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1. Need to write reflection paper on five views of motivation, Behavioural, Humanistic, Cognitive, Social cognitive, Sociocultural.

2. This paper is from the course educational psychology.

3. Possible approaches to writing the reflection could include 1. raising key limitations in respect to theories, how developmental issues depart from traditional practices in clinical psychology , highlighting reasons you think a given topic may be relevant for clinicians conducting assesements or treatment with children or youth. The paper should be more than a summary.

4. There should be the demonstrate engagement, critical and creative thinking, and critical appraisal skills in the reflection.

5. Reflection paper should be three paged and double spaced.

7. I will be sharing an example of the reflection paper and PDF from where you have to write about the topic.

Reflection Paper 1
Student Name
University of Guelph
PSYC 4460: Advanced Topics in Clinical and Applied Developmental Psychology
Professor Mariam Ayoub
Due January 26, 2022
Upon readings the two assigned papers for week 3, ethnic diversity and sociocultural
influences on development, I came to realize just how much of a subconscious affect gender and
race can have on children. Family Cultural Socialization in Childhood by Wang et al. (2020)
looked at how a child’s competence over time may be affected by family cultural socialization as
well as ethnic/racial composition of schools and communities. It was shown that greater family
cultural socialization was associated with greater social competence (Wang et al., 2020). The
importance of understanding ones ethnic/racial background is crucial to those who have been
discriminated against (Wang et al., 2020). I believe this is increasingly important for clinicians to
recognize when conducting assessments on children or youth because children may not have a
solid comprehension or positive outlook on their ethnic/racial status which can have negative
impacts on their development and understanding of oneself. It is important for clinicians to
acknowledge when this may be the case and provide resources to help the child or youth develop
a better understanding of their ethnic/racial heritage. This can take many forms but encouraging
the child to ask questions about their ethnic/racial background, talk to relatives or others of that
same group and provide context for the child to be confident with their ethnicity. In my opinion,
understanding ones own racial/ethnic culture can have a great impact on the development of a
child’s identity. Being a person of mixed race, I have found it difficult at times to determine
where I lie or which “group” I belong to. If I had been surrounded by more people of mixed race
from a younger age, I believe I would have had a smoother transition into understanding my
ethnic/racial identity, therefore creating a more positive outlook of myself. I believe the field of
psychology has much more to research regarding the perspectives and experiences multiracial
people to better understand how to support this group.
The second reading, How Race and Gender Shape the Development of Social Prototypes
in the United States showed how much bias we have towards gender and race on a subconscious
level. The text explained how boys typically see a White male as the prototypical boy and man,
whereas a White female is seen as the typical girl and an Asian woman is seen as the prototype
for women (Lei et al., 2021). If these are the prototypes that are being developed in children,
how would that affect those who do not fit the prototype? This article ties into the same theme as
the first one, being that clinicians should be aware of their client’s perspective of their personal
ethnic/racial identity as well as their gender. Although one may not see themselves as an outlier,
the bias that has been shown towards prototypical people has been strong, as seen with the many
white males in positions of power. This can negatively affect a client’s self-worth and sense of
belonging, especially if said client does not have a concrete understanding of their ethnic/racial
identity which can make them more susceptible to discrimination. Clinical psychologists need to
be able to recognize how ethnicity, race and gender affect their client’s overall well-being and
should be taking steps towards assisting clients in feeling comfortable in their own skin.
References
Lei, R. F., Leshin, R. A., Moty, K., Foster-Hanson, E., & Rhodes, M. (2021, December 23). How
Race and Gender Shape the Development of Social Prototypes in the United States.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0001164
Wang, Y., Benner, A. D., & Boyle, A. E. (2020, December 31). Family Cultural Socialization in
Childhood: Navigating Ethnic/Racial Diversity and Numeric Marginalization in School
and Neighborhood Settings. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology.
Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000435
CHAPTER
practice;
they
long-term
details
the
may ask:
goals?
and
developing
process.
and
self-regulation
I successful?
in
students
devise
the
Where
my short-term
strategies
a big
Finally,
successful
their
What are
Learning
such
picture
of
need
to reflect
strategies
for
11
They
do I need
to improve
COGNITIVE
goals?
What are
as identifying
important
material
next step
whether
they
on
order
in
meet
that
OF
relationships
are
produce
LEARNING
AND
defined
in
part
the relationship.
a capacity
for
by how
All these
emotional
413
MOTIVATION
emotions
are
come
together
skills
com-municated
to
self-regulation.
were
in
Where
to
VIEWS
within
shortcomings
may ask themselves:
in
my
is the
overcoming
process.
SOCIAL
TEACHING
was
my goals
TOWARD
LEARNING
How
SELF-EFFICACY
AND
SELF-REGULATED
(PP. 406410)
can
teachers
support
the
development
of
self-efficacy
involve
students
future?
and
What
is
cognitive
behaviour
modification
is
behaviour.
forms,
process
Cognitive
including
research
self-talk
to
them
in
which
behaviour
helping
or helping
Some
a
modification?
deal
self-talk
keep
students
four
skills
strategies:
listening,
behaviour
modification
can
all
but
students
engage
ages,
helping
assistance
who
have
not
are
the
and
had
used
opportunities
to
Teachers
with
involve
help-ful
checking.
and
Emotionally
the
from
of
outward
in
can feel
empathy
good
strategies
to
to
.
are
or those
They
others
in
emotionsthey
employ
can
manage
optimal
of their
inner
talk
about
cultural
distress
and
also
the
handle
own
and
cope
Emotional
and
and social
These
what would they
emo-tions
cognitive
can
must
the
control
over
to
criteria
periods
make
for
their
learning
choices.
They
evaluating
their
pro-cesses
should
learning
and then
give them
progress
using
those
standards.
to
work
collaboratively
students
in
of time.
opportunities
to
make
Finally,
with
peers.
TOGETHER:
value
THEORIES
of
The
behavioural,
learning
theories
first
apply
understand
they
emotional
cognitive).
know
and
on
and
social
pillars
for
teaching.
