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Contemporary Project Management
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 6
Stakeholder Analysis and Communication
Planning
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 6 Stakeholder Analysis and
Communication Planning
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 6 Core Objectives
• List, describe, & prioritize project stakeholders
• Describe each section of a project communication plan
• Build a communication matrix
• Develop strategies for stakeholder management
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 6 Behavioral Objectives
• Tell how to build project relationships & why they are important for
communication
• Develop a project communications management plan
• Plan, conduct, & improve project meetings
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
The Organizational Zoo
“The use of creative tools such as
metaphor and reflective conversations is
becoming more common and makes a
significant contribution to success…”
organizationalzoo.com/profiler Copyright Arthur
Shelley 2013 Image artist John Szabo
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Identify Stakeholders (1 of 2)
After charter is accepted, a good place to start detailed planning is with
understanding who the stakeholders are and how to communicate with them
PM’s Stakeholder Responsibilities include:
• Understanding the stakeholders
• Building relationships with stakeholders
• Developing a communications plan for dealing with stakeholders
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Identify Stakeholders (2 of 2)
• Multiple users with different—sometimes conflicting—requirements
• May not know what they want
• May not be the actual user
• Unreasonable requests
• Stakeholders other than the users
Find Stakeholders Analyze stakeholders Document stakeholders
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Find Stakeholders
• Who will use or be affected by the result of a project?
• Work on the project
• Provide people or resources
• Have their routines disrupted
• Who will be positively or negatively impacted by the process of performing
the project?
• Are stakeholders internal or external?
Identify stakeholders –the process of determining the individuals and
groups who might impact or be impacted by some aspect of the project.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 6.1: Examples of Project Stakeholders
INTERNAL
EXTERNAL
Affected by Project Process
Owner
Sponsor
Project Manager
Functional Managers
Competing Projects
Financing SourceProject Core Team
Subject Matter Experts
Employees
Stockholders
Suppliers
Partners
Creditors
Government Agencies
Special Interest Groups
Neighbors
Client
Professional Groups
Media
Taxpayers
Union
Competitors
Affected by Project Result
Internal Customer
Sponsor
Users
Client
Public
Special Interest Groups
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Breakout Session! Identifying Project Stakeholders
• Use classic rules of brainstorming
• List project processes and results stakeholders may be interested in
• Combine stakeholder list into groups
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Analyze Stakeholders (1 of 2)
• Prioritize stakeholders
POWER
INTEREST
IMPACT
INFLUENCE
URGENCY
LEGITIMACY
Stakeholder analysis – a stakeholder identification technique composed of
gathering and evaluating information to determine whose interests should be
emphasized throughout the project.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Analyze Stakeholders (2 of 2)
EXHIBIT 6.2: MODULAR COURSES: STAKEHOLDER IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITIZATION MATRIX
VICE
CHANCELLOR
DEANS OF
FACULTY (*)
ACADEMIC
REGISTRAR:
LECTURERS: (*)
STUDENT
SUPPORT
STUDENTS
Power
3
3
3
2
1
1
Interest
3
1
2
1
2
2
Influence
1
3
2
2
1
1
Impact
3
2
3
1
1
1
Urgency
2
1
2
1
1
1
Legitimacy
2
1
3
3
1
3
Total:
14
11
15
9
7
6
Priority
(Key or Other):
Key
Key
Key
Secondary
Other
Other
What Is Important to
This Stakeholder
(*) Lecturers and the deans are unlikely to be homogeneous in their views—more information is needed to identify
groupings and interest areas. For this case, we have kept it simple.
Source: Louise Worsley.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 6.3: Success Criteria for Various
Stakeholders
Source: Adapted from Ralph R. Young, Steven M. Brady, and Dennis C. Nagle, Jr., How to Save a Failing Project: Chaos
to Control (Vienna, VA: Management Concepts, 2009): 14. © 2009 by Management Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved,
www.managementconcepts.com/pubs.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Breakout Session! Analyze Project Stakeholders
• Prioritize among your stakeholders to ensure the most important project
needs are met
• Refer to Exhibits 6.2 & 6.3
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Results of Find and Analyze Stakeholders
• Set clear direction
• Prioritize objectives
• Recognize complex tradeoffs and consequences
• Facilitate necessary decisions
• Develop a shared sense of risk
• Build a strong relationship with customers
• Lead with an empowering style
• Serve as good stewards of resources
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Document Stakeholders
• Create a stakeholder register
• Capitalize on stakeholder support
• Mitigate impact of stakeholder resistance
Stakeholder register – a repository of information regarding all project
stakeholders
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Project Stakeholder Register
EXHIPIT 6.4 MODULAR COURSES: PROJECT STAKEHOLDER MATRIX
STAKEHOLDER
INTEREST IN PROJECT
PRIORITY
SUPPORT/MITIGATION STRATEGIES
Vice Chancellor
Make major improvements in university services
and avoid government intervention.
Key
Consult on target improvement areas—use his
power to support key and difficult changes.
Deans of Faculty
Protect against changes that could influence their
power base. Reduce detrimental impact on faculty
activities.
Key
Work with nominated representatives to identify
and seek out solutions to barriers to change.
Establish and communicate wins for faculties.
Academic
Registrar (AR)
Develop the power base of AR—demand and
obtain quality improvements on courses across the
university.
Key
Increase visibility and power of AR. Increased
visible support for AR regarding resources and
political support from senior management.
Lecturers
Be kept informed of impacts upon them. Reduce
or resist changes that are considered negative to
them.
Secondary
Identify supportive champions. Create, test,
and deliver carefully considered communication
strategy.
Student support
Be able to prepare and train staff on how to roll out
new schemes to current and prospective students.
Other
Help student support guide staff through
process—develop training programs and online
web support.
Students
University shows signs of improvement and
ensures students’ needs are considered.
Other
Set up consultation and communication groups.
Keep informed.
Source: Louise Worsley.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Plan Stakeholder Engagement (1 of 2)
• Create Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix
• Define how to engage & manage stakeholders throughout project lifecycle
• This matrix is primary tool that comprises stakeholder management plan
• Plan to Build Relationships with Stakeholders
• PM & team should engage stakeholders throughout lifecycle of project and
beyond
• Team-building & involving key stakeholders is especially important during
planning phase
• Developing relationships to influence others is critical
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Plan Stakeholder Engagement (2 of 2)
EXHIBIT 6.5: MODULAR COURSES–STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT ASSESSMENT MATRIX
STAKEHOLDER
CURRENT
POSITION
TARGET
POSITION
Vice Chancellor
Leading
Leading
Competing day-to-day priorities
Ensure engagement is ‘efficient’ and effective.
