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**Use the criteria and guidance for this assignment as you create your

scholarly paper.

Download the

Rubric and Guidance

to understand expectations & how you will be evaluated.***

Mastery of Course Goals #1, #2, and #3 are assessed through this final scholarly paper. You will objectively explore, through research, one way to resolve an ethical dilemma in nursing, health, or healthcare.

The topic of your scholarly research paper will be related to the dilemma discussed in your first written assignment, the Personal Position Paper.

You will synthesize findings from a wide variety of scholarly sources (the types are specified on the rubric), and use those to compose an evidence supported solution for the dilemma.

Four dimensions impact ethical decision-making in healthcare. These include regulatory and legal considerations, professional guidelines, applicable ethical theory, and morality. Please see the guidance column on the linked rubric for many suggestions of where to start. Remember, all websites should be apolitical or non-partisan in addition to being scholarly. Consider this

list of research centers

that address a wide variety of current issues, which you may find helpful. Federal and state agency websites should be reviewed, and you may want to search broadly for lawsuits (topic dependent) using Lexis-Nexis


“Google”. The

Bonde & Firenze “Making Choices”

document covers multiple theories and should be used to develop that portion of the paper.

This is a scholarly paper that adheres to APA guidelines. The paper is a maximum of 6 pages (excluding the title and reference page).

Headings are required (see the scholarly writing details on the linked grading criteria at the top).

This is an ethics course.The drop-box is connected to Turn-It-In: Feedback Studio. Significant matches between what you have written and what was composed by other authors or anonymous website material MUST be paraphrased or appropriately managed according to APA requirements. Partial sentence matches must be paraphrased.

If the requirement to avoid all quotations & paraphrase is ignored, the paper MAY be returned (with a late penalty assigned to any permitted re-submissions, OR the student MAY receive a zero on the assignment which may result in failure of the course.

Samples are based on past content requirements,

Review the “Sample Paper” as a guide ONLY. C

arefully review the grading criteria linked at the top of this page:

SAMPLE Ethical Dilemma Analysis Paper

St. Petersburg College
NUR3826 Legal and Ethical Essentials in Nursing
Personal Position Statement
This is not a research paper. This is a personal statement, with only 2 specific scholarly sources. You will explain your
personal position on an assigned issue. Some of the steps from the SPC 6.0 Model of Ethical Reasoning are applied to
the issue. The paper is a maximum of 3 pages excluding title & reference page. No quotations are allowed. If this
requirement is ignored the paper will be returned and standard late penalty is applied to any resubmission.
Position Paper Grading Criteria
Current Issue
In four sentences, briefly explain
the dilemma assigned.
Personal Position
State your personal position on
this dilemma. Briefly explain your
overall beliefs about the issue.
Core Values
Identify, prioritize, then explain a
minimum of 3 (three) values that
shape your position on this issue.
Virtuous Behaviors
Discuss 2 (two) virtuous behaviors
that are critical to your position,
and describe how they support
your position.
Discuss the major stakeholders in
this dilemma
Ethical Theory
Explain whether basic Utilitarian
or Deontological ethical theory
best supports your position (one
scholarly reference & in-text citation
Code of Ethics
Discuss one provision &
interpretive statement from the
2015 ANA Code of Ethics that
supports your beliefs (the ANA
Code is one required scholarly
reference & citation).
Give a short explanation, from a personal perspective about why or
how this is a dilemma that affects our profession. Think about
nurses, healthcare delivery, and patients.
If someone suddenly asked your opinion about this topic, what
would are the most important things you would express in 3 or 4
sentences? In one descriptive paragraph express your beliefs about
this dilemma writing in 3rd person perspective (ex: This nurse
believes …). No references are required here because this is a
personal statement. (You will conduct research in the final
assignment – but not now!)
Attitudes about controversial subjects are based on a person’s core
values. These values are taught by family, cultural groups, churches
& the community when and where you grew up. There are many
lists of “core values” on the internet. Look at a list then think about
values you believe are important to live a “good life”. Identify those
most related to your topic when you compose this answer.
Values (above) are internal. Behaviors are outward or external
expressions of internal values. We show the world our values
through actions. The most important are part of every-day
behavior, but are heavily relied upon in a difficult situation. Discuss
how two behaviors support your beliefs in this dilemma. See this list
for ideas: https://www.virtuesforlife.com/virtues-list/
Describe those who are most affected by or have the most invested
in this dilemma. It is not acceptable to say “everyone”. Think about
the top 2 or 3 people or groups most affected by how this issue is
managed. Some dilemmas have economic impact (dollars, time, or
workforce); others have an emotional cost. The “stake” may be very
personal or of broad social concern.
Use your own words to explain how one of the basic ethical theories
supports your position in this ethical dilemma. Use Bonde & Firenze
(2013) as the scholarly support for your choice of ethical theories (it
is linked in week 1 readings). How does the theory support what
you believe to be the solution for this dilemma?
The ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements
(2015) is your source (linked in week 2). Decide which provision and
interpretive statement best applies to your assigned dilemma. Skim
the ANA Code before you choose AND do not stop on the first
provision; it may not be the most appropriate for the issue. Identify
the provision number clearly as you explain your choice and
describe how it applies to your personal beliefs as well as the issue.
Best action to resolve the issue
In your opinion, what is the best
course of action to resolve this
ethical dilemma? Explain why.
In conclusion: Which section
above has the greatest impact on
your position on this issue?
Discuss the reason.
Scholarly Writing The paper is no
more than 3 pages of content,
exclusively in your words. No
quotations from other authors are
accepted. Proof-read for spelling
& grammar. NOTE: Integrity
violations can result in a “0” for
the assignment or failure of the
Self-explanatory! This dilemma may have many or just two
solutions. Talk about how “this nurse” (you) believe the issue could
be solved. There are no “wrong” answer for this section, unless you
do not discuss why your way is “the best way”.
Each section above is based on SPC’s 6.0 Ethical Decision-making
Model that guides resolution of moral dilemmas. You talked about
values, virtuous behavior, & the impact of this issue on people or
groups (stakeholders). You also applied an ethical theory and
examined your personal ethical code. Here you will discuss which
section impacted how you feel the most, and why?
Writing from a 3rd person perspective means no personal pronouns
(I, me, my) are used in your paper – revise where necessary to
eliminate those. Use “This nurse values …” or “The writer
Headings are not required but transition between sections of the
paper using sentences to guide the reader.
Two scholarly sources (identified above) are required. Additional
sources are at your discretion & require in-text and reference
Legal Case Critique 20%
This is submitted on a template, and written in complete sentences using 3rd person (no personal pronouns). Nursing
or medical details should be kept to a minimum because you have an all RN audience! Use professional terminology
for brief descriptions of medical events (example: there was internal hemorrhaging with classic symptoms including
tachycardia & hypotension, instead of relaying many vital signs or progressive changes).