Students
of
the
material
(construc-tivist);
sense
what
they
have
processing);
then,
they
must practise
and
understanding
new
skills
automatica
to
perspectives
constructivist,
remember
permanent
must take
Failure
lower-quality
different
four
make
their
they
four
are
must
more fluid
Finally,
the
and
(behavioural)
self-regulators
them
OF
cognitive,
(cognitiveinformation
coping
individuals
ALL
then,
They
with their
stress.
personal
is
express
group.
of problem-solving
performance.
from
long
(PP. 410411)
learning?
emotions
their
can
their
over
them
encourage
IT
LEARNING
self-regulation
for
a variety
help them
promote
aware
about
BRINGING
self-regulation?
that
are appropriate
for
can also
emotional
othersrealizing
expressions.
ways that
distressing
in
individuals
feelings
emotions
stimuli
involved
self-regulating
and
differ
skills
students
setting
seek feedback
What
What
in
should
extend
allowing
and products,
should
may require
children,
strategies.
own
students
teachers
of
that
provide
products,
judgments
Teachers
tasks
should
processes
students
self-talk
younger
practice
learn-ing
learning?
meaningful
and
aggression.
and
used
in
for
regu-late
particularly
working,
be
complex
many
their
and
are
planning,
guidance
in
anger
that
to
behav-iour
may take
engaged
with
Cognitive
more adult
is
modification
effectively
has identified
Cognitive
self-regulated
attend
charge
of their
to
part
any
understood
part
of their
make
reper-toire.
own learning
of the
and
to
(social
process
results
in
learning.
do?
TEACHERS CASEBOOK: Failure to Self-Regulate
Here is
the
how
two
practising
beginning
of the
disorganized
teachers
chapter
responded
of the
to the
situation
at
SARAH
with
a class
of
Used
teacher
students.
MACNEIL
with
At the
JAMES
HATHAWAY
Used
with
School,
To
permission
Thornhill,
help
students
organizational
agenda
the
into
that
they
This
way the
done;
progress.
the
students
can
post
number
update
can refer
for their
their
own
to
important
papers
binders
and
this
class on the same
use
that they
their
own
can use in
students
stay
takes
binders
also
other
courses.
on top
of large
so
students
meto locate
by subject
organized
assignment
or over
several
weeks.
timeline
by the
amount
of work
we set up various
In addition,
to
and
not
the
if students
fall
behind
on a smaller
catch
work.
up, and they
are less likely
monitor
student
task, it isnt
to just
give up
and
topic
I
I find
are important
for
also
is
for
organization
of time
plastic
also readily
bins (labelled
visible
can
be
they
are organized.
resource
different
having
in
my class-room
how
They
easy it
Binders
(i.e.,
are
books)
discuss timelines
Together
for
we assess what afair
on the size of the assignment),
stages
ofthe
assignments
way to let
to
assignment.
marked
students
and teachers.
students
in
materials
make an effort to
by
handing
organized.
because
Other
unit
introducing
and for
can recognize
students
helps
alot
when they
we move from
and
an effective
both
losing
binder
when
handouts
cases (depending
for
from
of them
The need to stay organized
materials
mystudents.
due dates for
this
are
Centre,
travelling
basis
area.
with
my own timelines
students.
routines
certain items
is and, in some
discuss
to
of time
possibility
various
how
on a daily
Education
a three-ring
are
materials
observe
by topic.
course
There
course
completion
the
to
bring
which are used for
can
labelled
be overwhelmed
checkpoints
to
View
days of class, I spend
materials
is for
wont
with
few
Teacher
throughout
me
alot
means the
materials is quite high.
the room,
me use the
pro-jects, are
parts
spend
which
my classroom.
and
hard for them
manageable
to
homework.
a
becomes
students
level,
and
unit. In the first
see
Park
my class and to use dividers to indicate
smaller
provides
more
only
Macneil,
Education
I ask students
class) around
at
of Sarah
Pearson
classroom,
paramount.
students
binder,
the
to
to
to
a classroom
keeping
into
too
complete
I
high school
attend
I build
updated,
helping
also
example,
a page
general,
is
to
students
it
in
For
date,
agenda
project
complete
Secondary
day. Besides
students
comes
break the
Lewis
organized
wall so that
the
wall
something
When it
lessons.
on the
every
encouraging
I
more
day. Students
as the
Stephen
NS,
classroom
is
become
daily
paper
from
habit forming,
be
to
of the
time
moments
page,
to
learn
Hathaway,
Education
basis. It includes
topic
same
few
James
Pearson
on chart
it on a daily
and the
of
ON,
skills
permission
Bridgewater,
become
know
Being
I also
and returned
that
time-lines
consistent
more self-reliant
with
CHAPTER
12
Hoy
Woolfolk
Anita
MOTIVATION
in LEARNING
and
TEACHING
TEACHERS
m
Are
CASEBOOK:
Motivating
Students
When
Resources
Thin
do?
you
It is July,
and
choice,
but job
openings
You are
discovering
field.
the
only
materials
with them.
would
science
project
a teaching
are really
that
you
supplies,
position.
tight,
so you
the teaching
are some
are
district
aging
to
in
school
textbooks
for
trips,
or other
how the
by them.
To
worse, the
texts
these
CRITICAL
units.
Students
go
has
wonder
requires
that
materials
you
curriculum
workbooks
none;
teaching
workbooks,
workbooks
are slim to
more active
and
in the
your
DVDs,
texts
objectives
in
games,
money in the
But the
a job
simulation
no
students.
first
software,
Theres
matters
your
have
and the
response,
make
was not your
pleased
resources
have suggested
field
The
same
over the
bored
have
available
Every idea
met with the
what
you finally
budget
students
look
will be tested
that.
could
pretty
are important.
for
been
As you look
be anything
but
high level
for
your
Besides,
the
provincial
topics
and tasks
on them.
THINKING
How
in
the
would
you
arouse
student
the
curiosity
and interest
about
the
workbooks?
How
would
you
establish
How
would
you
handle
value
of learning
the
difficulty
level
this
of the
What do you
need
to
know
about
motivation
What do you
need
to
know
about
your
students
to
material?
texts?
solve
to
these
motivate
problems?
them
OVERVIEW
AND
OBJECTIVES
Most
educators
agree
that
learn,
students
must
class
activities.
We begin
answers
that
and five
general
have
proposed,
of
explanations
for
learning
explanations
of
motivation
Having
a good
of tools
for
promoting
Next,
we consider
discussions
and
of
more closely
emotions,
and
How
do
motivation
and
engagement
motivation
come
together
is influenced
which
by the
the
work
motivation
12.1
time
Define
five
done.
Finally,
state
in
you
have
motivation,
theoretical
Explain
how
12.3
Describe
the
12.4
Discuss
12.5
Describe
the
roles
12.6
Explain
how
teachers
We began
about
because
students
academic
2007).
So
how
perform
does
that
WHAT
IS
Motivation
is
behaviour.
Psychologists
1.
What
How
right
What
3.
the
usually
choices
and
and the
motivation
setting
in
for
developing
in
your
trait
students.
to:
and
differentiate
influences
influence
among
and
encourage
students
chapter
and
based
impact
Students
with
work?
Lets
with
on
in
their
a basic
motivation.
motivation.
motivation
we
explored
another
powerful
classroom.
differently,
anxiety
when
We include
on
motivation.
emotions,
previous
start
how
on
to learn.
and their
can
quite
defined
long
people
on
does
as
an
studying
do
focus
it
away,
while
is
the
intensity
is
opened,
motions?
motivation
attributions
a direct
your
encourage
influences
to learn.
students
chapter
on their
social
same
abilities
the
motivation
question.
on
interactions
and
(Wigfield
What is
beliefs
motivation
&
prior
Wentzel,
motivation?