Consider extending role of deputy
Chancellor to cover for some day to-day
activities.
Deans of Faculty
Resistant
Neutral, Supportive,
or Leading
Some Deans more powerful than others (relates to
student numbers and academic ratings). ‘Power
owners’ are very influential.
Consider each Dean’s WIIFT individually.
Consider strategies for individuals as well as the
group.
Academic
Registrar (AR)
Supportive
Leading
Competing day-to-day priorities—lack of leadership
skills.
Engage deputy, provide skills and
mentorship.
Lecturers
Unaware to
neutral
Neutral or
supportive
Very large group with veto power through unionized
actions.
Involve HR and legal department to evaluate all
changes that may impact lecturers.
Identify supportive champions and stakeholder
groupings for engagement.
Student support
Neutral
Leading
Not considered important by academic staff–services
currently limited and not highly rated.
Provide consultancy support to team to redesign
and promote new services (including
student website).
Students
Unaware
Neutral
Very large group. Student representative council not
well resourced or highly valued by students.
Set up consultation and communication
groups. Keep informed. Consider use of
social media.
BARRIERS TO CHANGE
STRATEGY
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Relationship Building with Stakeholders
• “What is in it for me?”
• Treat stakeholders as partners
• Use core team relationship building activities
• Foster respect and trust
Stakeholder engagement plan – a subsidiary component of the project
management plan that defines how to effectively engage stakeholders in
planning and performing the project based on the analysis of stakeholders’
needs, wants, and impacts.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 6.6: Manage & Monitor Stakeholder
Engagement
Monitor
Continuously Monitor:
Relationships,
Communications, and
Lessons Learned
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Manage Stakeholder Engagement
• Share planning documents
• Hold informal conversations
• Follow the formal change control process
• Understand stakeholder assumptions
• Elaborate on analysis created for charter
• Document expectations regarding project deliverables & have stakeholders verify
them prior to project execution
Manage stakeholder engagement – process of the project team
communicating and working with stakeholders to satisfy their needs (and
desires, when possible), handle issues quickly, and encourage active
stakeholder participation throughout.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Monitor Stakeholder Engagement
• Relationships
• Communications
• Lessons learned
Monitor stakeholder engagement – the process of engaging stakeholders
and managing relations with them effectively.
Educated about their roles
Alerted about changes
Asked for early and continuous feedback
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Plan Communications Management
• Purposes of a project communications management plan
• PM must use effective communications to set & manage stakeholders’ expectations
• Ensure that project work is completed properly
• Communications plan considerations
• Communications matrix
• Knowledge management
Communications management plan – a living document and component of
the project management plan that considers stakeholders’ information desires
and guides the project communications.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Purposes of a Project Communications Plan
“Communication leads to cooperation,
which leads to coordination,
which leads to project harmony,
which leads to project success.”
Adedeji Badiru
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Project Communications Plan Considerations
Purpose—Project communications need to be:
• Clear
• Concise
• Courteous
• Consistent
• Confidential
• Compelling
Structures—use existing organizational forms & supplement where necessary
Methods—can be pushed, pulled, or interactive
Timing—can be routine, tied to project life cycle, or as needed
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 6.8: Project Communications Plan
Considerations
PURPOSES
STRUCTURES
METHODS
TIMING
Authorization
Existing organizational forms (reuse)
Push methods:
Project life cycle
Direction setting
Project specific:
Instant messaging
Charter
Information seeking
Templates (adapt)
E-mail
Project plan
Status reporting:
Unique (create)
Voice mail
Milestones
Text
Output acceptance
Pull methods:
Project close-out
Schedule
Cost
People
Shared document repositories
Routine time
Risk
Intranet
Daily—member
Issues
Blog (repository)
Weekly—core team
Quality
Bulletin boards
Monthly—sponsor
Interactive methods:
As needed—others
Change control
Approval of project outputs
Telephone—teleconferencing
Escalation
Wikis
Lessons learned
VOIP/videoconferencing
Groupware
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Communications Matrix
• Who to learn from?
• What to learn?
• Who to share with?
• What to know?
• When to know it?
• What communications method?
• Who is responsible?
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Communications from Stakeholders
• To authorize work
• To determine requirements
• To uncover and resolve issues
• To receive feedback
Velocity, burn down charts, running tested features, earned
business value
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Project Communications Matrix
EXHIBIT 6.9: MODULAR COURSES – PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MATRIX
STAKEHOLDER
PROJECT INFO.
NEEDS
STAKEHOLDER
INFO. NEEDS
METHODS
TIMING
Program Board
(Vice Chancellor)
Direction, strategy,
budget, authorizations
Status—progress and SH
positions
Scheduled board meetings,
circulated minutes, one-on-ones
with Vice Chancellor
Weekly and as needed
Daily 15-min. stand-up with
Vice Chancellor
Deans of Faculty
Concerns, WIIFT
Plans, changes to practices
affecting their staff
Program newsletter, across faculty
workshops, informal one-on-ones
consultation
Every 2-3 weeks depending
upon concerns.
Academic
Registrar (AR)
Requirements
Resource commitments,
status
Workshops with team, e-mails
Frequent in early stages then
timed to delivery points.
Lecturers
Concerns
Plans, changes to practices
affecting them
Program newsletter, presentations,
e-mails
Monthly
Student support
Requirements
Resource commitments,
status
Workshops with team, e-mails
Frequent in early stages then
timed to delivery points
Students
Concerns
Changes to enrollment
procedures
Social media, e-mails,
presentations
E-mail and meetings
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Breakout Session! Project Communication Matrix
Begin a Communication Matrix for your project, using the columns found in
Exhibit 6.9:
• Stakeholder
• Project Information Needs
• Stakeholder Information Needs
• Methods
• Timing
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Knowledge Management
• Capture and reuse knowledge developed
• Create a lessons learned knowledge base
• Facilitate a lessons learned session for the project
Knowledge—insights derived from information and experience…can be linked
& compared to other information
Manage project knowledge—the process of using & developing knowledge to
help improve both the current project and the capability of the organization
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Manage Communications
• Determine project information needs
• Need to be handled accurately, promptly, & effectively
• Different stakeholder info needs at different stages of project
• Establish Information Retrieval & Distribution System
• Target communication only to people who need it
• Use newer technologies if helpful, but don’t discard older methods without reason
• Use communication management plan & matrix
• Constantly ask yourself, “who needs to know what?”