Please focus exclusively on describing the major issue(s) in your case. Do not get distracted by ‘case law’ within the
legal document. Other cases and past court case decisions are what attorneys typically argue should apply in a similar
Your replies should ALL be in your own words & normal terminology or language (not legal or attorney language).
Use free on-line dictionaries, the legal terminology attachment in the drop box, or email the instructor to assist with
legal terminology.
No quotations are allowed, including significant passages or sentences. If this requirement is ignored the paper will
be returned and standard late penalty will be applied to any resubmission.
Legal Case Review Grading Criteria
Re-read the information above! Study page 1 of your case for details including who is involved and the level of
the court. An “overview” or summary paragraph usually follows these specific details.
Use professional terminology to describe events. Skim through the document first, using a highlighter, then go
back to read for details.
Often critical information is in a shaded section or more compact paragraphs. Skim case law or discussions &
definitions of terms (they often look different, sometimes in italics).
Your case may involve doctors, nurses, patients, hospitals,
Lawsuit Parties
family members, or the “state”.
Who is the plaintiff and what is
his/her/their role?
Identify the plaintiff(s). Plaintiffs are the injured party or
those filing a lawsuit on behalf of the injured.
Who is the defendant and what is
his/her/their role?
Identify the defendant(s), those accused of causing injury
through inaction or actions.)
OR, Is this an appeals case?
The description of the parties tells you this. The appellant
“lost” the first case, and this is a new lawsuit against the
appellee or “winner” of the previous case. If your case is an
appeal – explain the appellant’s role, and the appellee’s role in
the case.
Court & Jurisdiction
Is this a county, state or federal case?
Major Issue
Describe the broad issue at the core
of this case in 1 paragraph Use your
own words.
Dispute or Disagreement
In 5 sentences or less, what took
place in the events that the two
parties are arguing about? What is in
dispute? Use your own words.
Case Outcome
Use your own words. See the
terminology handout in this drop-box,
or use an on-line, free legal dictionary.
This is identified at the very top of page 1. “Jurisdiction”
determines where the outcome applies. The words are
usually abbreviated. Plug the phrase about the “court” in
Google to obtain full words.
Use your own words & normal terminology or language (not
legal or attorney language).
What is the type of issue at the center of this case? For
example, is the major issue deciding liability (who is at fault or
accountable), malpractice (someone acted or failed to act and
damage resulted), an employment issue (employee &
employer dispute), an argument about expert qualifications,
the amount of damages or something else. Describe it.
Use your own words. A law dictionary is linked in your drop
box. Use it to explain legal terminology. This puts things in
normal wording instead of wording unique to lawyers. You
can also contact your instructor for assistance.
Briefly (one short paragraph) describe what the case is about.
What are plaintiff & defendant(s) OR appellant and appellee
arguing about? Are there 2 versions about what occurred, or
2 explanations for what was done or not done. Always use
professional terms & be brief. Ex: identify major differences
between a nurse’s version & the patient’s version of events,
not what occurred at 10:24, 10:30, etc.
Use your own words; keep it simple. Use a law dictionary prn.
There is usually a brief sentence or phrase on the first page
indicating the outcome, but it may be in “legal” terms. For
example, if a case is “remanded” to lower court, look this
term up so you can express it in your own words.
Summarize the legal decision of this
case, in other words how it
There will be a section discussing the reason(s) for a decision
within the case. Use the dictionary as you read this discussion
and summarize in your words.
Explain the reason for the conclusion.
Why was this the decision of the jury
or the judge?
There will be a basis or rationale for the court’s decision.
Discuss this here. Go one step beyond a re-trial or the final
judgement (“rendered”) to explain, in your words, WHY the
final decision was made. In other words, what is next? Is
there now money for damages, a retrial, or a final decision
that means a prior court decision is now confirmed?
Healthcare Relevance
Discuss the general relevance of this
case to healthcare, nursing leadership
and nursing practice, or quality of
Legal & Ethical Issues in Nursing
Select a chapter or section in Westrick
(2014) related to the major issue of
your case. NOTE: Your selection must
be content after the early chapter on
“malpractice” & “negligence”, in
other words content more specific to
the issue of the case.
Compose an APA reference for your
textbook. Include the chapter title
and page numbers you used.
Thoroughly explain the connection
between the Westrick chapter
selected & the main issue(s) of this
Scholarly Writing
Answers are written exclusively in the
student’s own words. Content was
proof-read for sentence structure &
clarity & spell-checked.
Westrick is the only author of this textbook; this is NOT an
edited book. Cite specific pages in your in-text citation and
include the chapter title in your APA compliant reference.
Think about the case & the textbook contents in combination.
What does Westrick say about this type of issue (ex:
documentation, consent, managing patient injuries, expert
witnesses, refusing an assignment, abandoning a patient, the
Good Samaritan Law, etc.)? How does what she says compare
to what happened in your case? Is what the author