MOTIVATION?
example,
2.
has
that
be able
motivation,
in
motivation.
self-efficacy.
in
should
in
personal
of strategies
extrinsic
curiosity,
the
the
as a permanent
you
and
motivation
may
and
beliefs
can influence
achievement
knowledge
a number
their
in
value
chapter,
learner
set
interests
together
work,
orientations
motivation
information
of the
of goal
capabilitiestheir
all this
and relationships
the
influence
of interests,
self-perceptions,
we examine
kinds
students
and
Then,
and
a broader
appear
to learn.
needs
different
examining
their
and
learners
frequently
motivation
classroom
for
that
how
this
and
different
you
we consider
intrinsic
explanations
in
will give
beliefs
situations,
class,
cognitive,
different
learners
motivation
factors
we put
we discuss
your
specific
so
First,
of the
completed
contrast
12.2
how
support
be
must
do
motivation
as different
just
of the
classroom.
personal
environments,
work
of
extrinsic
that
or situations,
your
many
social
behaviours
To
productive
examine
and
of
for
in
cognitive,
recall
orientations,
How
academic
as a constant
By the
goal
of intrinsic
humanistic,
motivation,
in
in learning?
to
and
of
several
anxiety.
we create
motivation?
of theories
motivation
needs,
is
engagement
understanding
of teaching.
engaged
a discussion
promote
tasks
behaviourally
behavioural,
types
critical
and
including
theories
positive
of the
What
different
can
motivation:
curiosity,
teaching?
these
fit
one
question,
motivation:
review
is
emotionally,
with the
been
As you
contexts.
students
be cognitively,
theories
sociocultural.
motivating
take
to
or
the
state
that
have
focused
about
homework
others
is
make
their
internal
motivation
get
their
and
started?
play
do
some
directs,
on five
behaviour?
others
Why
arouses,
Why
video
and
basic
do
maintains
questions:
some
students,
for
games?
students
start
their
homework
procrastinate?
level
student
of
involvement
engrossed
in
and
the
focused
chosen
activity?
or
is
he
Once
just
going
the
back-pack
through
Motivation
arouses,
An
directs,
internal
state
and
that
maintains
behaviour.
41
416
PART
2
LEARNING
AND
MOTIVATION
4.
What
5.
causes
What
to
persist
or to
assignment
or just
a few
pages?
the
thinking
and
is
enjoying
someone
person
Shakespeare,
feeling
& Anderman,
Meeting
Many
Some
influence
of
motivation,
has
given
Stipek
dont
&
a student
engaged
or
in
worrying
Weiner,
read
the
about
1996;
motivation
and
engaged
the
entire
activity?
an
Pintrich,
Is
upcoming
Marx,
learning.
lets
step
into
a
high
school
directions
for
a lab
activity.
The
Hunter
will
understand,
guessed
and
he is falling
not
or This
he doesnt
further
and
checks
her
bonus
points
for
Shake-speare
the
student
test
(Ander-man
& Boyle,
1993)?
To
get
science
a sense
of
classroom
student
the
just
profiles
com-plexity
after
the
are
adapted
from
you
work
of art for
not
required
or
on the
test,
you
performing
turns
in
he answers
spends
every
most
usual.
He just
keeps
saying,
your
questions
of
lab
his
every
is
time.
drawing
But
not interested
hand,
is
it.
Evidently
he
But
his
grade
overall
Spenser
is
wants
colour
other
homework.
stepshe
excellent
the
about
experiments.
never
even
do
Hunter
an
Sarah
on
assignmentas
When
about
doing
a
Spenser,
the
time
correctly,
staring
into
he
space;
behind.
with
produces
than
hard.
know.
she
more
start
further
Sarah
Satisfied
even
is too
really
Safe
gave
he
while
competent,
Graham
Will
(2002).
Hopeless
I
feeling
up?
Students
factors
teacher
2014;
give
Sarah
in
will
doing
interested
your
satisfied
risk
getting
project.
reading
class
is
the
C he
with
perfect.
You
once
and
now
apparatus,
a
B. If it is
work.
this
hours
in
be
not
the
in
spends
to
of the
In
fact,
about
he
between
B-and
can
knows
chemistry
get
on
and
C because
tests
without
trying.
Defensive
student.
Dara
Then
assignment
she
doesnt
pretends
or trying
is
afraid
to
she
is
and
forgets
try
have
her lab
be
working,
to
to
get
answers
because
if
she
Aimee
a good
manualagain,
but
from
makes
so she
spends
other
an effort
most
students
and
fails,
has to
of
she
her
share
time
with
making
another
fun
of the
when
your
back
is
turned.
She
fears
that
everyone
will
know
science
tests
dumb.
Anxious
are
look
is
everything
scientists
student
she
knows
expect
her
of these
students
and
in
most
subjects,
when
she
has to
to
become
one
but
she
answer
too,
freezes
on
questions
but
in
class.
her
prospects
for
at least
one
of the
or (5)
thoughts
Her
this
par-ents
future
dim.
STOP
& THINK
motivation:
Each
to
Each
(1)
choices,
(2)
Can you
diagnose
the
student
presents
motivate
at the
and
teach
meaning
Intrinsic
of
and
We all
know
hard,
if
explanation
Certain
it
tinker
see
motivation
situation.
and
motivated,
desires,
top
yet
few
theory
or
goes,
an
their
have
of page
you
pages,
we
these
the
You
five
areas
of
and feel-ings.
418.
have
to
will
look
figure
out
more
how
closely
students.
have
a strong
need
interest
in
hours
situation.
tomorrow,
we
you
experience
be studying
traits
art,
because
to
at
or to
work
behaviour?
The
goals,
social
pressure,
and
more.
Some
psycholo-gists
or individual
achieve,
characteristics.
a fear
they
in
art
galleries.
for
example,
If,
goal
our
fears,
so
are
a
directs
expectations,
personal
or spend
toward
and
incentives,
of
a temporary
may
needs,
values,
garages,
motivation
energetically
energizes
terms
enduring
a test
move
What
beliefs,
in
as a state,
state.
on the
understand
to
basic
you
course,
next
better
drives,
in
more
are
persistence,
challenge,
the
task.
objects,
because
be
curiosity,
so the
In
we can
motivation
endlessly
Of
of trait
to
interests,
tests,
motivational
class.
so
with
(4)
answers
by the
explained
people,
The
bored
be
mechanical
paragraph
entire
problems
(3) intensity,
Motivation
feels
we are
self-confidence,
about
different
motivation
could
have
a
the
has
started,
problems?
