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This assignment will be delivered in MS Powerpoint presentation and gap of literature in 2 pages of word document plus references. Everything has to follow strict APA. The research study info is as follows:

Proposed Topic: The effect of the various virtual moderator usage in knowledge transfer and its relationship to productivity in the business by measuring the project success rate

Problem Statement: Current organizational knowledge transfer practices have been impeded due to organizational communication channels

Methodology: The method for this study will be the quantitative approach.

Target Population and Sample Method: Employees of organizations in the construction and healthcare industries through random sampling utilizing an Online survey questionnaire

Theoretical Framework /Background: Media Richness theory for demonstrating the media type and frequency of the media usage, affective knowledge transfer between sender and receiver, and how it impacts the project outcome. Media richness theory is a framework utilized to elaborate on a moderator of communication and the ability to regenerate the data or information shared through a moderator. This theory was developed by Richard L. Daft and Robert H. Lengel in 1986 as an extension of the information processing theory. The main idea behind using media richness theory is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the medium of communication and equivocal task. Moreover, it can transfer the information, check its efficiency, and pose a cognitive obstacle to communication during information transfer.

Please find the attachment for the detail of chapter 2. You have to find the gap in literature and add into presentation as well.

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The Effect of the Various Virtual Moderator Usage in Knowledge Transfer and its
Relationship to productivity in the Business by Measuring the Project Success Rate
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List of Figures
Figure 1: Virtual Communication in a High Cultural Difference Context ……………… 26
Figure 2: Virtual Communication in a Low Shared Language Commonality Context …. 28
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Introduction
The development of knowledge management as a distinct domain has been
influenced by research in various disciplines, including psychology, sociology, and philosophy.
Over the past five to ten years, the field of knowledge management has been influenced and
extended by research into leadership development systems, change management, organizational
theory, systems theory, organizational development, and artificial intelligence. It entails a
process through which knowledge moves between a source and a recipient, influencing certain
functions and activities of the organization. One crucial factor in understanding is that
knowledge can be transferred regardless of the hierarchy in the organization. In this case,
information, and knowledge flow from all levels of the organization irrespective of authority or
power, with both employees and management exchanging insights and information that can
prove valuable in influencing the development and growth of the organization. Adler (2008)
notes that knowledge can be seen as experiences, information with added value, understanding of
the context, or insights and information based on the frameworks of understanding that live in
the minds of groups or individuals and need to be managed well to provide explicit knowledge.
It is essential to note that knowledge transfer should not be confused with training. Rather, it
is simply the circulation of information, facts, and data that influences the acquisition of
knowledge and information that can be used to improve employees’ productivity. It also entails
identifying and harnessing team members’ adaptable skills and abilities to apply data,
consequently enhancing and expert-sing them. As much as knowledge transfer has proven
beneficial and increasingly advantageous for the growth and development of an organization,
current organizational knowledge transfer has been impeded due to administrative
communication channels. Communication is of the essence for effective knowledge transfer.
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This paper will investigate the impact of various virtual moderators on knowledge transfer
and its relationship to business productivity, as measured and analyzed by the project success
rate. Communication channels that can be leveraged to increase effectiveness will be reviewed,
with the paper integrating a quantitative approach to measure knowledge transfer in
organizations in the construction and healthcare industries. This study begins with a theoretical
explanation and analysis of earlier research on knowledge management and employee
productivity, including information sharing. Emphasis is also placed on explaining the ways in
which these factors affect employee productivity. A hypothesis based on the aspects that the
literature alleges to have a favorable association with employee productivity concludes the
literature chapters on knowledge sharing. The following research objectives are designed to
achieve this goal.
1. Discuss several studies on productivity, knowledge sharing, and their impacts on worker
productivity from an empirical and theoretical perspective.
2. Develop and gather information using a questionnaire that focuses on employee
productivity and knowledge sharing factors.
3. Develop a hierarchical multiple regression model with productivity as the dependent
variable and knowledge sharing as the independent variable.
4. Interpret the findings about the effects of knowledge sharing and the aspects on
productivity while explaining the interview-based regression results.
5. Based on the findings, provide recommendations on how to enhance an organization’s
knowledge-sharing procedures and collaborative framework.