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Project Meeting Management
• Establish project plans
• Conduct project activities
• Verify progress
• Make decisions
• Accept deliverables
• Close out projects
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Improving Project Meetings
• Meetings are a process that can be studied & improved
• Apply the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) model
• Any process practiced repeatedly will improve over time
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 6.10: PDCA Model Applied to Project
Meetings
Source: Adapted from Timothy J. Kloppenborg and Joseph A. Petrick, “Meeting Management and Group
Character Development,” Journal of Managerial Issues (Summer 1999): 168–172.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 6.11: Project Meeting Agenda Template
PLANWELL-RUN MEETINGS
REQUIRE PLANNING
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 6.12: Project Meeting Minutes Template
DO
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Breakout Session! Project Meeting Management
Plan & execute a project meeting. Be prepared to share your agenda (Exhibit
6.11), meeting minutes (Exhibit 6.12), and include a short meeting evaluation
(Exhibit 6.14)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Issues Management
• 4 primary types of information captured in a project meeting:
• Decisions made
• New issues surfaced & old issues resolved
• Action items agreed to
• An evaluation of the meeting
Issue – a situation that requires a decision to be made, but one that cannot be
made now (usually due to needing more information or more time)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
The Issues Log
• All decisions made should be documented
• Issues do not need to be resolved immediately, but they will need to be
resolved in time
• Important issues are added to the log
• Ensures issues are not forgotten
Issues log – a living document in which new and ongoing issues are recorded
and stored & resolved issues are removed
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 6.13: Project Issues Log
OPEN ISSUES
NAME
DATE OPENED
ORIGINATOR
POTENTIAL IMPACT
PROGRESS
.
.
.
CLOSED ISSUES
NAME
DATE OPENED
ORIGINATOR
HOW RESOLVED
DATE CLOSED
.
.
.
.
.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Action Items and Evaluation
• For each agreed upon action item, capture who will do it and when
• Evaluate meetings with the plus (positives)—delta (change) template
EXHIBIT 6.14: PROJECT MEETING PLUS-DELTA EVALUATION TEMPLATE
Agile evaluations are called retrospectives
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Summary
• After charter approval—identify, prioritize, and document stakeholders
• Plan, manage, and monitor stakeholder engagement—through and beyond
project lifecycle
• Plan & manage communications with a communications plan
• Communications matrix
• Managing and improving meetings
• Managing and escalating issues
• Capturing and using lessons learned
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
PMBOK Exams
• Tremendous overlap between Communications Management & Stakeholders
Management (including recent changes—so make sure you are using most
recent 6th edition of PMBOK to study!)
• Besides developing Charter, only process in Initiating project phase is
Identify Stakeholders
• Main work of the next phase—the Planning Process Group—is creating the
Project Management Plan.
• PM plan is aggregate of plans from each of the ten knowledge areas and
includes the Communications management plan & Stakeholders Management
Plan
• As always, be familiar with the inputs, tools & techniques, and outputs for each
process
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Casa de Paz Development Project
• The stakeholder priority matrix shown is a start and now we need to
understand what each needs to share with us and learn from us.
• This leads us to create a communications matrix.
• We need to develop and use agendas, minutes, issues logs and meeting
evaluations.
• How would you facilitate Agile ceremonies such as stand-up meetings and
retrospectives?
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Project Communication Planning for a Distributed
Project
PM IN ACTION
• IT rollout of servers, clients, networking equipment & central data center
• Need for revision of original communications plan
• What finally saved the project?
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Contemporary Project Management
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 7
Scope Planning
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 7 Scope Planning
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 7 Core Objectives
• Describe the planning of scope management, collecting requirements, &
defining scope processes
• Create a requirements traceability matrix, project scope statement, & change
request form
• Describe a work breakdown structure (WBS) and why it is important
• Compare different methods of developing a WBS
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 7 Technical Objective
• Create a WBS, including work packages and a numbering system for the
code of accounts, both by hand and using MS Project
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Web Intelligence Solutions from Teradata
“An effective scope management approach fosters open communications and
sound decision making to ensure all parties get the business value expected
from the project”
Mike Van Horn, Teradata
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Scope Planning Processes
• Plan Scope Management
• Collect project requirements
• Define project scope
• Create work breakdown structure (WBS)
• Establish change control
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Flow of Scope Planning
EXHIBIT 7.1: SCOPE PLANNING FLOW
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Plan Scope Management
Plan scope management – the process of developing a plan that includes the
total scope of what needs to be done and what is excluded from the project;
implementation and validation of the scope; and how to control deviations from
the scope statement.
Total scope = product scope + project scope
Product scope – outputs the team will deliver to its customers
Project scope – the work needed to be performed in order to deliver the
project’s outputs
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Collect Requirements
Make sure the project team is absolutely clear on the project objectives!
Requirement– a condition or capability needed by a user to solve a problem or
achieve an objective that satisfies a standard, specification, or any other
formally-documented need.
Collect requirements – a systematic effort to understand and analyze
stakeholder needs to define and document these needs and requirements with
a focus on meeting project objectives.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Gather Stakeholder Input & Needs (1 of 3)
• Use voice of the customer techniques (VOC)
• Ask questions
• Place yourself in the customer’s situation
• State customer desires in operational terms
Collecting requirements is same regardless of type of project. Generally Agile
documentation is less formal, thus allowing for progressive elaboration
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Gather Stakeholder Input & Needs (2 of 3)
Common methods for obtaining & documenting requirements:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Meetings with Stakeholders
Interviews
Focus Groups
Questionnaires
Surveys
Observations
Prototypes
Industry Standards
Reference Documents
Market Analysis
Competitive Analysis
Client Requests
Standard Specifications
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Gather Stakeholder Input & Needs (3 of 3)
Seek a high-level description:
What do we not understand about the feature?
What is the business reason for the feature?
What is the impact of not providing this feature?
What action items need to be accomplished if we do this?
What impact will this have on other features of the project or elsewhere?