Extrinsic
how
even
getting
work
of tests,
hard
to
Other
you
motivated
(at
least
any
given
time
you
value
learning
a curiosity
achieve,
avoid
psychologists
are reading
for
usually
now)
is
and
this
by
the
a combina-tion
because
yo
CHAPTER
are
preparing
traits
for
may set
but
more
a test.
your
certain
situations
or less
within
A classic
motivation,
Amotivation
is
that
challenges
as
our
is
we
lack
we
do
because
need
(Anderman
&
Reiss,
outside
learning
about
Intrinsic
motivation
outcomes
in
creativity,
reading
and
deep
and
school
simply
no
actno
natu-ral
Phot
and
intrinsically
punish-ments,
and
Deci
Spenser
he
makes
with
loves
him
many
academic
&
studies
because
one
Stock
satisfying
2014;
associated
as
417
TEACHING
conquer
or
is
Anderman,
such
to
incentives
Satisfied
school
you
is the
we are
2004).
is
motiva-tion,
interests
itself
chemistry;
AND
motivation.
out
When
activity
LEARNING
amotivation,
personal
not
of
engage
of any intent
seek
the
2002;
about
motivation
pursue
IN
range.
extrinsic
to
MOTIVATION
motivational
may
made
capabilities.
motivated,
chemistry
states)
and
tendency
rewarding
or range
at all. Intrinsic
human
exercise
your
level
general
a complete
engagement
addition,
(or
distinction
intrinsic
Ryan,
In
general
12
Photography/Alamy
do it.
FOR
positive
achievement,
comprehension
and
strategies
(Corpus,
THE
hanging
MEDAL
from
ONLY?
a ribbon,
Is
this
or is
he
athlete
also
motivated
likely
just
intrinsically
by
a
piece
motivated
of
to
metal
achieve
Black/PCN
what
enjoyment,
he
has in
his
sport?
PCN
using
&
In
learning
Hayenga,
when
or for
some
extrinsic
care
in
only
the
we
subject
what
itself.
it
gives
task.
an
of
We are
not
really
us.
Safe
gain
and
extra
Beware
that
Extrinsic
motivation
them
something
will
achievement,
extrinsic
do
reason
other
motivation.
about
academic
it
2009).
contrast,
teacher,
also
has
push
to
to
psychologists
is impossible
to
tell
for
essential
or
backstroke
or
paint
because
someone
locus
internal
drive
are
in
the
for
task
activity
the
with
provides
incentives
them
own
to
we
interest
emotions,
al.,
poor
2009).
as students
persist
the
experi-ence
sake;
has little
negative
et
we
its
she
(Corpus
or
please
itself,
for
grade;
associated
strategies
helps
punishment,
the
However,
try
new
complete
a
outside
things,
mundane
types
of
motivation
for
the
action
(the
the
person.
Students
of the
they
freely
them
Reeve
& Jang,
motivation,
motivation
self-determined
in
the
regulation
of
activity.
task
either/ortoo
One
to
with
guilt
or
the
or
ofcausality/
is
that
the
dichotomy
all-or-nothing.
that
our
most
by
outside
negative
fully
are
the
Two
activities
to
motivation
controlled
avoid
chose
locus
realize
motivation)
extrinsic
Starting
(completely
the
too
(intrinsic
types
is
their
2006b).
probably
thinking.
cause)
practise
motivation),
(external
you
is
either/or
Four
2006a,
reason
or
because
moti-vated.
students
read
is influencing
own
the
location
outside
2002;
motivation,
who
of causality/intrinsic
else
painting
is
or
avoid
in
two
of
or extrinsically
locus
motivation).
(engaging
the
concept
is intrinsically
swimming,
extrinsic
engage
intrinsic/extrinsic
(internal
motivation
to
the
a behaviour
reading,
and
fully
if
interests
your
external
regulation
be
about
from
(extrinsic
with
do
works
been
adopt
of causality
(Reeve,
of
others
types
who
or something
intrinsic
a continuum
it
between
personal
think
explanations
if
started,
by looking
or
may
on
motivation)
As you
between
just
the
based
extrinsic
has
get
avoid
to
interested
learning
benefits
a grade,
little
Sarah
motivation
externalinside
activity
earn
very
maladaptive
difference
actingwhether
internal
to
has
either/or!
According
The
McClintic-Gilbert,
fall
along
determined
based
by
on level
extrinsic,
these
factors),
introjected
self-perceptions),
of
four
Amotivation
to
despite
lack
of
interest
because
it
serves
a
engagement
at
larger
goal
that
motivating),
and
integrated
regulation
(participating
in
both
interesting
and
students
particularly
valued
good
may
has
enjoyable
goalsuch
teacher.
licensure
(Vansteenkiste,
extrinsic
freely
because
as spending
Those
students
requirements
Lens,
and
&
reward
choose
to
they
then
Deci,
know
hours
are
2006).
hard
the
choosing
to
get
As an
on
the
example
activities
activities
studying
freely
trying
value).
work
a task
because
are
of integrated
that
educational
psychology
to
outside
most
accept
benefit
they
important
from
do
in
the
all.
motivation
with
Motivation
activities
that
are
it
their
is
of
is
associated
personally
lack
actno
identifi-cation
Intrinsic
(participating
A complete
any intent
own
reward.
regu-lation,
not
reaching
Extrinsic
find
motivation
a
created
as rewards
to
become
a
causes
such
as
Locus
requirements
by
and
of causality
or
of
behaviour.
Motivation
external
externalof
factors
such
punishments.
The locationinternal
the
cause
418
PART
2
LEARNING
AND
MOTIVATION
STOP
& THINK
sense
of despair
choices
little
ANSWERS
(5);
(1),
gets
pleasure
in
Spenser
is
Defensive
up easily
started
choices
(1),
procrastinates
to
given
them
count
and takes
enjoys
the
Satisfied
task
(3),
and
(5).
gives
her (5).
Anxious
Her
worry
and
makes
her
more
two
ends
of
situations
and
only
reading
down.
Perhaps
a vast
and
you
Or is there
Aimees
your
of
this
all
will
(Covington
not
their
incentives
all
and
influence
Mueller,
of
and
time.
Did
verbs?
the
external
time,
If
they
supports
while
& Anderman,
that
all the
by irregular
motivation,
(Anderman
&
interests
work
students
a
possibilities,
students
piqued
intrinsic
factors
each
to
curiosity
where
this
in
chapter?
your
are
making
2014;
sure
Brophy,
2003).
motivation.
future?
Maybe
Maybe
some
Are you
near
graduate?
working.
it is
know
not
Motivation
or to
you
you
nurture
the
a test
teachers
aspects
are
independent
connecting
energize
learning
about
Why are
for
to
motivations
by
Was
are
to
book
you
you just
combination
curious
about
Do you
believe
need
that
got caught
of these
this
you
motivation
and
course
meet
will
do
up in the ideas
reasons.