Despite the significance of the connection between sharing knowledge and productivity,
limited study has been done on how workers dedicate themselves to the process of sharing
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knowledge and functioning in organizations with its impact on productivity. These factors should
be looked at in more depth because they are so crucial to the success of an organization.
Problem Statement
Current organizational knowledge transfer practices have been impeded due to
organizational communication channels. The worldwide public sector is experiencing a drop in
individual employee performance, even though employee performance is a fundamental factor in
sustainable competitive advantage. Effective knowledge transfer techniques facilitated by
information communication technologies enhance individual employee performance. IT is seen
as a key facilitator of processes for transferring knowledge. It is crucial for sharing explicit
knowledge inside an organization since it fosters communication and promotes group learning.
Effective knowledge transfers techniques with IT support enhance staff effectiveness.
There isn’t much empirical research linking employee performance to the transfer of
knowledge within organizations globally. Current organizational knowledge transfer practices
have been impeded due to organizational communication channels. To fill the gaps that had been
found, the study looked at how the different ways virtual moderators were used in knowledge
transfer and how that affected business productivity by measuring the project success rate.
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Chapter Two
Review of Literature
The Concept of Virtual Organizations and Knowledge Transfer
Virtual organizations emerged in 1990 and were previously known as digital
organizations (Chadwick, 2007). Simply speaking, a virtual organization is a cooperation
network made possible by the advancement and development of technology. Alternatively, a
virtual organization can be referred to as a social network that does not operate within the bounds
of horizontal or vertical boundaries. It is a boundary-less organization comprised of individuals
working from different geographical locations and cities worldwide (Brannen & Salk, 2000).
Alternately, a virtual organization is a social network in which all horizontal and vertical borders
have been erased. It is a boundary-less organization in this sense. It comprises of people working
from physically scattered work locations, or even people working from mobile devices and not
bound to a specific workstation. ICT is the foundation of a virtual organization. It is ICT that
organizes operations and integrates workers’ abilities and resources with the purpose of
achieving a shared goal established by a virtual organization (Carte & Chidambaram, 2004).
Managers in these organizations use computer system linkages to coordinate and
regulate external contacts. In the current world of technology, the virtual form of organization is
growing. The examples of mega brands and industries like Nike, Reebok, Puma, Dell
Computers, HLL, and other well-known companies that work virtually. Ideally, there are key
characteristics and identifiers of virtual organizations. For instance, it is valid to point out that
virtual organizations are in cyberspace or rather web based. Apart from that, they are also
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geographically spread i.e., they can occur in multiple sites. Virtual organizations also use a
combination of resources to accomplish a specific goal (Brannen & Salk, 2000).
Virtual organizations are also characterized by remote working, with employees
leveraging various technological means to communicate with colleagues and convey
information. With ICT being the backbone of virtual organizations, the coordination of activities,
skills, and resources is done digitally (Carte & Chidambaram, 2004). In this case, the
management leverages metrics and tactics that can be used to greatly enhance the
communication process, ensuring that each project member is versed in the technicalities of the
project and what it would take for it to succeed. The coronavirus pandemic played a substantial
role in developing these virtual organizations. Organizations had to adopt new business ways to
survive under new regulations and policies. Many organizations switched to remote working,
embracing techniques and strategies that would enable and ensure the continuation of their
businesses (Wu et al., 2006). Virtual organizations were consequently adapted, with management
discovering the significant number of benefits and advantages that could be accrued.
According to research by Ipe (2003), virtual organizations comprise three primary
relativity dimensions that orient and influence the work processes and relationships between
workers and leaders. These include space, time, and structure. When it comes to space, virtual
organizations aggregate the knowledge activities of their knowledge workers located in different
locations using technologies such as the internet. Time, on the other hand, pertains to the ability
of the worker to communicate knowledge and information in a timely and relevant manner. The
success of the projects embraced by virtual organizations is inherently dependent on the ability
of the workers/employees to communicate knowledge in a timely and effective manner (Ipe,
2003). In this case, knowledge and information communication should be relevant to the project
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in the required time as delays could significantly affect and influence its scope. When it comes to
structuring, knowledge workers need to be able to deal with the fact that their work environment
is getting faster and changing all the time (Ipe, 2003).
