concept that suggests that some
who harbor negative thoughts about themselves or the
grieving is appropriate and healthy, vetsus unhealthy situations they encounter promote behaviors generated by
prolonged grieving.
these perceptions. The result can be a negative cycle that
Awfulizing: A mindset where one tends to see
sets the stage for recurring stressful perceptions and what
(or hope for the bad in every situation.
appears to be a stagrant black cloud over one’s head; this
is the fulfillment of the self-fulfilling prophecy.
Chapter 9 Cognitive Restructuring: Reframing
222
mindo
An example of this concept occurred in the 1990 hit movie
Pretty Woman, when actress Julia Roberts, in the role of
a Hollywood hacier, described to actor Richard Gere
how she fell into her career rut.” She stated that while
Conscious
growing up she received a lot of negative feedback from
her parents and peers, and that these were so much easier
to believe, eroxing her self-esteem. Another example is
The unor
John Travolta’s character, Edna Turnblad, in the movie
Hairspray, he plays an overweight woman who refuses
und and
nga thoughts
to leave the house for many years because of her struggle
with obesity. This underdog “trait in both Roberts’s and
Travolta’s characters was one many audience members
could identify with and relate to, perhaps because this
Uno SIM
attitude is so prevalent in American sxiety
To break this self-defeating thought cyde, Borysenko FIGURE 0.5 According to some parts, the
suggests employing the concept of reframing. Reframing unconscious mind does not acknowledge negative
involves looking at the same situation from a new refer- thoughts. Thoughts such as I won’t get nervous.”
ence or vantage print and finding some good aspect in it. are interpreted as I wilgot
nervous,” which then often
Quite often, stubbornness and the comfort of our own results in nervous behavior. Thinking positively allows
opinions become obstades to the reframing process Tools
the conscious and unconscious minds to work together
to initiate the process and dismantle the costacles include
the use of humor, positive affirmations, and creativity.
Positive affirmations are designed to bolster self-esteem and cause massive finding. When they were alkwei
Confidence building through self-praise in the form of to go back to their home weeks later, they found
peitive feedback tends to counterbalance the voice of the water damage dear up to the wond flr. Chris lost
inner critic constantly telling us we’re not up to standards priceless heirlooms, family portraits, computers, and
when we compare cursdves with others.
a manuscript of a book she had been working on for
For example, as a health promotion and stress-management
5 years-practically everything she owned
consultant, I meet many people from all parts of the country Toke everything in a flood can be devastating. How
I
and all walks of life. During one workshop in 2007, 1 met do you rebuild your life at the age 357 Chris said it
a remarkable winnan from New Orleans who shared her
would have been easy to play the role of victim, but
story of the terrible devastating experience she endured what good work that serve You take stock of what
(and continues to enchure). My interactions with her and you do have and build from there. I may have lost my
others from New Orleans have allowed me to experience
house and my belongings, but I have my health and my
first-hand the expression of the hardy personality, which
wits. I am resilient. I will get through this, and I am
scholars Kobass and Madki describe as the stress-resistant determined not to give up, but to rise above the site
personality. Here is Chris’s story.
tion and more on.” And that she has. Rebuilding her
Chris is a native New Orleanian. It is a city she loves life and rebuilding her house move on parallel tracks,
with a passion. From the Dixieland jaxx and Mardi but within a year’s time she regained her sense of tal-
Grasto Cajun cooking. New Orleans is loaded with a ance. She says. “Losing everything is both devastating
unique culture all its own. Living on the Gulf Coast, and liberating. I chose to focus on the positive and that
however, has its perils. Luisiana is no stranger to is what has gotten me through the trugh times.”
hurricanes. They are as much a given, Chris said, as One final thought about reframingHG… Bir
snow storms are in New England. When Katrina was ysenky
recounts the story of an Australian friend, lan
forming in the Gulf of Mexico, Chris and her hus
hand boarded up the house, fucked up the car, and
headed north to Baton Rouge. With gale forces up to
Reframing: The name given to the thought process
whera a negative perception is substituted for a new
150 miles per hour, they expected some wind damage
tral or positive one, without denying the situation.
to the house, but no one expected the levees to break
224
Part 3 Coping Strategies
BOX 9.2 Optimism and Pessimism
Over the years I have asked my students for their dafi-
sitions of optimists and pesimists. All clichés aside,
here are some of their answers:
An optimist is someone who
doesn’t let failure limit his growth as a human being ,
can find radcoming qualities in just about everyone.
takes personal satbacks as only a temporary
inconvenience
counts blessings instead of misfortunes
lose a job and says there is a better one waiting.
has the ability to reevaluate her aspectations so as
not to become depressed when she falls short.
describes a pessimist as a person with potential
continually explores now areas of life and can accept
others who are different as unique.
has enough faith in herself to see her through a crisis.
on his deathbed, says. “I have no regrets.”