What
to
well in this
and
cannot
motivates
you
to
Some
theories
motivation?
is
complicated
subject
encompassing
many
theories.
work
with
animals
in
laboratories.
Others
are
situations
that
used
games
or
puzzles.
inspired
additional
developed
humans
through
in
otherwise
we
would
theories
never
finish.
as
The
work
done
well.
Our
examination
To get the
big
picture,
to
the
based
in
on research
clinical
or indus-trial
of the
we consider
field
will
five
families
be
explanations.
present
points
Approaches
student
in
the
of
a particular
when
or
classroom.
she
drew
discourages
receiving
to
the
Motivation.
motivation
begins
A reward
a careful
an
attractive
is
behaviour.
For
excellent
diagram.
an
behaviour.
grade
According
with
The
was a reward.
behavioural
analysis
of the
object
example,
Safe
An incentive
promise
of an
Providing
grades,
A+
or
view,
incentives
event
supplied
Sarah
was
rewarded
is
object
or
an
was an incentive
stars,
stickers,
under-standing
rewards
as a conse-quence
with
event
to
and
an
and
that
Sarah.
other
bonus
encour-ages
Actually
reinforcers
behaviour.
for
Incentive
that
a
works (5).
which
are two
some
But
encourage
Approaches

keeps
of
a
good
(1),
engagement
(2),
with
choices
and
as she
and
makes
engaged
own
will judge
feels
extrinsic
by
know
belief
Behavioural
of
avoids
(2)
Sarah
not really
(4),
procrastinate
motivation
supports
to
that
or
and
and
competence.
There
standards
selective;
object
(1)
motivated
motivation
topic?
psychology
as a consequence
she
be
intrinsic
provincial
with
attractive
others
how
tendencies
interesting?
class,
of
how
and
started
Safe
his
persistent
(2),
extrinsic
inherently
in the
Motivation
An
develop
need
& THINK
were
supplied
to
motivation
STOP
the
intrinsic
(3),
and
intrinsic
interested
and
that
But she is
about
thinks
choices
can
must
they
General
study
Reward
create
Teachers
Five
put
event
we
can
disappointed.
do this,
she
poor
is
time,
on
extrinsic
To
make
intrinsic
fractions
be
what
explanation
Instead,
Teaching
that
with
her to
A second
will
she is so concerned
do
getting
helpless.
time.
continuum.
necessary.
(4).
poor
because
and
as he is following
makes
test
teachers
persists
Dara
at
find
As long
5).
engaged
anxious
you
and
and
(2),
may lead
supporting
away (2),
work (4
with
defeated
started
(4)
any
has trouble
he feels
getting
anxiety
at
right
the
Hunter
activity
in
have
2001).
the
prompt
problems
and
Hopeless
during
An
object
encourages
or
or
learningor
means
event
demerits
Humanistic
psychology,
interpretation
Approach
to
emphasizes
motivation
personal
choice,
self-determination,
striving
for
personal
misbehaviouris
an
rewards,
and
to
Motivation.
attempt
to
motivate
students
by
extrin-sic
punishments.
discourages
behaviour.
Humanistic
for
of incentives,
as
behavioural
that
freedom,
and
growth.
Approaches
such
Humanistic
Carl
Rogers,
or
Freudian,
interpretations
of
as a persons
needs
tendency
(Rogers
for
In
argued
that
adequately
motivation
1994),
1940s,
such
(Maslow,
or the
proponents
of
dominant
schools
of the
explained
emphasize
self-actualization
& Freiberg,
the
neither
need
why
people
intrinsic
1968,
for
1970),
act
humanistic
of
as they
sources
of
the
inborn
self-determination
psy-chology,
do.
motiva-tion
actu-alizing
(Deci
CHAPTER
Vallerand,
means
to
Pelletier,
& Ryan,
1991).
So,
encourage
peoples
inner
resourcestheir
autonomy,
and
self-actualization.
self-determination
motivation.
Giving
of
humanistic
applying
Cognitive
choices
searching
for
emphasize
for
Galanter,
Collins,
1988),
by
the
result
of
and
the
individuals
try
hard,
can
characterized
as
value
is
a product
motivation
to
work
(I
the
to
me (high
believe
I
basketball),
goal.
If
I
a
prayer
and
Allan
value
equation.
Values
have
to
How
much
be
required?
Wigfield,
your
and
Ryans
an
of
example
this
social
other
will
because
be
and
too
be
add
of
Motivation.
could
worth
if
We
will
&
look
be
motivation
is
seen
as
questions
valuable
or
either
factor
is
I
have
a good
chance
is
impor-tant
believe
a goal
are,
If
I
rewarding
zero,
to
then
there
the
team
But if
either
factor
is
care
less
about
playing
couldnt
very
zero
2000).
element
I
of
motivation
be
making
of cost
relation
the
2010).
plans
Clore,
important
(Tollefson,
in
What
cost
by
(Ortony,
of reaching
I
or I
the
considered
that
rewarded
regulated
that
be strong.
team,
zero,
believe
expectation
if
if
should
Wigfield
motiva-tion
been
explanations
the
example,
the
and
outcome
expectation),
making
have
schemas
means
words,
the
For
cogni-tive
of
theorists
we
cognitive
This
forces,
Thus,
theories
(Weiner,
individuals
will
as active
chapter.
theories.
the
viewed
problems.
Cognitive
attributions
in
In
Is the
Conceptions
identity?
motivation
to
With
what
emphasize
establish
community
maintain
students
that
or
order
food
the
culturewe
to
doing
the
to
the
cost
benefit
this
sentence:
expectancy
of
instead?
possible
are
community.
Hickey,
2003;
When
we see
psychologists,
other
are
as
pursuing
What
are
(Eccles,
words,
if they
an
are
through
learning
by
*
them.
the
risks
2009;
if
Eccles
by
a/an
engage
relations
members
&
the
in
to
learning
we
or
dress
members
from
company
com-munity.
or school
speak
capable
of
activities
the
of a classroom
more
What
views
within
socialization
and
______.
Sociocultural
People
from
watching
we learn
as soccer
practice.
and
& Bartlett,
claiming
of
I am
strongly?
interpersonal
we learn
be students
Turkanis,
most
their
to learn
Just
to
ourselves
we
and
watching
learn
In
identify
communities
motivated
learning.
Rogoff,
you
identities
restaurantsby
also
Finish
do
in
their
values
in
school
groups
participation
and
Thus,
members
keep
of
(Eccles,
Expectancy
of
our
2009;
identity
or sculptors,
within
or engineers,
a group.
In
or teachers,
building
an
identity
or
we
peripheral
if
move from
legitimate
participation
their
learns
to
one
child
the
expert.