Healthcare institutions have leveraged knowledge transfer in practice, planning, and
policymaking through interactive engagement with pertinent audiences. Healthcare institutions
are turning towards online education programs that provide patients with information regarding
alternative ways of treatment at home or in their community. A prime example of this is an
organization called www.obgyn.med.umich.edu, which provides learning material on alternate
forms of treatment such as yoga and acupuncture at the patient’s convenience – which can be
accessed through a mobile device or traditional desktop computer (Franko, & Tirrell, 2012).
In this case, information and knowledge are transferred from one professional to the
other, with the primary purpose being the provision of collaborative healthcare to the patient.
While it has been effective in influencing the desired outcomes, the knowledge transfer process
is greatly hampered and challenged by ineffective communication channels (King, 2011). In
virtual settings, good communication channels are of utmost importance in promoting the easy
flow and sharing of knowledge and information. With ineffective channels, the knowledge
transfer process between the different healthcare professions is greatly hampered, reducing the
effectiveness and quality of the care provided to patients. Collaboration and communication have
been identified as key factors that affect the project’s scope and success (King, 2011).
Understanding that knowledge can also be transferred via virtual platforms such as
Zoom, video teleconferencing, and teams is vital. Virtual teams have consistently leveraged
digital platforms to communicate and conduct their operations in this case. Through applications
such as Teams and Zoom, these teams communicate about the scope of the project, the budget,
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and the delegation of tasks and responsibilities. Zoom platforms integrate more features
compared to formal communication channels such as email (Brannen & Salk, 2000). The
organization can leverage Zoom calls to provide further explanations and insights on initiatives.
While virtual communication doesn’t entail face-to-face contact, and talks may sometimes be
somewhat stiff, this can make it easier to brainstorm and work successfully. If just one person’s
microphone is engaged at any given moment, it can lead to more democratic, fair cooperation
(Brannen & Salk, 2000). The amount of scheduling and logistical faff associated with a meeting
is substantially lower with virtual meetings than with in-person meetings. One does not have to
worry or concern about hiring a room or ensuring that your meeting place is large enough to
accommodate all invited guests.
According to research, leveraged communication channels should depend on their
communicative capabilities. Good communication necessitates the exchange of information that
is crucial to workers in their commitment to the accomplishment of the organization’s mission
(Cabrera, Collins, & Salgado, 2006). People who are unsure about what is expected of them will
either halt or wait for instructions, or they will make their own judgments, right or wrong. People
suffer dread of the unknown and develop fear of change in the lack of timely and proper
information. People are the motors of every organization, and the only way to steer and drive
them to success is via communication channel. It is an issue of producing understandable
material as well as sufficient communication routes, procedures, and processes (Lin, 2007).
In this case, the management should choose a communication mode based on the
message’s equivocality and the medium’s richness. Depending on the type of message the
organization wants, management should ensure that the channel leveraged contributes toward the
understanding and comprehension of the recipient (Cabrera, Collins, & Salgado, 2006). For
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instance, when leveraging Zoom or video teleconferencing, management usually discusses things
of great importance, providing employees with the opportunity to ask for clarification where
necessary. During the project, this medium can be used to help reach the goals and objectives
that have been set.
Horecica (2010) recommends an assessment of efficacy, effectiveness, and efficiency to
ascertain the success of the knowledge transfer process. The knowledge transfer process’s
efficacy is measured by quantifying the actual rollout conducted after the user training activities
and the user test scores generated after that. Most project failures can be associated with the lack
of practical measurements before the knowledge transfer process is rolled out. The size of
knowledge transfer by analyzing the efficiency levels. In this case, the number of problems the
knowledge transfer team brought up should be compared to the number of issues the
implementation team worked on (Lin, 2007).
Several factors should be considered before choosing the medium of communication to
ensure efficient knowledge transfer. One factor to be considered is the ease of use of
communication technology (Horecica 2010). Many organizations introduce communication
technologies to their employees without training them on how to use them. However, some
communication technologies are complicated to use. As a result of technological advancements
and the COVID-19 pandemic, a lot of organizations today use virtual moderators to transfer
knowledge and information from one person to another. The incompetence of some of the
organization’s members using this technology results in information being impeded. This
negatively affects organization projects, as it affects the productivity of the team members
working on the project (Lin, 2007)
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It is essential to consider the urgency of the information needed the project’s environment
and nature, and the required information’s confidentiality and sensitivity. When determining how
successfully knowledge and information are transferred, the moderators used to do so are heavily
influenced by these many elements, (Cabrera, Collins & Salgado, 2006). In addition to norms or
restrictions imposed by the government or a business sector, project implementation information
systems may constrain results. There is a possibility that limits imposed by policies, procedures,
and processes, revolving around rules for managerial communication could impede or, at the
very least, influence information transfer. Poor performance results in poor productivity in
projects (Lin, 2007).