A pessimist is someone who
cannot accept opposing viewpoints or thoughts
as valid.
enjoys nothing more than finding out that his nega-
tive view is night.
typically proudges and pigeonholes others before
getting to know them
delights in Murphy’s law that anything can and will
go wrong, at the worst possible moment
constantly soes obstacles in her way, which are
,
usually put there by herself
gains energy by drawing on a negative perspective.
daims to be a realist, but he’s not fooling anybody.
describes an optimist as being out of touch with
reality
not only has a black cloud of negativity over her
head, but created the thunderhead as well.
Cawlen, who was diagnosed with bone cancer and given roommate, or a significant personal los. The reality
2 weeks to live This man adopted the attitude that if he had of the situation is not pleasant in the best of moments.
2 weeks to live, he was going to make the best of it. So, be A common theme found among the theories of many
proposed to his girlfriend get married, and went off on a psychologists in these cases is acceptance. The accep-
honeymoon to the South Pacific Twenty years later, telling tance of situations we have no control over is thought
of his experiences to Borysenko, he explained why he was to be paramount as a stress-management strategy, yet
still alive. He discovered for himself that the unconscious it is perhaps the hardest frame of mind to adopt. There
mind does not respond to negative thoughts such as can- is a fine line between control and acceptance. This is
not want” and don’t Therefore, rather than teling the essence of Reinhold Nichuhr’s Serenity Prayer for
himself, “I cannot dic,” which the unconscious mind would Alcoholics Anonymous: “Lord, grant me the serenity to
understand as I can die,” he fed himself a flood of prestive accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change
thoughts, such as “I will live, and he hasBox 0.2 the things I can, and the wisdom to know the differ-
ence. Acceptance is not an overnight sensation, but
Acceptance: An Alternative rather an attitude that may take several days, weeks, or
Choice
months to adopt and implement. Often, acceptance involves
some aspect of forgiveness. The concept of acceptance is
Many times we encounter situations we have no abil very similar to one described by Lao Tzu in the Top Teh
ity to control: a manipulative boss, an obnoxious
Ching-Lan suggested that we move in rhythm with the
.
universal energy, not against it. Denial and manipula-
Acceptance: Often the final outcome of raframing a
tion, like spinning car wheels in the dirt, prove fruitless
situation: Accepting that which you cannot change
because they go against the rhythm of natural energy
and moving on with your life.
Swimming against the tide can prove exhausting, and
Serenity Prayer: A popular short prayer encourag
sometimes fatal. As the saying goes, sometimes it takes
ing acceptance and wisdom, attributed to Reinhold more strength to let go than to hang on. Finally, the use
Niebuhr.
of acceptance or forgiveness appears to be a greater tool
in the face of anger than of fear.
Chapter 9 Cognitive Restructuring: Reframing
225
There have been thousands of empirical studies to
determine the effectiveness of cognitive restructur-
ing on health-related problems associated with stress
These studies have focused on both mismanaged anger
(coping skills for men who battered their wives and
children) and anxiety disturbances, most notably sub-
stance abuse and eating disorders. The results of these
studies indicate that thought processes can be changed
to produce a better state of health, although this is not
effective in all cases
is all bearing aid. There
com and amplifies compliments.”

FIGURE 0.6
Steps to Initiate
Cognitive Restructuring
A simple, four-stage process introduced by the field of
behavioral medicine is
a model for implementing changes
in lifestyle behaviors through agnition to promote health
The following model explains how cognitive restructur-
ing can be implemented as a cuping technique to reduce
stress. Initially, this process does not appear to take a lot
of time. Thoughts last less than seconds, yet they may
resurface often in the course of a day. And the feelings
these perceptions generate can last for days and weeks
A doser look suggests that cognitive restructuring is a
refinement of the continuous dialogue of the mind, and
as a result is for the most part, an ongoing process. The
stages are as follows:
1. Awareness: The awareness process has three
steps. In the first, stressors are identified and
acknowledged. This may include writing down
what is on your mind, including all frustrations
and worries. The second step of the awareness
process is to identify why these situations and
events are stressors and, more specifically, what
emotional attitudes are associated with each. In
the last step, a primary appraisal is given to the
main stress and acknowledgment of the feel
ings associated with it. If the original perception
appears to be defensive or negative, and inhibits
you from resolving this issue, then the next stage
is reappraisal
2 Reapisal of the situation: A secondary appraisal
or reappraisal, is a second opinion you generate in
your mind to offer a different objective) viewpoint.