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Requirements Traceability Matrix
*See Exhibit 7.2
EXHIBIT 7.3: REQUIREMENTS TRANSLATED INTO SPECIFICATIONS
REQUIREMENTS
SPECIFICATIONS
• Unambiguous—not subject to interpretation
• Complete—nothing left out
• Consistent—no conflicts, which also means no
duplication
• Modifiable—amenable to change
• Traceable—to a customer need
• Verifiable—means provided to verify the
requirement
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Unique set—each stated only once
Normalized—should not overlap
Linked set—shows relationships
Complete—nothing left out
Consistent—no conflicts
Bounded—specifies nonnegotiable constraints
Modifiable—amenable to change
Configurable—traceable changes
Granular—right level of abstraction
Adopted from: IEEE 1233
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Breakout Session! (1 of 2)
Create a Requirements Matrix, similar to the one in Exhibit 7.2
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Define Scope
Define scope – the process of translation stakeholder needs and requirements
into detailed specifications of the project outcomes & products
• Reasons to Define Scope
• How to Define Scope
• List deliverables and acceptance criteria
• Establish project boundaries
• Create a project work statement
• Defining Scope in Agile Projects
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Reasons to Define Scope
• All other planning is based on the project scope
• Needed to preventing scope creep
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
How to Define Scope
• List project deliverables
• Determine acceptance criteria
• Establish project boundaries
• In scope versus Out of scope
• Understand constraints
• Create a Scope Definition
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EXHIBIT 7.4: Scope Statement (1 of 2)
ALTERNATIVE BREAKS PROJECT SCOPE STATEMENT
Scope Description: This project will educate groups of 12 students on social
justice issues, send them out to perform direct service on the issues, and
provide reflective opportunities throughout the process. Key deliverables with
acceptance criteria (product scope):
KEY DELIVERABLES
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
Project plan
Secured housing, Agreement with organization
Fundraising
Adequate money
Education
Syllabus
Reorientation
Digital archives
Trip itself
Return safely, pre- and post-evaluation
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EXHIBIT 7.4: Scope Statement (2 of 2)
Exclusions: No alcohol, drugs, or romances; ratio number of trips to student
population
Constraints: Van holds only 12 people—11 students and one faculty or staff;
number of highly qualified site leaders
Assumptions: Service builds active citizens; international trips add more value
than expense; a trip is better with a staff or faculty member.
Source: Chris Bridges.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Breakout Session! (2 of 2)
For a given project, list the following:
1. Intermediate deliverables
2. Final deliverables
3. Acceptance criteria
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Defining Scope in Agile Projects (1 of 2)
• At beginning of project, overall scope only identified at high level
• Backlog of possible work identified also
• Use smaller, frequent iterations to get feedback, as customer desires evolve
over time
• Customer representative (“owner”) prioritizes scope based on business
need, value, cost, & risk.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Defining Scope in Agile Projects (2 of 2)
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Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• What is the WBS?
• Why use a WBS?
• WBS Formats
• Work Packages
• How to Construct a WBS
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
What is the WBS?
• Tool to progressively divide project deliverables into smaller pieces
• Identifies all deliverables
• A framework for further planning, execution, and control
Define activity – a project planning process which identifies and determines
specific actions to develop and deliver the project outcomes, such as products,
services or results
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Why use a WBS?
• Ensures all parts of project are considered
• Adds discipline and visibility to project planning
• Basis for planning schedule, resources, cost, quality, & risk
• Useful in determining where and why problems occur
• Helpful in project communications
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
WBS Formats
• Indented outline
• Organizational chart
• Free format
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
WBS – Indented Outline Format
EXHIBIT 7.5: HOUSE WBS IN INDENTED OUTLINE FORMAT
HOUSE
• Project Management
• Framed House
•
Framing Contractor
•
Wood
•
Assembled Frame
Useful when typing WBS
into scheduling software
• Wired House
•
Wiring Contractor
•
Wiring
•
Installed Wiring
• Drywalled House
•
Drywall Contractor
•
Drywall
•
Hung Drywall
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EXHIBIT 7.6: WBS in Org Chart Format
• Familiar
• Easy to
understand
• Flexible
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 7.7: WBS in Free Format
• Completely flexible
• Especially useful when
project’s structure is not
initially clear
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Work Packages (1 of 3)
• Lowest level of WBS
• Basis for subsequent planning & control
Work activities
are defined
Schedule is
formed
Resources are
aligned
Control features
are developed
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Work Packages (2 of 3)
EXHIBIT 7.8: WBS DEPICTING WORK PACKAGES
Source: Kevin P. Grant, UTSA.
Work package – deliverable at the lowest level of the WBS, for which cost and
duration can be estimated & managed
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Work Packages (3 of 3)
State succinctly in very few words (use adjectives, not verbs!)
WBS component – “an entry in the WBS that can be at any level.” PMBOK®
Guide
WBS dictionary – document that provides detailed information about every
work package, including deliverable details; activity; scheduling information;
predecessor & successor activities; person responsible; resources required; &
risks.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 7.9: Work Package Detail
Source: Kevin P. Grant, UTSA.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
How to construct a WBS
• Include appropriate subject matter experts (SMEs)
• Use a top-down approach
• Consider WBS from a previous project as a starting point
• Use brainstorming
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Steps in WBS Construction
1. Identify major deliverables
2. Decompose deliverables
3. Continue until deliverables are the right size
4. Review
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Identify Major Deliverables
• Begin with Scope Statement
• Organize in systematic manner such as by project phase
• Facilitates rolling wave planning—planning near term work in detail and
future work at a higher level
• Rolling wave planning → quick start
• Helps avoid:
• Analysis paralysis – never starting anything because the plan is not complete
• Ready, fire, aim – not planning at all
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EXHIBIT 7.10: WBS Organization Examples
PROJECT PHASE
DESIGN COMPONENTS/DELIVERABLES
WORK FUNCTION/
SUBPROJECT
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Contract
Kitchen
Carpentry
Foundation
Bedrooms
Plumbing
Framed House
Bathrooms
Electrical
…
…
…
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Decompose Deliverables
• Brainstorm list of interim and final deliverables (use Post It® Notes)
• Assemble deliverables on large work space
• Organize deliverables into related groups
Decomposition – breaking down into smaller and smaller pieces
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Continue Until Deliverables Are the Right Size
EXHIBIT 7.11: PARTIAL WBS OF CAR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
Car Development Project
Project Management
Product Design
Product Goals
Concept Design
Modeling Design
Vehicle Integration
Engineering Feasibility
Detailed Engineering Design
Performance Development
Regulatory Certification
Process Development
Prototype
Production Materials Procurement
General Materials Procurement
Trial Manufacture
When to stop decomposing? Judgment
call…Ideally, work packages are:
• Small enough to control
• Not so small as to micro-manage
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Review
• Ensure completeness
• Consider parent-child concept
• Have between 3 and 9 child elements for each parent
• Assign a unique name & number to each component
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Establish Change Control (1 of 2)
• Projects are conducted in an atmosphere of uncertainty
• Plans must be made to ensure all potential changes are considered,
accepted or rejected, and that their impact is factored into revised plans
Change control system – a system of managing and controlling changes and
modifications to the project plan and project deliverables
Baseline – the approved project plan, mostly consisting of scope, schedule, &
cost; should not be altered without going through integrated change control
system
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Establish Change Control (2 of 2)
• Document potential changes to a project with a change request
• Every change to a project must be formally proposed
Change request – a written request or formal proposal to change any project
planning component, such as a document, project deliverable, or the baseline
(scope, cost, and time).