Media richness theory and organizational transfer of knowledge
Rich media communication impedes the organizational transfer of knowledge majorly
because it is ineffective alone as a medium of communication to its receivers and subjects. Rich
media communication as a theory refers to communication media that evaluate different forms of
communication in terms of how ‘richly’ they do. It originated in academic studies on
organizational information transfer in the workplace. According to Chris Drew (2022), rich
media is ineffective since one would need to use a lean medium to make a short, blunt, and quick
point on the subjects. What do we mean by rich media, and how is it relevant to the
organizational transfer of knowledge and productivity in business?
Chris Drew (2022) points out that, in essence, a rich communication medium can reach
and convey every nuance of a message perfectly to the receiver. It has been observed that
scribes, who use it, represent their thoughts in writing in a very effective manner. This is because
the medium of handwriting helps them convey their ideas and thoughts with utmost accuracy. It
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includes all the aspects of equivocality and achieves that through multiple means of
communicating the message (Badrinarayanan, 2008).
On the other hand, lean communication media has a limited means of communicating the
message from the company to the receiver and little certainty of conveyance. For instance, a lean
approach to communication conveys blunt, indirect messages with a bit of nuance to the receiver.
Organizations employ rich media to convey messages targeted at a single person to whom they
want to provide support. This approach is also vital in explaining and debating important
concepts to clients and subjects. Since lean media offers a better medium for communicating
than rich media, it makes it ineffective and thus an impediment to using rich media in the
organizational transfer of knowledge (Sherifkani et al., 2016).
According to Daft and Lengel’s hypothesis (1986), media richness depends on four
factors:
(1) The medium’s ability to provide quick feedback,
(2) The quantity and diversity of cues and channels,
(3) The degree of intended focus on the recipient, and
(4) The degree of linguistic variation.
Because there are more channels available when a medium has a larger social presence,
the communication is warmer and more immediate (Daft, & Lengel, 1986).
The study by Daft & Lengel (1986), further shows that organizational transfer is also
impeded by the use or lack of the significant aspects of media communication richness, which
comprise the informational immediacy of feedback, cues, personal focus, and variety of
language. The authors emphasize a poignant element of organizational transfer of information
and knowledge by noting that asynchronous non-interactive media does not have the same level
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of depth as synchronous interactive media. Chris Drew (2022) illustrates examples of rich media.
As Chris (2022) pointed out, the second rich medium is virtual communication. While virtual
communication is not as effective as face-to-face communication, it is effective in conveying
messages to receivers who are far away. Compared to presentations and lectures, which lack
immediate feedback, they have a language variety and media variety, which helps the receiver
better comprehend the subject of communication.
Uncertainty in communication and media richness is the gap between the knowledge at
hand and the knowledge required to solve a problem and give an answer. Therefore, virtual
communication and media signify a need for a more informational approach to resolving an
issue. While information lean media has minimal distractions, virtual communication is
ineffective and dubious in sharing and transferring knowledge and information (Sherifkani et al.,
2016). In essence, according to Chris Drew (2022), rich media in virtual communication for the
transfer of knowledge and information in business provides immediate feedback and offers a
variety of information for conveying messages and a diverse set of cues for conveying messages.
This study gives a comparison. However, it does not provide a full glimpse of what it is like to
have virtual communication as the ideal medium for communication and knowledge transfer.
Effectiveness of virtual moderators and communication channels
The effectiveness of virtual moderators and communication channels are studied across
five studies. The findings of these studies indicate that, on average, virtual moderators have
positive effects on satisfaction levels and participation rates; however, this effect is moderated by
user education level. Virtual moderators may be personally effective for those with low
education levels but ineffective for those with high education levels due to their lack of ability to
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communicate effectively with both non-respondents and respondents who do not agree with
them.