A reappraisal is a new assembly or restructuring
of the factors involved, and the openness to ac
cept a new frame of mind (HGD). At this
a second or third opinion involves choosing
a neutral or preferably positive, stance to favorably
deal with the us at hand. Remember, a new
appraisal isn’t a rationalization process, nor is it a
suppression of emotions. Abo remember exactly
what factors you can control and what you must
accept as out of your control
3. Adoption and substitution: The most difficult part
of any attitudinal change is its implementation
Once a new frame of mind is created, it must then
be adopted and implemented. Humans tend to
be creatures of habit, finding comfort in known
entities even if the “known” is less than desirable.
Pessimism is a defense mechanism, and although it
is not seen as enhancing hernan potential, there is
comfort in the familiarity of old ways, and change
does not come easily. There are risks involved in
change. Substitutinga peative attitude for a nega-
tive perception may make you feel vulnerable at
first, but like other skills that improve with prac-
tice, a new comfort will emerge. With cognitive
restructuring the new mind frame must often be
substituted when the stress is encountered, and
repeated again and again.
4. Evaluation: The test of any new venture is to
measure its effectiveness. Did this new attitude
work? Initially, it may not. The first attempt to
shoot a basket through the hoop may result in
an embarrassing miss. Evaluate the new attitude
and decide how beneficial it was. If it turns out
that the new mind frame was a complete failure,
return to stage 2 and create a new reappraisal. If
the new mind frame worked, repeat this process
with stressors that a change in attitude
deur
to resolve and being
226
Part 3 Coping Strategies
Some Additional Tips for
Cognitive Restructuring
1. Initiate a relaxation technique to calme your mind.
When a relaxation technique is employed, the
mind begins to unwind and consciousness shifts
from an analytical mode to one of receptivity. In
this unwinding process, unimportant thoughts
begging the conscious mind for attention are
dismissed, allowing greater receptivity to a wider
perspective on the issue at hand. A wider perspec-
tive in turn fosters personal enlightenment and
opens up room for positive thoughts.
2. Tarde responsibility for your own thoughts. In times
of stress we may feel victimized. We may also feel
that things are out of our control. A way to gain
temporary control is to blame others for the personal
injustice of the perceived strexor. Blame is associated
with guilt and guilt can be a toxic thought. If you
find yourself blaming others for events
that make
you feel victimized, ask yourself how you can turn
this blame into personal responsibility for your own
thoughts and feelings withour feeling guilty
3. Fine-tume appectation. It is believed to be easier
to refine expectations prior to meeting a stressar
than to reframe an attitude after the fact. Many
times we walk into situations with preconceived
expectations. When these expectations are not
met to our satisfaction, then negative feelings are
generated. Fine-tuning expectations doesn’t mean
abandoning ideals or lowering self-esteem. Rather,
it means running your perceptions through a real
ity check questioning their validity, and allowing
them to match the given situation
4. Gire yourself positive affirmations. The constant
internal conversation going on within the conscious
mind tends to be dominated by negative thoughts
generated by the ego to defend itself. Although
created with good intentions, a preponderance of
negative self-feedback erades self-esteem. Positive
affirmations balance this internal conversation
with good thoughts to enhance self-confidence and
self-esteem. Repeat a phrase to yourself that boosts
your self-esteem (eg, “I am a lovable person or
*1 am a winner
5. Accentuate the positive. There is a difference between
peitive thinking and focusing on the positive. Pasi
tive thinking is an expression of hope concerning
future events. It is often characterized by setting
goals, wishful thinking and dreaming. Although
positive thinking can be healthy, done to excessit
can be a form of denial. Focusing on the positive is
reframing the current situation. It is an appreciation
of the present moment. Acknowledge the negative
Learn from it, but don’t dwell on it. Focus on the
positive aspects and build on them.
Best Application of Reframing
When you find yourself stressed out and are perhaps
entertaining toxic thoughts, first identify what makes
you stressed, and then ask yourself why you feel this
way. Get in the habit of then asking yourself, “What
zond can come from this situation. In other words,
what positive aspect can you learn from that which
stresses you out? Recognize what feelings of anger and
fear surface, and then shift your thinking to a proactive
stance so you do not become the victim of your own
thoughts and perceptions.
Chapter 9 Cognitive Restructuring: Reframing
227
SUMMARY
All stimuli received by the brain are processed through
interpretation and classified as negative, neutral, or
positive this process is called perception.
When the interpretation is exaggerated, itis referred
to as mgnitive distortion
Cognitive restructuring means changing a percep-
tion from a negative interpretation to a neutral or
positive one, making it less stressful. This process
is also called reappraisal, relabeling.reframing, and
attitude adjustment
The seeds of this coping technique were planted by
Ellis in rational emotive behavior therapy (RET)
the term cognitive restructuring was coined by
Mechenbaum in 1975.