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 7.14: Change Request Form
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Using MS Project for Work Breakdown Structures
(WBS)
• Set Up the WBS
1. Understand WBS definitions & displays.
2. Enter project deliverables & work package elements.
3. Create the outline of your WBS.
4. Insert a WBS code identification column.
5. Hide (or show) the desired amount of detail in WBS.
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Step 1. Understand WBS displays and definitions
• Summary tasks are displayed:
• Tables as an outline
• Gantt view
EXHIBIT 7.15: GANTT CHART
VIEW THREE-LEVEL WBS
Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Step 2. Enter WBS Elements (Tasks) (1 of 2)
EXHIBIT 7.16: ENTER SUMMARIES
(DELIVERABLES)
Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with
permission from Microsoft Corporation.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Step 2. Enter WBS Elements (Tasks) (2 of 2)
1. Click on Task Name field to select the row below where you want the new
row to be.
2. On Task tab, Insert group, click Insert Task.
3. In the Task Name field, enter the name of the added WBS element.
4. Enter any additional task(s).
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Step 3. Create the outline of your (WBS)
1. Click Task Name field of the row to be indented.
2. On Task tab, Schedule group, click Indent Task.
3. To decrease an indent level with the Outdent control: On the Task tab,
Schedule group, click Outdent Task. Any lower-level items will also be
outdented.
EXHIBIT 7.17: INDENT AND OUTDENT CONTROLS ON THE TASK TAB
Source: Microsoft product screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.
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Step 4. Insert Row Number Column
• Project will automatically number summaries
• Right-click Task Name heading
• Insert – Column –WBS
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Ready to Insert WBS Column
EXHIBIT 7.18: READY
TO INSERT
SELECTED WBS
COLUMN
Source: Microsoft product screenshots
reprinted with permission from Microsoft
Corporation.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 7.19: WBS Column Inserted
Source: Microsoft product screenshots
reprinted with permission from Microsoft
Corporation.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Step 5. Hide (or Show) Underlying Detail
EXHIBIT 7.20: HIDE OR SHOW UNDERLYING DETAIL
Select summary row whose detail is to be
hidden/displayed
Click on the Hide ( − ) subtasks button or Show
subtasks button ( + )
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Summary
• Use scope planning to determine deliverables and acceptance criteria.
• Organize scope into a work breakdown structure (WBS).
• Decompose the project into smaller and smaller pieces.
• Assign WBS components.
• Create WBS by hand or use MS Project to create WBS.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
PMBOK Exams
• When in doubt, work backwards from your desired solution
• What would it take to make this project/product successful?
• Collect Requirements—get input from stakeholders, end-users, & SMEs
• Break down project deliverables into smaller and smaller pieces with a WBS
• Remember, these are things (nouns), not activities (verbs)
• Lowest level (work packages) should be small enough to monitor
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Work Breakdown Structure Template
PM IN ACTION
• Management and Technical activities for banks in South Africa
• First level decomposition is physical (“powerhouse,” “factory,” etc.)
• Second level decompositions varied—based on function or product
• Developed from a client’s (rather than the project team’s) perspective
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Casa de Paz Development Project
• The Promotion and Community Relations Working Group are creating a
product backlog
• They ask “what are the three to five most important things to be created?”
• For each, what details must be accomplished for it to be a minimum viable
product?
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Contemporary Project Management
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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 8
Scheduling Projects
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copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 8 Scheduling Projects
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 8 Core Objectives
• Describe 5 ways in which a project’s schedule is limited & how to deal with
each.
• Use the activity on node (AON) method to develop a project schedule.
• Identify the critical path using both the two-pass & enumeration methods,
and identify all float.
• Depict a project schedule on a Gantt chart by hand, showing critical path and
all float.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 8 Technical Objectives
• Describe how to adjust a project’s sequence logic using leads, lags, &
alternative dependencies.
• Build & display the logical network diagram showing critical path and all float
with MS Project 2016.
• Depict a project schedule on a Gantt chart using MS Project 2016.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 8 Behavioral Objectives
• Describe potential problems estimating time accurately & how to overcome
them.
• Resolve potential scheduling conflicts.
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Web-based software implementations
Establishing scope that can be accomplished in a 30- to 60-day schedule
helps our clients get started using their web-based applications faster…Project
planning for the future
becomes more realistic, improving the odds of success.
Carol A. Abbott, PMP, training specialist, Sant-Kadient
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Plan Schedule Management (1 of 2)
Building blocks of a project schedule are activities
Activity – “a component of project scope work performed during the course of
a project.” – PMI
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Plan Schedule Management (2 of 2)
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Project time management processes*
1. Plan schedule management
2. Define activities
3. Sequence activities
4. Estimate activity resources
5. Estimate activity durations
6. Develop schedule
7. Control schedule
* Adapted from PMBOK® Guide
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Purposes of a Project Schedule (1 of 2)
What is the earliest a particular activity can start, and
when will it end?
What would happen if a delivery of
material was one week late?
What activity must begin before
which other activities can take place?
If one worker is assigned to do two
activities, which one must go first?
When will the project be complete?
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Purposes of a Project Schedule (2 of 2)
Which worker or other resource is a
bottleneck, limiting the speed of our
project?
Can a key worker take a week
vacation the first week of March?
What will the impact be if the client
wants to add another module?
If I am willing to spend an extra
$10,000, how much faster can the
project be completed?
How many hours do we need from
each worker next week or month?
Are all of the activities completed that should
be by now?
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Historical Development of Project Schedules
• Scheduling as a result of competition
• Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method
(CPM) – 1950s
• Identify activities
• Determine their logical order
• Estimate the duration of each activity
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PERT
• Estimate most likely time needed to complete a project
• Estimate level of confidence in completing a project in a particular time
• Useful in (R&D) projects
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY POLARIS WEAPONS SYSTEM
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CPM
• Used to plan very large projects
• Single time estimates for each activity
• Focus on longest sequence of activities
• Used to determine how to complete a project early
• Useful in construction industry
DUPONT ENGINEERING SERVICES DIVISION
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Activity on Node (AON) or Precedence Diagramming
Method (PDM)
Most widely used
EXHIBIT 8.1: AON FORMAT SCHEDULE EXAMPLE
node = activity
arrow = sequence
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) – scheduled activities are
represented by “nodes,” and arrows are used to show the logical sequence
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5 Factors Limit Project Completion
1. Logical order in which activities need to be completed
2. How long each activity will take
3. How many key resources are available at specific points in the project
4. Imposed dates
5. Cash flow
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Creation of Project Schedules
• Identify all activities
• Determine logical order
• Estimate time required for that activity
• Assign resources to each activity
• Compare schedule with imposed dates
• Consider project budget and cash flow, quality demands, and risk factors
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
The Project Manager’s Responsibility
• Resist pressure to dictate a schedule
• Determine a schedule that is possible
• Persuade stakeholders that the schedule makes sense
• Deliver project according to the agreed-upon schedule
• Within each iteration, team considers level of uncertainty &
complexity with desired outcomes
• Number of team members as resources is often primary
limitation
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Define Activities (1 of 2)
Use WBS with deliverables only
EXHIBIT 8.2: WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE WITH
DELIVERABLES ONLY
COLLEGE FUNDRAISER PROJECT
1. Project Management
2. Location
3. Information
4. Entertainment
5. Safety
6. Parking
7. Food
8. Sanitation
9. Volunteers
“What work activities must
be completed to create
each of the project
deliverables?”