The effectiveness of telecommuting in organizational sharing and transfer of information
can be viewed from different perspectives. Telecommuting is an incredibly prevalent work style
that has drawn noteworthy awareness from academics and professionals alike. The recent
technological advancements that enable internet connections at ever-affordable costs, operating
away from the office as a telecommuter, are becoming increasingly accessible to many
employees worldwide (Allen, Golden, & Shockley, 2015). Researchers and practitioners have
debated the benefits of working away from the office since the concept was first introduced in
the 1970s. It is a considerable divergence from how businesses have previously conducted
themselves. The many varied definitions and conceptual frameworks of videoconferencing, as
well as the many different sectors in which it has been studied, have made understanding its
consequences more difficult.
The research provides a concise overview of the development of telecommuting and its
increasing prevalence. It begins with a discussion of the definitional issues inherent within the
previous studies and then offers a detailed definition of telecommuting that is anchored on the
already available research. The first thing that the review does is point out how important it is to
evaluate previous findings with an awareness of how the level of telecommuting experience that
individuals in research have been likely to affect the inferences that can be taken from that
experience and the findings of research concerning critical contextual factors that can impact
telecommuting. These factors include the scope of the job that is conducted while telecommuting
and interpersonal relationships such as knowledge transfer and advancement. The study also
covers the organizational behavior and support that may help shape the experience of
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telecommuting. To educate readers about the current state of the national discussion and its
consequences for legislation, a few examples of laws and policies pertaining to telecommuting
have also been included in this article. The suggestions for telecommuting theory and practice
offered as the synthesis ends attempt to enhance the quality of the data on telecommuting and
highlight areas of study that require further development. The main aim of this study is to review
the research done on telecommuting and its significance in the organizational transfer of
information. They focus on the atrocities and intricacies of telecommuting by focusing on the
setbacks.
Videoconferencing is a virtual approach to organizational communication that affects the
productivity of a business by lowering business travel; she shows that the future of the industry is
online and that virtual communication is an appropriate tool for business (Bayern, 2019).
According to the study, employees consistently use videoconferencing tools to conduct
operations and positively impact the corporate culture by making flexible schedules and remote
work fixtures (Jensen et al., 2018). In essence, this article emphasizes the benefits of
videoconferencing, such as a healthier work-life balance and less travel, which saves money,
collaboration, and better productivity. Additionally, according to Bayern (2019), the future of
business is based on virtual information, knowledge sharing, and transfer.
The most widely used concept of knowledge management is the notion of the three
knowledge domains: technical, business, and social. This model is based on distinguishing
between the technical and non-technical domains. The latter domain is considered less valuable
in terms of resources and human effort. Knowledge management is an approach to sharing
information among specialists, managers, and other employees so that it can be retrieved at any
time. It is most commonly used by decision-makers in organizations as they need to make quick
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decisions on new opportunities and risks. The concept of knowledge management can be applied
in many areas, such as real estate, insurance, financial services, and manufacturing, amongst
others (Jensen et. al., 2018).
Another means of applying the concept of knowledge management is through the
resource-based perspective theory, which was developed by Zachary (2019). It aims to explain
the underlying factors that contribute to a company’s long-term competitive advantage. Zachary
(2019) used a resource viewpoint to examine the origins of products and, ultimately,
organizational success. He held that organizations diversified based on the resources at their
disposal and continued to amass through acquisition practices. The notion that a corporation is a
set of capabilities forms the foundation of the theory. Successful companies and failed ones are
essentially distinguished by each organization’s unique resources and capabilities. However,
resources and capabilities may not always be the foundation for a firm’s competitive edge. The
resources and capacities of organizations are regarded as collections of material and immaterial
assets. The term “tangible” refers to things that can be quantified. These include things that are
technological, organizational, physical, and financial (Jensen et. al., 2018).
The impact of knowledge transfers on organizational performance
Several factors come into play if there has to be successful information transfer in an
organization using communication technologies. In many cases, not all people can keep up with
these factors, which negatively affect organizational productivity (Zamfir, 2020). For example,
when using moderators like Zoom, the receivers should be able to evaluate the credibility of
information and create their natural sense of trustworthiness and credibility by paying attention
to the words, expressions, and nonverbal cues of the person communicating with them. The
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evaluation of credibility is important because if one is presenting information that appears to be
credible but actually isn’t credible, then the audience has no way of making the best decision
based on their information. In other words, even though the audience may have been happy with
the presentation and conclusion that they had reached before they utilized zoom, they would
most likely change their minds after seeing incorrect information (Bild et al., 2021). In addition,
she explains the significant number of elements, which are complicated and interwoven, affect
knowledge transmission.