• The information
processing model describing how
stimuli are interpreted consists of four components
sensory input, sensory manipulation, cognitive/he-
havioral output, and a feedback system.
Negative thoughts are often called toxic thoughts.
Research has now substantiated the hypothesis that
negative thoughts can suppress the immune system.
Negative thoughts are a conditioned response, starting
as carly as childhood, to negative feedback given by
parents, which is transformed into guilt and shame.
Toxic thoughts come in various styles, including
pessimism, catastrophizing, blaming perfectionism.
polarized thinking, should-ing.magnifying, and
self-victimizing
Frankl brought to light the fact that we have the abil
ity to choose our own thoughts, to alter our thinking
process and adopt new perspectives
Borysenko calls creating negative thoughts “wful-
izing.” and explains that the way to change these
thoughts is through reframing, wherein the stressful
event is reframed in a positive light.
Positive psychology is an emerging field that focuses
cin using human attributes to cope with stress
When there seems to be no positive light available,
acceptance of the situation (not to be confused with
giving in) is suggested. Acceptance means to go with,
rather than against the flow that you cannot control.
• A four-point plan to reconstruct negative thoughts
includes the following: (l) awareness, (2) reappraisal
of the situation, (3) adoption of a new frame of mind,
and (4) evaluation of the new mind frame.
Additional hints for cognitive restructuring include
meditation to clear your mind, taking responsibility
for your own thoughts, fine-tuning expectations, giv.
ing yourself positive affirmations, and accentuating
the positive aspects of any situation.
STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS
1. What is the thinking process model ?
2. What role does the unconscious mind play in
Hanging behavior
3. How can you best describe toxic thoughts!
4. List the steps to initiate cognitive restructuring
5. What is cognitive restructuring ?
6. What role does the unconscious mind play in the
process of restructuring?
7. What effect does attitude have on human
physiology
< Chapter 9 Cognitive ... Go to Chapter 9 Cognitive Restructuring: Reframing Cognitive Restructuring: Reframing 135 EXERCISE 9.1 EXERCISE 9.4 137 EXERCISE 9.2 139 EXERCISE 9.3 Optimist or Pessimist? 141 EXERCISE 9.4 142 EXERCISE 9.5 144 EXERCISE 9.6 Within each person resides the makings of an optimist and pessimist. Some people claim dominion of their optimist side, always seeing the glass as half full, whereas others clearly see themselves as pessimists, viewing the glass as half empty (or, in some cases, completely empty). Most people see themselves as being somewhere in between depending on a variety of life circumstances, although in general we tend to gravitate toward one side or the other in our worldview. Describe the difference be- tween an optimist and a pessimist in your opinion, and give an example of each. Then explain on which side you see yourself most of the time and why. 146 EXERCISE 9.7 < Chapter 9 Cognitive ... The Things I Take for Granted Go to Chapter 9 Cognitive Restructuring: Reframing 135 EXERCISE 9.1 137 EXERCISE 9.2 139 EXERCISE 9.3 141 EXERCISE 9.4 142 EXERCISE 9.5 Almost instinctively, human beings have given thanks since they first set foot on earth. From animal sacrifices to banquet feasts to silent moments of praise, showing appreciation for everything from the smallest of gifts to some of life's greatest plea- sures is very much a part of the human condition. Before televised football games and New York City parades, a unique tradition was established on the shores of the New World several hundred years ago when English immigrants and Native Americans sat down to perhaps the most famous autumn feast ever created, Thanksgiving; appropri- ately, it became a yearly event in America. It is easy to give thanks and praise in time of joy and happiness. Giving thanks is rarely thought of, however, in times of crisis. Actually, stress can produce some very ungrateful attitudes. Stressful events tend to cloud the mind with thoughts of frustra- tion and anguish some directed inward, most directed outward-and these can leave little room for anything else. When the Pilgrims sat down to the first turkey din- ner, times were hard. There was no indoor plumbing, there were no drug stores, no credit cards, and no daycare centers. Life was real challenge. But in that challenge life was reduced to the simplest of terms: survival. In our day and age, survival is pretty much a given. The question isnt "Will I survive?" but rather "How well can 1 live?" Although theoretically the high-tech age has improved the quality of life, it also seems to bring with it pressures that negate this standard of quality. More stress and less time to enjoy life's simple pleasures can often make it diffi- cult to take adequate time to sit back every now and then and appreciate the little things that make life special. Stress can act as blinders to our field of vision. By con- sciously taking these blinders off, we can see the whole picture in better focus. Taking things for granted is as much a part of human nature as giving thanks. Often, we don't know what we have until it's gone. A list of things that you take for granted could be endless. But if you were to stop and think for a moment about what some of these might include, just what would they be and why? 144 EXERCISE 9.6 146 EXERCISE 9.7 Purchase answer to see full attachment

  
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