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Define Activities (2 of 2)
• Don’t omit activities
• Activity sequencing may uncover missing activities
• Schedule will not be approved until all related planning is in place
• Avoid adding activities after final schedule is approved
• Use previous projects, templates, or checklists as a starting point
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
List Project Milestones
• Completion of a major deliverable or critical activity
• Prior to a large financial commitment
• Merging point in project schedule
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Breakout Session! Defining Activities
Using a WBS as your guide:
• identify 12-20 activities
• List one activity each on Post-it Notes
• State each activity in verb-noun (or verb-adjective-noun) format
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
WBS with Milestone List
EXHIBIT 8.4
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Sequence Activities (1 of 2)
What activity or activities can be
started right away and do not depend
on any others?
Successor activity – an activity that
logically follows another activity or
activities
Predecessor activity – activity that
logically precedes another activity or
activities
What activity or activities can we
start next?
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Sequence Activities (2 of 2)
• Place a successor activity after its predecessor
• Draw arrow to show the relationship
• Continue until all activities have been placed on the work surface
• Dependencies can be mandatory or discretionary
Mandatory dependency – logical
relationship that must be followed
(generally due to physical or
contractual demands)
Discretionary dependency – a
preferred logical relationship, based on
best practices and judgment
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 8.5: Activity List for Product Upgrade
Project
• Determine product features
• Acquire prototype materials
• Produce prototype
• Design marketing campaign
• Design graphics
• Conduct marketing
• Perform sales calls
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 8.6: Network for Product Upgrade Project
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Leads and Lags
Lead – “a modification of a logical relationship that allows an acceleration of
the successor activity.” Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Lag – “a modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the
successor activity.” Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Leads are helpful if a project needs to be completed quickly
Finish-to-start – “a logical relationship where initiation of work of the successor
activity depends upon the completion of work of the predecessor activity.” Practice
Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Finish-to-start (FS) dependency -most common type
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Finish-to-finish Relationships
Example: Graphics could be designed while
marketing campaign is being designed, but not
completed until marketing campaign is completed.
Finish-to-finish (FF)– “the logical relationship
where completion of work of the successor
activity cannot finish until the completion of work
of the predecessor activity.”
-Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Start-to-start Relationships
Examples: Graphics design could not start until
marketing design started
Start-to-start – “a logical relationship where
initiation of the work of the successor schedule
activity depends upon the initiation of the work of
the predecessor schedule activity.”
-Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Start-to-finish Relationships
• Least used relationship
• Example – a project to replace an old system where the new capability must
be started before the old one is completely discontinued
Start-to-finish – “the logical relationship where completeness of the
successor scheduling activity is dependent upon the initiation of the
predecessor schedule activity.” -Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Breakout Session! Sequencing Activities
Using your 12-20 activities on Post-it® notes:
• Arrange the activities from left (start) to right (finish) in logical order
• Draw arrows connecting the activities
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Estimate Activity Duration
• Evaluate each activity independently
• Document all assumptions & constraints
• Changing assumptions & constraints could change estimates
Duration – “the total number of work periods (not including holidays or other
non-work periods) required to complete a schedule activity… usually
expressed as workdays or workweeks.”
-Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 8.7: Activity Duration Estimate Example
TIME ESTIMATE IN WORKDAYS
ACTIVITY NAME
5
Determine new product features
20
Acquire prototype materials
10
Produce prototype
10
Design marketing campaign
10
Design graphics
30
Conduct marketing
25
Perform sales calls
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Suggestions for Creating Realistic Time Estimates (1 of 2)
1. Verify time estimations with the people doing the work
2. Estimate times without initial reference to a calendar
3. Make sure all time units are identical: working days, work week, months
(consider time off for company holidays)
4. Consider time constraints (see following slide!)
5. Acknowledge tendency toward optimistic or pessimistic estimations
6. Be realistic
7. Adjust estimates based on size, familiarity, & complexity differences
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Suggestions for Creating Realistic Time Estimates (2 of 2)
Possibly time constraints…
Unexpected
meetings
Inaccuracy in work
instructions
Emergencies/illness
Interruptions
Re-work
Learning
curves
Vacation
Resources or
information not
available on time
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 8.9: Activity Duration Estimating
Problems and Remedies (1 of 2)
POTENTIAL ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATING PROBLEM
REMEDY
CHAPTER
Omissions
Refining scope and WBS
Checklists, templates, devil’ sadvocate
Lessons learned
7
8
15
General uncertainty in estimate
Rolling wave planning
Reverse phase schedule
Learning curve
Identify and reduce sources of uncertainty
Manage schedule aggressively
7
9
8
11, 12
14
Special cause variation
Risk analysis
Resolve risk events
3, 11
14
Common cause variation
PERTMonte Carlo
Project buffer
8
8
9
Merging (multiple predecessors)
Milestones
Reverse phase schedule
Feeding buffer
Manage float
3, 8
9
9
14
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 8.9: Activity Duration Estimating
Problems and Remedies (2 of 2)
POTENTIAL ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATING PROBLEM
REMEDY
CHAPTER
Queuing
Staggering project start dates
Resource leveling
Resource buffer
2
9
9
Multitasking
Prioritizing projects
Carefully authorize start of noncritical activities
2
9, 14
Student syndrome (starting late)
Float
Critical path meetings
8
14
Not reporting early completion of
rework
Project culture
Project communications
Contract incentives
Project leadership
Progress reporting
4
6
13
5
14
Source: Adapted from Larry Leach, “Schedule and Cost Buffer Sizing: How to Account for the Bias between Project
Performance and Your Model,” Project Management Journal 34 (2) (June 2003): 44.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Curves (1 of 4)
• The more times someone performs an activity, the better & faster he or she
becomes
• Rate of improvement can be studied & predicted
• Rapid learning leads to faster performance times
• PMs should plan for the amount of learning that takes place
• PMs should sustain an environment that expects rapid learning
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Curves (2 of 4)
The rate of improvement varies by:
how much culture of the
organization stresses continual
improvement
how much of activity is dependent on a
worker versus dictated by the pace of a
machine
how much skill is involved in the
activity
how complex the activity is
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Curves (3 of 4)
Time calculated based upon a rate of improvement
EXHIBIT 8.10: LEARNING CURVE TABLE
ACTIVITY
60%
70%
80%
90%
1
100
100
100
100
2
60
70
80
90
4
36
49
64
81
8
21.6
34.3
51.2
72.9
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Curves (4 of 4)
• Duration estimates improve as early iterations are completed
• Estimate is for velocity
Velocity – “the sum of the estimates of delivered (i.e., accepted) features per
iteration…measured in the same units as feature estimates whether this is story
points, days, ideal days, or hours that the team delivers.”