The
in
the
community
models
working
identities
(Lave
of
student
beginners
are
involved
&
tasks
their
and
with
whole
group.
Each task
both
the
which
Wenger,
1991;
and
activities
& Lawson,
novice
motivates
and
the
them
to
Wenger,
1998).
engagement
in
connect
2013).
with
the
in the
in
motivation
that
is
are
the
Another
school
a piece
bound
values
funds
cultural
of
learns
weaver
to
expectations
success
combined
valuing
of
with
the
goal.
work
up
their
partici-pation
practices
in
and
participation,
that
and interpersonal
within
communities
of
practice.
Legitimate
peripheral
participation
group,
prior
of
emphasize
involvement
correspondencewhether
knowledge
of
of the
sociocultural
views
Perspectives
relations
real
in
for
their
motivation
identities,
tutor
of the
and
issue
group,
novice
teacher
key
is
The
of the
of
emphasize
the
Legitimate
work
small.
novice
expert
learn
students
participation.
are
weaving,
the
central
contributions
and
of
and
and
genuinely
spinning
motivation
(Lawson
to
undeveloped
before
community,
school
experiences
are
wool
before
participation
means that
abilities
dye
peripheral
value
Explanations
individuals
2001).
players,
3
theories
Sociocultural
group,
even
419
TEACHING
2002)?
Sociocultural
is
will
2002),
motivation
of
motivation
stupid?
initiated
goal.
(high
my
my
energy
is
two
the
Eccles
Will I look
and
is
are
cognitive
& Latham,
succeed,
of these
ways,
Behaviour
(Locke
1964),
that
relevant
many
whether
main forces:
then
have
personally
by
3 value
Jacqueline
I fail?
AND
motivate
explanations
people
views.
influential
team
value),
then
Deci
or topics
theories,
simply
past.
goals
toward
basketball
dont
LEARNING
self-esteem,
and
books,
IN
to
humanistic
not
Many
and
Motivation
making
needs
behavioural
later
of
succeed?
cognitive
In
attributions
two
no
of
the
expectancy
me?
is
in
(Vroom,
multiplying
I
goals,
solve
the
1960),
Theories.
the
of
projects,
thinking,
behaviour
and
Cognitive
be
to
to
our
& Pribram,
expectations,
Social
of competence,
influential
motivation.
as a reaction
expectations
can
perspective,
sense
are
In
information
determined
punished
goals,
Motivation.
intrinsic
developed
is
in
humanistic
hierarchy
later,
MOTIVATION
approaches.
curious,
(Miller,
at
students
theorists
also
or
discussed
to
behaviour
the
Maslows
theory,
Approaches
and
from
12
undeveloped
are
small
Genuine
in
even if
the
work
your
abilities
and
contributions
of
the
are
420
PART
TABLE
2
12.1
LEARNING
Five
AND
Views
of
MOTIVATION
Motivation
BEHAVIOURAL
HUMANISTIC
COGNITIVE
SOCIAL
SOCIOCULTURAL
COGNITIVE
Source
of
Extrinsic
Intrinsic
Intrinsic
Intrinsic
and
Motivation
Intrinsic
Extrinsic
Important
Reinforcers,
Need
for
rewards,
Influences
incentives,
self-esteem,
Goals,
Beliefs,
self-fulfillment,
attributions
and
for
and
self-determination
punishers
Engaged
Theorists
Maslow,
Skinner
Deci
Weiner,
maintaining
in
Graham
Locke
&
Latham,
identity
participation
activities
Lave,
in
communities;
through
failure,
expectations
Key
participation
learning
self-efficacy
success
and
expectations,
intentions,
of
group
Wenger
Bandura
The
to
behavioural,
motivation
are
question,
humanistic,
cognitive,
summarized
What
is
in
Table
motivation?
but
social
12.1.
each
cognitive,
These
and
theories
contributes
sociocultural
differ
in its
own
a
that
in
approaches
their
answers
way toward
to
the
a comprehen-sive
understanding.
To
organize
examine
four
of
the
many
broad
areas.
needs,
curiosity,
goals,
ideas
about
Most
beliefs,
emotions,
and
motivation
in
contemporary
and
finally,
anxiety
way
is
explanations
the
emotional
(Murphy
&
useful
of
hot
Alexander,
for
teaching,
motivation
side
lets
include
of
a dis-cussion
motivationinter-ests,
2000).
NEEDS
Early
research
in
personal
work
were
Maslows
the
Maslow
and
are
needs
influential
Maslows
for
satisfied
be
lowed
by
of
needs,
needs
from
requirements
Maslows
levels
basic
to
needs.
Figure
of
seek
human
the
need
self-actualization.
Self-actualization
Fulfilling
ones
always
among
potential.
time.
Deficiency
lower-level
satisfied
Being
Maslows
needs,
which
needs
Maslows
needs,
growth
needs.
three
sometimes
and
then
for
fulfilling
then
met,
example,
has
been
different
types
of
deny
greater
self-esteem.
Criticisms
whose
physical,
hungry,
they
aside,
will
safety
and
sense
interest
in
learning
2003).
needs
more
ranging
from
for
would
and
theory
may
does
focusing
how
to
are
divide
earlier
Abraham
and
more.
He
and
does
of the
survival,
described
needs
the
lower
needs
these
are
very
obvious
predict.
Most
to
us a way
on
academic
threatened
by
satis-fied,
higher-level
their
it increases
needs
can
your
efforts
to
reason
that
of
us
by
move
many
to
never
be
develop
of looking
as
do
and
at the
knowledge,
at the
A child
a fearful,
people
back
needs
achieve
parents
is
being
instead,
all interrelated.
learning.
school
three
fol-Hierarchy
are
improvement.
motivated
or friendship
are
safety,
needs
being
in
greater
be
the
cease;
even
the
then
these
self-actualizationas
not
you
give
knowledge
lower-level
self-fulfillment,
Each
When
finally
needs,
If
for
be.
lower-level
for
addressed.
needs
fractions.
once
term
can
needs.
even
safety
needs
needsfor
for
theory
have
belonging
Maslows
successful
strive
and intellectual
trouble
be
criticized
themselves
Maslows
can
needs
we address
decreases.
emotional,
of
this
all these
higher-level
you
deficiency
to
the
needs
people
that
motivation
the
theory
as
of
to
is
all
needs,
the
Maslows
behave
hierarchy
lower-level
a persons
are likely
Some
or consist-ent
in
(Pintrich,
included
that
need
four
them
you
to
a
on first
aesthetic
Unlike
For
appear
needs
extensively
affiliation
self-esteemdeficiency
harder
or
be
the
the
four
must
first.
higher-level
called
needs
higher
are
filled.
a teacher,
for
next
fulfillment.
completely
physiological
of trait-like
studied
that
Self-actualization
considered
needs,
further
and
self-actualization
12.1).
