The research topic I choose is : How is global warming affecting wildlife?
1) Choose 6 sources youâ€™re pretty darn sure will appear in your final draft.
2) Write these sources in correct MLA or APA format, like they’ll appear in your Works Cited or References page.
3) After each entry, write a paragraph or two or three (at least 100 words but probably not more than 300 words) with
a) a brief summary of the overall argument of the book or article or chapter
b) then an explanation on how it is relevant to your paper topic, and how you plan to incorporate it.
c.) Last, an explanation of your source’s credibility.
17 October 2020
Research Paper Outline
(Instructor note: while you need to follow the general principles of Roman numeral outline as
per our guidelines, this sample is just one way among many to format an argument. You can
follow this same progression, but it is not required.)
Claim: Processed food is harmful to oneâ€™s health, and the quality of oneâ€™s life is improved by
Intro: Hook — personal story of youth group kidsâ€™ diets; preview of topic; claim
I. Background: What is processed food? (About.com)
A. Definition: â€œProcessed foods have been altered from their natural state for safety reasons
and for convenience.â€
B. Processed foods can be good or bad.
1. Milk is processed through pasteurization, which kills bacteria and makes it safe
(according to many sources).
2. Pastries made with white flour and refined sugar have been stripped of nutrients
through processes, making them â€œbad.â€
II. Reason 1: Refined sugar is very different from natural sugar and has negative effects.
A. The refining process is complex (Farr).
1. Sugar comes from sugar beets and sugar canes in its original state.
2. Refiners process it through boiling, filtering, bleaching, and more.
B. Both good sugar and bad sugar exist (Fallon).
1. Complex carbohydrates, found in natural sugar, are better because they are
bonded with nutrients and take longer to digest.
2. Sugar goes from complex carbs to simple carbs through the refining process, and
this adds no nutrition to the body and also causes the system to be flooded with
sugar too fast.
C. The negative effects of sugar are numerous.
1. Diabetes is caused from constant floods of sugar and an inability to control sugar
high levels (Fallon).
2. Mental illness is connected to refined sugar because sugar decreases elements the
brain needs, like vitamin B (Dufty).
3. Indigenous people with â€œprimitiveâ€ diets are healthier than people with refined
sugar in their diet (Dufty).
a. Dental records back up this claim.
b. The amount of degeneration in indigenous people is smaller.
III. Acknowledgement/Response: Those opposed to avoiding sugar might say sugar is
A. A way to avoid it is to watch labels for words that end in â€œoseâ€ (Fallon) (Arterburn).
B. One can also avoid items with over 4g. of sugar (Arterburn).
C. Refined sugar can be replaced with alternatives like honey or sucanat (Gregg).
D. Refined sugar can be replaced with whole foods that have natural sugars (Arterburn)
IV. Reason 2: Trans fats are widespread and have negative repercussions.
A. Itâ€™s made through a hydrogenating process to vegetable oil (Readerâ€™s).
B. The negative effects of trans fats are serious.
1. A Harvard nutrition expert said it was the â€œbiggest food processing disasterâ€
2. Itâ€™s a major cause for heart disease, and heart disease is a leading cause of death
C. Why is it bad?
1. It increases bad cholesterol (LDL) and decreases good cholesterol (HDL)
2. It increases lipoprotein which clogs arteries (Readerâ€™s)(FDA).
D. Trans fats are used in many places (American Heart Association).
1. Fast food restaurants use it, primarily because itâ€™s inexpensive and can be reused.
2. Itâ€™s found in deep fried food: donuts, pastries . . . etc. These items are dipped in
the trans fat oil and then fried.
3. Margarine is made from hydrogenated oil.
4. 40% of trans fats are found in pastries like â€œcakes, cookies, crackers . . .â€ (FDA).
5. 21% of trans fats are in animal products.
V. Acknowledgement/Response: Opposition to removing trans fats from diet says it is
inconvenient and expensive.
A. Fast food is convenient, and Iâ€™m in a hurry.
1. Plan ahead by packing a lunch, or prepping a dinner in advance when you have
time (My Solution).
2. Carry a healthy snack with you so you wonâ€™t be tempted.
B. Fast food is cheaper.
1. Vegetables and whole grains can be found at inexpensive prices (interview).
2. Even if the cost was slightly lower, are the physical repercussions worth it?
a. The cost in medical bills for physical problems, like heart disease are
b. The quality of life is better when one is in good physical condition.
VI. Conclusion: Living without processed food is better on many levels.
A. Physically, you will have an easier time keeping weight off and avoiding heart disease
B. Mentally, you will have more nutrients and vitamins that improve brain function (Dufty).
C. Processed food is addictive, and once youâ€™re off, it is easier to stay off of it.
Word Count: 650
This assignment is to turn in a detailed outline of your argument. It should follow the format of a
formal outline. Look at the tips and requirements below and see the Sample Outline in Unit 2 for
1) Use double spaced (great for adding comments if being reviewed — or for you to add
2) Start with your claim (which may change as your write your paper)
3) Choose either complete sentences or partial sentences for your outline (not both!)
4) Use Roman numerals for the big points in your essay and capital letter for sub-points, etc.
5) If you have a I, you must have a II. If you have an A, you must have a B. If you have a 1., you
must have a 2., etc. (See Sample Outline)
6) Include your evidence for assertions, not just your ideas in parantheses.
7) Your outline must have a word count of at least 350. Be sure to include the word count at the
end of your outline.
8) Final draft of outline will be submitted at time of final paper turn-in.
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