-https://www.versionone.com/agile-101/agile-management-practices/agile-scrumvelocity/.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Develop Project Schedules
Identify the critical path
• Determines project’s earliest possible end date
• Most critical in terms of time
• Methods for determining critical path:
Two-pass method
Enumeration method
Critical path – “the sequence of schedule activities determining the duration of
the project. Generally it is the longest path through the project.” -Practice
Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Two-Pass Method
• Used to determine amount of slack each activity has
• Make two logical passes through the constructed network
• The forward pass
• The backward pass
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Times Important to Each Activity (1 of 2)
Early start date (ES) – “the earliest possible point in time on which uncompleted
portions of a schedule activity can start, based upon the schedule network logic, the
data date, and any schedule constraints.”
-Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Early finish date (EF) – “the earliest possible point in time on which uncompleted
portions of a schedule activity can finish, based upon the schedule network logic, the
data date, and any schedule constraints.”
-Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Times Important to Each Activity (2 of 2)
Late start date (LS) – “the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity can
start, based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any
schedule constraints.”
-Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Late finish date (LF) – “the latest possible point in time when a schedule activity can
finish based upon the network logic, the project completion dates, and any schedule
constraints.”
-Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 8.11: Two-Pass Example Schedule Set Up
Start at the beginning of the project
and ask how soon each activity
can begin and end
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 8.12: Schedule Example First Pass Complete
Forward pass—calculate Early
Finish for each activity
EF = ES + Duration
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Second or Backward Pass
How late can each activity be finished and started?
Backward pass – “the calculation of late finish date and late start dates for
the uncompleted portions of all schedule activities. Determined by working
backward through the schedule network logic from the project’s end date.
Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 8.13: Schedule Example Second Pass
Complete
Backward Pass—calculate Late finish &
late start dates
Late finish date for last activity is same
as early finish date
LF − duration = LS
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Float and the Critical Path (1 of 2)
Total float – “the amount of time a schedule activity may be delayed from its
early start date without delaying the project end date.” -Practice Standard for
Scheduling (PMI)
Free float – “the amount of time a schedule activity can be delayed
without delaying the early start of immediately following schedule
activities.” -Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
• Compute the critical path based on float (slack)
• Activities with no/very little float need to be scheduled very
carefully
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Float and the Critical Path (2 of 2)
• Float = Late Start − Early Start
(Float = LS − ES)
• Critical path is the sequence of
activities that has no float
EXHIBIT 8.14: TWO-PASS COMPLETE SCHEDULE
EXAMPLE
A–D–F–G
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Breakout Session! Develop Project Schedule
1. If you have not already done so, create time estimates for your sequenced
activities
2. Make a schedule using the two-pass method
• Be sure to identify critical path
• Calculate slack/float for all non-critical path activities
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Enumeration Method (1 of 2)
• List all paths through the network
• All paths are identified & timed if the team needs to compress the schedule
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duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Enumeration Method (2 of 2)
EXHIBIT 8.15: ENUMERATION
METHOD EXAMPLE SCHEDULE
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Uncertainty in Project Schedules
• Construct the best possible schedule
• Manage the project very closely
OR
• Estimate a range of possible times each individual activity may take
• Examine the impact of each activity on the entire schedule
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (1 of 2)
• How does variability in duration of individual activities impact the entire
project schedule?
• Sequence activities into a network
• Create 3 estimates of time to complete each activity
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (2 of 2)
EXHIBIT 8.16: PERT TIME ESTIMATE EXAMPLE
ACTIVITY
OPTIMISTIC
MOST LIKELY
PESSIMISTIC
EXPECTED
Determine new product features
4
5
12
6
Acquire prototype
materials
16
20
30
21
Produce prototype
8
10
12
10
Design marketing
campaign
9
10
14
10.5
Design graphics
6
10
20
11
Conduct marketing
28
30
50
33
Perform sales calls
20
25
30
25
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
PERT Considerations
• Advantages
• Reinforces uncertainty that exists in project schedules
• Calculations often indicate expected time is actually longer than “most likely” time
• Difficulties
• Takes more effort to create 3 estimates
• No guarantee how good the estimates are
• May underestimate the risk of a schedule running long
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Project Managers and PERT
• Infrequently used by project managers
• PMs may informally use 3 time estimates for key activities
• PMs may use Monte Carlo simulation instead
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Monte Carlo Simulation (1 of 2)
• An entire range of possible time estimates can be used for any activity
• Project schedule is calculated many times (1,000+)
• Estimates for a particular activity based on likelihood of various times as
determined by PM
Monte Carlo Analysis – “a computerized mathematical technique that allows people
to account for risk in quantitative analysis and decision making that furnishes the
decision maker with a range of possible outcomes and the probabilities with which
they will occur.”
-Practice Standard for Scheduling (PMI)
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Monte Carlo Simulation (2 of 2)
• Computer output: how often project would be expected to take each possible
length of time
• Advantages
• Flexibility allows more realistic estimates
• Extent of information provided
• Disadvantages
• Time requirement
• Software and skill required
• PMs decide when this specialized technique is worth the extra effort to the
project
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 8.18: Initiatives to Improve On-Time
Schedule Delivery
CAUSE OF LATE DELIVERY
INITIATIVE
EXPLANATION
Activity variance
Increase activity transparency
Increase user participation
Reduce project size
Manage expectations, e.g., set realistic goals by
drawing from “outside views”
Use packaged software
Allows for better planning
Ensures that the product delivered
meets the user needs
Ensures that estimates for tasks are more
accurate
Mitigates optimism bias and
misrepresentation
Provides a standard within which to develop the
system
Activity dependence
De-scope
Improve requirements definition
Reduce activity coupling
Stage projects (incremental development or
iterative development)
Reduces the number of dependencies
Ensures that there is no confusion
over what is to be developed and
when If activity links are reduced,
then dependencies exert less influence
Reduces delay bias by minimizing multitasking,
merging, queuing (i.e., reduces the
dependencies)
Source: Vlasic, Anthony and Li Liu, “Why Information Systems Projects Are Always Late,” Proceedings Project
Management Institute Research and Education Conference 2010 (Oxon Hill, MD, July 2010).