Ideal examples of elements analyzed which negatively impact information transfer are
cultural norms, the difficulty of sharing information across national boundaries, and cultural
norms. A person affected by various external and internal elements, including their own
experiences, might perceive the information being presented to them differently. Considering the
challenges that the COVID virus brought to our planet, many people were affected differently
(Zamfir, 2020). Some life experiences can either be favorable or unpleasant. These kinds of
people interpret information differently. Because many organizations shifted their
communications from physical to virtual conversations, different people’s productivity was
negatively impacted due to the stated factors.
On the other hand, it points out that a variety of signs point to the successful transmission
of information when it comes to the process of putting knowledge into practice and leadership
(Sharifkhani, Pool, & Asian, 2016). The study points out that it is essential to recruit and then
train managers to facilitate a more comprehensive exchange of information and best practices
between nations and organizations. This will enable them to be in a position where they can train
the organization members they are working with on how to use communication technologies
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effectively. As a result, productivity will be boosted, leading to better project performance
(Sharifkhani, Pool, & Asian, 2016).
Theoretical Framework/Background
The media richness theory proposes that team members should inherently engage in
communication and knowledge sharing to reduce the project’s complexity or tasks (Ishii, Lyons
& Carr, 2019). The theory suggests that rich media should be leveraged for complex, equivocal
messages. In contrast, leaner media forms should be used for sharing simple and explicit
information, or what is commonly termed canonical information. Questionable statements, in this
case, integrate information about questions that lack clear and definite answers. These have
proven to be increasingly challenging in the healthcare sector and the construction industry
(World Bank, 2014). According to the media richness theory, equivocality often arises when a
given task is left open to diverse and varying interpretations embedded in contextual knowledge.
In contrast, canonical knowledge is less dependent on contextual cues. The theory by
Barry & Fulmer (2004), assumes that the richer the media is, the more cues will be provided for
a given task, and the more equivocality will be reduced. Studies have ascertained that virtual
team members leverage rich media such as video conferences and mobile phones for lean media,
equivocal knowledge, and canonical knowledge (Barry & Fulmer, 2004). In this case, the critical
question of communication is whether this knowledge sharing using the identified forms of
media is affected and influenced by the differences in language and culture (Barner-Rasmussen
& Aarnio, 2011). With virtual teams operating in distinct environments, culture and language
have been identified as communication barriers, limiting the sharing of information and
knowledge and affecting the projects’ success.
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The Media Richness Theory’s central tenet is that oral media, such as face-to-face
communication and telephone calls, are more detailed than written media, such as documents
and reports. Additionally, synchronous media are richer than asynchronous media, such as
telephones, compared to those that interpose delays between the origination of communication
and its completion, such as email. Rich media makes it easier for managers to transcend multiple
frames of reference and allows them to digest complicated, subjective communications, which
helps reduce ambiguity. Low-richness media handle fewer stimuli, limit feedback, and are less
suitable for addressing ambiguous issues. The ability of low-rich media to interpret wellunderstood signals and shared data is a crucial point (Ishii, Lyons & Carr, 2019).
Face-to-face communication is regarded as the richest kind of communication since it
may provide rapid feedback, convey a variety of cues, and employ natural language. The
telephone is a less rich medium than face-to-face conversation, with fast feedback but no visual
signals. To understand, people must rely on aural clues and language content. Due to its textual
and asynchronous characteristics, email scores low on the richness continuum. Its low richness is
also a result of the feedback’s delay and the lack of cues. Email is a method of interactive
communication that enables note-or document-based communication between individuals or
groups of individuals. It is a computer-based, asynchronous messaging system that uses textprocessing and communication software to send information quickly (Sprecher, & Hampton,
2017).