the
they
have
we focus
potentialbeing
motivation
When
humans
that
finally
personal
belonging,
in terms
needs
of Needs
that
(1968)
the
seven
a hierarchy
safety
needscognitive
of
emphasized
met before
Maslow
model
theory
and
of
main
power,
and
(see
realization
motivation
achievement,
suggested
survival
of
of the
for
understanding
must
conceived
Three
Hierarchy
(1970)
needs
psychology
characteristics.
divorce
whole
student,
children
whose
feelings
unpredictable
same
under-standing,
When
may
not
forth
have
are
of
little
plac
CHAPTER
FIGURE
Maslows
four
lower-level
for
fulfilling
them
aesthetic
needs,
persons
motivation
HIERARCHY
needsfor
called
decreases.
and
survival,
deficiency
finally
OF
then
needs,
safety,
because
He labelled
not
IN
LEARNING
the
three
NEEDS
followed
when
by
these
belonging,
needs
higher-level
self-actualizationbeing
does
MOTIVATION
12.1
MASLOWS
self-esteemare
12
are
and
satisfied,
needscognitive
needs,
because
then
the
motivation
needs,
when
they
are
then
met,
a
cease.
Self-actualization
Realizing
your
potential,
full
becoming
everything
capable
one
becoming.
art
and
Aesthetic
needs
Beautyin
naturesymmetry,
balance,
order,
Cognitive
Knowledge
curiosity,
understanding,
exploration,
need
and
and
of
self-respect.
and
Affiliating,
and
part
of
potentially
(e.g.,
The
threat
is
both
the
trust,
a group
(family,
physical
elements,
and
where
neither
concerned
and
drink,
oxygen,
teachers
nor
with
security
maintaining
doing
and
teacher
wishes
or
says
even
human
needs
(Deci
is
& Ryan,
2002;
to
be
early
theory
in
connected
suggests
world,
to
conceptions
control),
to
needs
affiliation
of
self,
and
relatedness
(2009)
unknown).
stand,
for
more
recent
approach
2009).
sex.
everyone
is likely
Belonging
example,
Reeve,
activity,
to
are important
students
to
be
a social
to
may choose
more
group
students.
If
to ignore
the
focuses
on
teacher.
a
Competence,
that
we all
need
choices
and
for
to
and
psychologists
are
a
social
universal.
motivation
feel
have
competent
a sense
of control
Notice
In
Because
asked
a series
of competence,
that
and
that
(competence),
relatedness).
experiences
to
group.
achievement
to
Autonomy,
some
some
that
they
rules,
(belonging
found
the
rest,
group
belong
basic
and
colleagues
have
othersto
of
conceptions
autonomy,
her
the
of
or learning.
group,
with
Need for
Self-determination
interactions
that
the
fear
elimination,
where
within
defy
Self-Determination:
know
with teaching
theory
Self-determination
situations
needs
less
conflicts
or
familiarity.
regulation,
students
and
self-esteem
what the
teachers
temperature
work).
illness).
(e.g.,
routine
Physiological
Food,
acceptance.
objects
physical
psychological
of
and
friends,
needs
dangerous
Importance
self-esteem
competence.
affection,
Safety
from
and
of
belongingness
love,
being
Protection
others
A sense
giving
meaning
needs
respect
Love
Receiving
for
predictability.
Esteem
esteem
form.
needs
and
and
The
is
of
different
of
and
capable
over
our
lives,
are
similar
these
power
whether
Relatedness
studies,
autonomy,
needs
to
Hyungshim
and
and
have
for
our
and
(autonomy
cultures
the
in
diver-gent
compe-tence,
Jang
relatednes
and
AND
TEACHING
421
422
PART
2
LEARNING
AND
MOTIVATION
were
associated
for
Korean
with
high
these
needs
competence
demonstrate
ability
Satisfying
this
results
Schallert,
&
Kim,
self-determination
to
have
or
pressures,
our
in
Reeve,
strive
to
2009;
of
to
at hand.
accomplish-ment,
learners
future
tasks
(Kim,
is
central
for
autonomy
autonomy
than
our
actions
Reeve,
need
tasks
helps
rather
determine
2002;
the
for
Need
wishes,
a col-lectivistic
and
because
own
in
individuals
a sense
goals
2010).
even
be important.
over
self-efficacy,
learning
to
the
mastery
experiences
so
may
is
or
need
promotes
better
learning
students,
culture,
Need for
satisfying
school
is
estab-lish
the
external
desire
rewards
(Deci
Deci,
&
Ryan,
their
lives,
&
2004).
Ryan,
People
Inc
of
SELF-DETERMINED
STUDENTS
Classroom
environments
that
associated
with
have
their
authority
own
against
pressure
rules,
schedules,
support
by
others.
in
behaviour.
They
from
external
deadlines,
even
can
remain
in
for
relatedness
be in
help
such
and limits
is
charge
struggle
controls
orders,
Sometimes,
to
constantly
as
the
imposed
rejected
so that
the
Bridwell/PhotoEdit,
student
D.
self-determination
interest
and
curiosity,
and
preference
for
and
sense
autonomy
are
of competence,
creativity,
greater
conceptual
student
individual
learning,
The
need
command
(deCharms,
is the
desire
to
1983).
belong
and
challenge.
to
establish
close
emotional
bonds
and
attachments
Michelle
with
Self-Determination
in
factors.
For
students
Kim
messages
autonomy
et
al.,
impact
parental
associated
sense
and
for
competence
or
mastery
for
autonomy
individuals
need
ability
at
The
to
the
tasks
Need
The
desire
interact
of
boring
(Patall,
to
have
than
our
external
Cognitive
Suggests
motivation
individuals
providing
determine
they
tend
to
In
contrast
some
as
events
through
perception
controlling
information.
to
seek
the
choice
But
in
to
believe
for
older
whereas
the
teachers
you
support
your
interactions
al.,
Butera,
one
study
of
may
&
goal
struc-ture
well
as
Midgley,
students,
the
the
2007;
the
influence
direct
of teach-ers
2012;
college
task
easiest
goals
and
take
cultural
addition,
equate
But
pressure
control
with
(Reeve,
2009).
student
autonomy?
to
often
are
useful
Assuming
be
choice
the
them
as their
One
is
to
focus
to
is
interest,
passage
was
engaging
and
make
choices,
fun.