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Show the Project Schedule on a Gantt Chart (1 of 2)
• Easy-to-understand tool
• Horizontal bar chart
• A bar for each activity stretched over a time line
• Units of time are units used to create schedule
• Chart does not show critical path, predecessor-successor relationship, or late
start & finish dates
• Use scheduling software
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Show the Project Schedule on a Gantt Chart (2 of 2)
EXHIBIT 8.19
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Using MS Project for Critical Path Schedules (1 of 2)
1. Set up the project schedule
2. Build the Logical Network Diagram & identify critical path
3. Display and print schedules
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Using MS Project for Critical Path Schedules (2 of 2)
• Limitations to how fast a project can be completed
• Consider each limitation in order when using MS Project
Logical order of the activities
Duration of each activity
Imposed dates
Number of key resources
available when needed
Cash flow
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Set Up the Project Schedule
• Define your organization’s holidays
• Turn off change highlighting
• Understand types of project data
1. Set up project schedule
2. Build Logical Network Diagram & Identify critical path
3. Display & print schedules
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Define Organization’s Holidays
On Project tab, click Change Working Time.
EXHIBIT 8.20: STANDARD CALENDAR WITH TWO HOLIDAYS
PLUS A HALF DAY AND A WORKING SATURDAY
In For Calendar: box, enter Standard (Project
Calendar) if not displayed.
Move to month and year using scroll bar to the
right of calendar display.
Click on the day to change.
Click Exceptions tab, then click an empty row.
Enter a description in Name column.
Click another cell in same row to review
results.
Repeat these steps until organizational
holidays are defined.
Deleting a row restores previous definition.
Click OK.
Source: Microsoft product screen shots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
EXHIBIT 8.21: Details Dialog for Half Working Day
Select the day, enter a description, then
click Details …Click Working Time and
modify the From: and To: values.
Click OK twice.
Select the day and click Details…
Click Nonworking and click OK twice.
Source: Microsoft product screen shots reprinted
with permission from Microsoft Corporation.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Turn Off Change Highlighting
Click Task tab.
On Format tab, Text Styles, Item to Change, enter Changed Cells.
In Background Color, enter White.
Click OK.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Understanding Types of Project Data (1 of 2)
EXHIBIT 8.22: GANTT CHART VIEW WITH WBS ELEMENTS, TASKS, AND MILESTONES
Task Data – WBS data and task data
Source: Microsoft product screen shots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Understanding Types of Project Data (2 of 2)
• Resource Data
• Describe each resource with information required for control
• Determine assignment load, work, & cost
• Identify resource in the resource name field
• Assignment Data
• Task duration, work values, cost values are calculated at the time of assignment
• Calculated when a resource’s work, units, or duration values are changed
• View in Task Usage or Resource Usage view
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Build the Logical Network Diagram
1. Set up the project schedule
2. Build the Logical Network Diagram & Identify critical path
3. Display and print schedules
1. Enter tasks & milestones
2. Edit the timescale
3. Understand & define task dependencies
4. Assign task duration estimates
5. Identify the critical path
6. Understand the network diagram view
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
1. Enter tasks and milestones
2. Edit the timescale
See detailed instructions pp. 271-272 of textbook
EXHIBIT 8.22: GANTT CHART VIEW WITH WBS ELEMENTS, TASKS, AND MILESTONES
Source: Microsoft product screen shots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
3. Understand & Define task dependencies
• A task dependency definition
• a logical relationship
• associated lead/lag value.
• Defaults:
• Finish-to-start
• Lead/lag value of zero days
• View/create task dependencies graphically
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
4. Assign task duration estimates
Duration cell –
Enter duration value –
Assign zero to create a milestone
• Use same unit of time for each task
• Assign duration estimates to tasks and milestones only
• MS Project calculates duration for WBS summaries based on durations for
tasks within each summary
• See detailed instructions in textbook, p.273 & Exhibit 8.23
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
5. Identify the Critical Path
• Critical Path task Gantt bars and Network Diagram task nodes are red
• Add Critical Path marking to Gantt Chart graphical view
• See Exhibit 8.23
Click Task – Format – Bar Styles – Critical Tasks – OK
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
6. Understand the network diagram view (1 of 2)
EXHIBIT 8.24: BANK PROJECT WITH STARTUP AND INITIATION DETAILS
Source: Microsoft product screen shots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
6. Understand the network diagram view (2 of 2)
EXHIBIT 8.25: BANK PROJECT WITH EXECUTING AND CLOSING ACTIVITIES
Source: Microsoft product screen shots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.
Task tab – Task Views group – Network Diagram
**Detailed instructions p.275 in textbook**
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Display and Print Schedules with MS Project
• Project scheduling software may not be available to all members of the
project team, so emailing won’t work
• Create an output that can be printed and easily read (pdf file format)
• File – Print – appropriate settings (see p.275) – Print
1. Set up the project schedule
2. Build the Logical Network Diagram & Identify critical path
3. Display and print schedules
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Summary
• Project schedules are created by listing all activities that will need to be
performed (define activities)
How?
By whom?
How long?
How much?
• Determine predecessors and successors to sequence activities (sequence
activities)
• Estimate how long each activity will take (estimate activity durations)
• Develop schedule is an iterative process
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Incremental/Iterative Software Development
Project Sample Project Schedule (1 of 2)
PM IN ACTION
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Incremental/Iterative Software Development
Project Sample Project Schedule (2 of 2)
PM IN ACTION
• Can be easily modified depending on project complexity
• At end of each of 3 project stages, PM may reassess development & testing
estimates
• Change approval board (CAB)
• Meets regularly to assess, approve, or reject proposed systems changes
• Must be notified ASAP of any delays
• Development stage broken into several components
• Time set aside to test each component after development
• New component development begins as soon as previous one is completed
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
PMBOK Exams
• You will see many scheduling questions on CAPM or PMP exam
• Generally involve computation/application—use Exercises on pp.278-279 of
text for practice
• As general rule, always strive to preserve critical path, since any delays to it
will delay the overall project
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Casa de Paz Development Project
• Five features were placed in the product backlog.
• Website further development was selected to schedule first.
• Details for the website were determined.
Kloppenborg, Contemporary Project Management, 4th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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