While the media diversity of these classic communication channels is frequently
explored, there are currently several new communication channels. They include
videoconferencing, social media, virtual project spaces, and instant messaging. However,
contemporary communication channels do not seem appropriate to adequately situate various
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sorts of media in the media richness continuum, casting doubt on the original notion. In support
of this notion, a variety of extenuating factors are suggested in the literature. Sproull adds the
capacity to communicate with numerous people at once, the capacity to record and alter
communication flows, and the capacity to allow a search of messages electronically (Zachary,
2019). According to Valacich, a medium can support many communication episodes without
interfering with episodes that may be taking place between the same or various people (Zachary,
2019). This simply means that a medium can support multiple conversations at once.
Indeed, the use of new media with a more profound character enables several
enhancements in people’s general performance within an organization. As per Zachary (2019),
there is unmistakable proof that computer-mediated communication increases self-reported
productivity. In addition to making, it simpler to reach individuals, the use of richer media
enables an increase in both the quantity and quality of work produced. However, the impact of
the richness of conventional media shows that richer media have a beneficial influence on
productivity in addition to new media. It appears that improved reachability, faster information
sharing, and more and better-quality information work together to promote productivity (Jensen,
Moynihan & Salomonsen, 2018).
Culture: Over time, different authors have come forward to critique the simple models
for understanding the inherent cultural differences that affect knowledge sharing and
communication in virtual organizations (Ardichvili et al., 2006). The term “cultural differences”
refers to dissimilarities in fundamental cultural aspects such as rituals, customs, core values, and
beliefs. Cultural differences are primarily perceived to represent a challenge and obstacle to
communication and knowledge sharing, specifically when it comes to exchanging notions and
ideas (Wang & Noe, 2010).
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Cultural barriers make it challenging for virtual team members to collaborate effectively,
introducing conflicts in the work environment that negatively impact the actualization of the set
goals and objectives. Studies have also shown that cultural differences may influence knowledge
sharing positively depending on the organization. The intercultural encounters during the project
make the contextual and tacit knowledge more explicit. To cover the negativities associated with
cultural problems, researchers have argued that organizations should strive to combine rich
media and ambivalent expertise, specifically in situations where the cultural differences and
distinctions between team members are outspoken.
Cultural differences in knowledge sharing and communication are important to consider
when working with different countries and cultures. Knowledge sharing is the exchange of
artifacts that have knowledge within a group, whereas communication refers to the exchange of
information across groups or organizations (Ardichvili, et al., 2006). Before involving a
company or organization around the world with discriminatory acts or practices, do your
research on where those discriminatory acts and practices exist within the culture. Do not be
ignorant of the consequences of what you might be causing.
Figure 1: Virtual Communication in a high cultural difference context
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Language: According to research, when virtual team members share a common
language, communication frequency and knowledge sharing are significantly enhanced (Brett,
Behfar, & Kern, 2006). In virtual teams, the commonality of the language directly refers to the
degree to which individuals share a common language, for example, the English language. This
also extends to the proficiency of the word sounds and the grammatical conventions and
structures of the language leveraged. As English is often the common language leveraged in
most workplace settings, variations in the style of language and proficiency usually exist
between the group members (Baranek & Martz, 2005). These variations significantly affect the
communication process leveraged in the organization, influencing the effectiveness of
information flow and knowledge sharing. With variations in styles of speaking the common
language directly associated with decreasing communication effectiveness, researchers have
adopted the media richness theory to explain how these challenges can be traversed. In this case,
if rich media is used, the communication effectiveness is inherently decreased, with the
variations in communication styles directly affecting the comprehension of the
workers/employees (Brett, Behfar, & Kern, 2006).
The most essential contribution of global language instruction is the development of
talents that allow students to engage in culturally appropriate ways based on their understanding
of target countries’ commodities, customs, and attitudes. Intercultural skills are developed and
applied by students in a variety of circumstances and with individuals from many cultures. As a
result, children learn to think critically and interact with others to solve problems using readily
available resources. In addition, reading for important ideas, identifying supporting data,
utilizing strategies to manage discussions, writing using sentence frames, and presenting
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information for a variety of audiences and goals are other examples. (Brett, Behfar, & Kern,
2006).