Thus,
not
parents
to
of teach-ing
accountability
expect
good
defiant.
comfortable
those
to
perform,
styles
or even
more
resist
tend
pressured
controlling
unengaged
to
is
administrators,
or feel
willing
&
may
environments
and
and
Deci,
enhanced
it
are
though
charge,
structure
answer
if
controlling
from
Moller,
1
own.
students
even
grade
reading
authority
even
in
are
the
well-being,
from
Autonomy
reading
important,
passive
you
2012;
the
attendance
hold
2008).
students,
When
under
expectations
students
with
tasks.
to
only
have
is
school
are
assign-ments),
psychological
Shih,
when
autonomy
homework
Reeve,
when
students
work
solution.
are
&
2009;
important
the
recall
grades,
strategies,
Kim,
Reeve,
with
in
appear
classrooms,
rote
teachers
Jang,
a reading
when
that
on
learning,
learning
2013;
and
interest
relationships
be less
general,
quickest,
and
In
et
&
autonomy-supporting
only
(even
conceptual
educational
effective,
style
that
as
Turner,
self-determination
curiosity
These
valuing
so
internalize
less
In
and
likely
student
and
of self-regulated
(Hafen
performance
discipline.
our actions.
that
that
classroom
competence)
decline,
by sev-eral
demonstrated
by both
Cortina,
suggest
to
support
challenge.
Darnon,
already.
more
requirements,
rather
or
school
2013),
are
evaluation
theory
events
wishes,
rewards
pressures,
affect
own
is influenced
schools
demonstrating
also
creativity,
with interest.
often
us.
Korean
(Friedel,
tends
interest
use
for
competence,
they
are
that
student
competence,
Pulfrey,
sense
they
findings
support
engagement,
graduate
improve
hand.
the
and
greater
of
2006;
also
demonstrate
over
However,
preference
interesting
Need
and
parents
attitudes
and
were influenced
autonomy
by
about
self-determination
U.S.
learning
offered
environments
with
satisfaction,
Ryan,
both
care
remained.
Classroom
through
in
for
about
support
2010).
of
messages
and
profiles
who
Student
research
motivational
of
Classroom.
instance,
(teachers
level
the
others
with
pressures,
on information,
class
Finally,
not
a con-trolling
how
can
control,
in
students.
of the
behaviour
or
Information
and
students

experiences
Control.
such
Cognitive
as being
evaluation
praised
theory
or criticized,
(Deci
& Ryan,
reminded
2002)
explains
of deadlines,
how
assigned
CHAPTER
grades,
given
choices,
affecting
their
sense
events
less
have
two
it
pressures
control,
event
and
will
increase.
competent,
it
likely
This
a
more
Your
paper
will find
your
time;
dont
by
yourself
or
with
may
believe
his
library
is
paper
is
As a teacher,
to
of
give
The
for
more
with
about
this
that
students
eating
belonging
described
them
intrin-sic
students
Here
In
library.
the
In
paper.
library,
is
the
feel
an
exam-ple
library,
Dont
you
because
gives
he
waste
may
work
offered
information
a
choice.
about
Lessons
to
why the
earlier
Teachers
people
activities
and
can
What
else
To
be
trusted
matters
undermine
2004).
Make
by
emphasizing
paper,
2009,
p. 169)
and
competence?
because
control-ling
student
sure
the
motivation
information
gains
reflection,
for
you
made
through
example,
on
port-folio
Self-Determination
and
and
a
sense
of
in
and
but
high
In
addition,
school
years.
who
cared
the
to
2003;
placed
at risk
go
on
to
and
more
common
1995).
as
well
(Thompson,
problemsranging
among
is
as to
an
increase
physical
Relatedness
Lawson
have
teachers
college
high
teachers,
& Skinner,
and
demon-strate
show
(Furrer
with
were
forged
and
children
students
emotional
2000)
What
and
relatedness
relationships
in
the
responsive
and
school
Positive
individuals
similar
to
Maslows
a sense
basic
need
chapter.
be competent,
activities
that
the
their
competence
students
connected,
help
them
possibility
tasksnot
them
are
well-being,
teachers,
& Leary,
want to
motivation?
parents
ideationare
this
over
teachers
connection
3 (Osterman,
hold
teachers
interests
suicidal
in
help
best
teachers
connected,
to
in
best possible
students
Supporting
your
teacher.
challenging
be
can
. . .)
you
to the library
autonomy
to
remember
2006).
that
watching
for
we
to the
While there,
a trip
(Reeve,
messages
likely
succeed
in
for
in
sites.
write your
needs
Deci,
caring
Chapter
age,
from
portfolios.
of
to
participate
you
paper,
we are going
that
with a partner.
student
(Baumeister
appropriately
or
or
engaged
need
will
old
engage
To help
about
You
feel
Weinstein,
to
and Internet
Guidelines:
When
kind
in
a well-researched
The reason
have found
paper.
&
write
past
yourself
should
emotionally
disorders
for
benefit
done.
you
student
childrens
relationships
discussed
also
the
then
makes
your
books
in the
encouraging
who
for
social
need
school
use for
library.
competence
you.
need
&
to,
The
the
more
belonging,
to
by
Students
Hoy
need from
Think
students
infancy
the
that
controlling
great?
All
more likely
hand,
competence,
2003).
to
autonomy
school
Sheldon,
them
are
From
of
experience
ideas.
peers
are
other
all
control-lingif
169)
statement
growing
and
of
likely
have
2013).
from
Needs:
will
on
the
by
theory,
students
If,
provided
to
p.
supporting
your
Lens,
made
Woolfolk
lack
going
2009,
support
limit
samples.
care
likelihood
who
highly
(Pintrich,
work
wishby
Relatedness.
greater
2008;
decrease
isthe
do to
to
ought,
motivation.
even
you
is
some
they
and
information
will
your
an excellent
work
that
& Lawson,
is
you
way you
connections
parents,
is
sense
get
but students
practice
or
Autonomy
intrinsic
the
As a way of helping
off,
students
and
that
he
writing
Simons,
emotional
students
sites
following
Monday.
goof
can
highlights
entries
the
on
step
(Vansteenkiste,
Need
an
diminished.
Internet
to
(Reeve,
that
(must,
qualities
this
event
LEARNING
motivation
to
waythen
be
we are
and
sure
the information
what
first
persistence
make
with the
part
language
the
off;
may work in the
provide
intrinsic
According
If
the
if
books
where the information
is to find
obvious
will
Today,
from
a partner.
due
to
was a crucial
An
a certain
motivation
Monday.
goof
may be tempted
you
or feel
IN
valuable:
are going
library
on
message
visit
Your
due
information
teacher
informational.
Of course,
their
MOTIVATION
communication:
you
Contrast
influence
competence.
and
increases
that
controlling
is
act
that
can
and
motivation
information
motivation
of
to
intrinsic
is
rules
controlling
students
their
about
self-determination
aspects:
provides
less
or lectured
of
12
of
too
grow,
need
grow
failure.
easy,
but
perhaps
to
feel
that
and in
control.
Students
more
competent
and
This
means
your
that
not impossible
through
either.
self-monitoring
people
in
school
theories
include
goals
as key
stu-dents
They
sys-tems
care
learn.
Many
less
elements.
about
AND
TEACHING
42

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