On the other hand (Barner-Rasmussen & Bjorkman, 2007), lean media communication
methods can prove effective in formalizing the messages and information disseminated. For
example, in companies where the language style is increasingly varied, management can
emphasize the necessity of communicating with emails, formalizing the messages, and ensuring
comprehension (Born & Peltokorpi, 2010). It is vital to understand that in virtual teams, the
richness of the media should directly correlate with the language make-up. In this case, the
media used should consider the team members’ weaknesses and limitations, and the team should
take a better approach to help them deal with these problems.
Figure 2: Virtual Communication in a low shared language commonality context
Summary
During late 20th century, the first digital organizations appeared; they later changed their
name to virtual organizations. In these companies, managers make use of interconnected
computer systems to coordinate and control their interactions with external parties. Famous
virtual businesses including Nike, Reebok, Puma, Dell Computers, HLL, and others. Employees
in virtual firms often work from home and rely on a variety of electronic modes of
24
communication to stay in touch with one another. The global spread of the coronavirus was a
major factor in the formation of these online groups.
Knowledge employees in a virtual company can be situated anywhere, but their work is
combined with that of other knowledge workers by the internet and other technology. The
project’s scope and effectiveness are highly dependent on the team’s ability to work together and
share information effectively. Clear lines of communication are crucial for facilitating the free
exchange of information. Zoom, video conferencing, and groups all contribute to the
dissemination of information in the virtual realm. Communicating effectively is the key to
guiding and driving the people who power any business to success.
The problem lies in the lack of suitable channels, methods, and processes for
communicating what has to be said. The failure of most projects may be traced back to the
absence of useful metrics in advance of implementing a knowledge transfer strategy. Knowledge
and information flow from one person to another is facilitated by many modern businesses
through the usage of virtual moderators. Dissemination is hindered since some staff members
aren’t computer savvy enough to use the available tools effectively. Because of this,
organizational projects suffer as team members’ output suffers.
Each element of a message may be delivered with pinpoint accuracy when using a
communication medium that is both expansive and deep. Many businesses now use rich media to
send personalized messages to each of their customers. Taking this tack is crucial when
addressing complex issues with customers and lecturing on significant topics. In contrast, the
messages in lean media tend to be more straightforward and oblique. The use or absence of
media communication richness, which includes informational instantaneity of feedback, signals,
personal emphasis, and a variety of language, hinders organizational transfer.
25
Virtual communication is inefficient and questionable for knowledge exchange and
transmission, whereas information-light medium offers few distractions. Many factors, both
inside and external to the business, influence how productive telecommuting may be for
information exchange and dissemination. Academics and working people alike have taken an
interest in the rising trend of telecommuting. The primary objective of this study is to examine
the literature concerning telecommuting and its relevance to the dissemination of information
inside organizations. Organizational efficiency may be improved using videoconferencing since
it eliminates the need for employees to physically meet in person.
Business in the future, according to Bayern, (2019) will revolve around digital
information, knowledge sharing, and transfer. A survey found that videoconferencing technology
is widely used within organizations. There are a lot of moving parts if a company must
effectively disseminate information with communication technology. By paying attention to the
speaker’s words, facial expressions, and other nonverbal indications, listeners can determine
whether the information being presented is reliable. According to the Media Richness Theory,
sophisticated, ambiguous communications benefit greatly from the use of rich media.
In contrast, simpler, more straightforward information is better conveyed through leaner
forms of media. The notion proposes that the more complex the media, the more clues there will
be to help with a certain job. Telephone interaction lacks the nuance of in-person exchanges.
Email is low on the media richness continuum since it is textual and asynchronous. A higher
output volume and higher quality are both made possible by the employment of more
sophisticated media.
Zachary (2019) claims that people are more productive while using computer-mediated
communication. Dissimilarities in defining cultural elements such as rituals, customs, basic
26
values, and beliefs are meant by the term “cultural differences.” Virtual team members have
difficulties in working together due to cultural differences. Depending on the company, cultural
differences have been demonstrated to have a favorable effect on information sharing. The term
“commonality of the language” in the context of virtual teams refers to the extent to which team
members speak the same language.
This includes a command of grammar and the aural aspects of the language.
Communication breaks down when there are differences in how people use the same language.
Formalizing the messaging and information spread can be facilitated by lean media
communication strategies. It’s crucial to keep in mind that the linguistic diversity of a virtual
team should directly influence the depth of the media used in meetings. Therefore, it is important
that the medium chosen to consider the strengths and limits of the team members.
27
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