recommends logical?
Think about your practice specialty, your agency, or the
practice of nursing in general. After reading the case and the
textbook, is it business “as usual” or do you think you may
view some situations a little differently?
Discuss your practice & what reading this case means to you (The writer may …). If you cannot identify any policies or
procedures directly related to the issue in this case, think
about policies in place that may be intended to reduce risk to
prevent something like this from happening.
This is NOT written as a first-person perspective.
Use third person voice for this template: “This author…” or
“The nurse will…”
Practice Implications
Discuss how the Westrick chapter you
selected & the case events may
impact your practice. What
preventative processes or policies
exist in your workplace that may be
relevant to the case reviewed?
You were assigned this case because it has something to do
with health care, healthcare practitioners, and/or patient care
quality. Now you know what has happened. Think about how
it relates to healthcare, nursing (at practice or management
level) or patients. It’s a 15-point discussion so cover the
implications thoroughly!
Review Westrick’s table of contents (the first pages of the
book). Do not write about “malpractice” in general, select a
specific section of the book that relates to your case.
There is more specific related content in your textbook
(example: charting, confidentiality, patient abandonment,
employment issues such as floating, impaired nurses, expert
credentials, transferring patients, or working outside the state
practice act or policy & procedures of the agency).
Do not use sentences from the case reviewed. You will be
penalized for using legal jargon instead of your own words.
No quotations are allowed, including significant passages or
Plagiarism can result in a “0” for the
State the events in very simple terms. There is no need to
include legal terminology.
Ethical Dilemma Analysis Paper
This is an objective discussion about a solution for an ethical dilemma based on unbiased, scholarly sources, and
written exclusively in your words. This is not a statement of opinion or feelings. This is a scholarly paper examining
factual support of what was expressed in the Personal Position paper. It is a maximum of 6 pages, excluding title and
reference pages, supported with multiple, scholarly sources. Content from websites or other authors must be
paraphrased and cited appropriately. Review the Turn-It-In report before submitting the final paper. No quotations
are allowed. If this requirement is ignored the paper will be returned and standard late penalty is applied to any
Ethical Dilemma Analysis Paper
Grading Criteria
Professional Relevance
First write a simple statement to orient the reader to the
Briefly introduce this dilemma, and
central dilemma in this paper and the proposed solution.
identify the solution being explored.
Elaborate first by thinking about the “big picture” of
Discuss the relevance of this dilemma
healthcare in the U.S. Then, by thinking about this issue
to healthcare in general, then
related to nurses, particularly the perspective of nursing
specifically to nurses. Address quality
leaders that manage staff & care delivery. How does this
of care.
dilemma relate to nursing’s efforts to ensure quality patient
Compose a thoughtful discussion of
Explore the literature related to this issue. Select the
factual evidence that supports the
strongest, most relevant evidence for your topic. Journal
proposed solution for this dilemma.
articles are usually not appropriate sources, BUT if you locate
Address the following categories.
1 you want to use please write your instructor for validation
that it is considered scholarly.
Look for reputable .org, .gov, & .edu sources. There are
suggested choices below, in optional resources in the weekly
materials, & in the Student Resources folder.
Your discussion will be sourced by the
following types of scholarly evidence:
Laws or Case Law, Statutes, and
Rules & Regulations Identify
the relevant legal precedent
for this solution to the
dilemma. These include legal
cases, laws, legislated
statutes, rules or regulations
from regulatory agencies
with jurisdiction in this issue,
and/or any applicable local,
state, or national standards.
Professional Guidelines Discuss
applicable professional
standards and guidelines, or
organizational position
statements (“white papers”)
relevant to this dilemma.
Include the Nurse Practice
Act or standards from the
professional nursing
Try a broad search for legal cases related to this topic in
LexisNexis and your favorite search engine using very broad,
related terminology. ALWAYS look for current statutes or
proposed legislation related to your topic. Remember there
are often state or national standards with agencies regulating
healthcare delivery. The DHHS and CDC provide excellent
sources. In Informatics you learned about the Government
Printing Office.
Use extreme caution with Pro-Con because this website uses
multiple publications and often sources are outdated. Look
at their reference list, not just footnotes. Ask your instructor
if you are unsure about a source.
Consider who works with this population or other major
stake-holder(s). Professional guidelines come from practice
acts or professional organizations of the nurse and physician
groups most concerned about the issue. White papers are
official position statements by these groups. There may be a
nurse practitioner organization or nursing specialty group, or
a physician group actively addressing your topic. Search for
“white papers” by a broad “Google” search as a starting
place, then examine results to identify scholarly sources.
organizations, or the
American Medical
Association or related
physician specialty groups.
Ethical Theory Select & discuss
one ethical theory to support
this solution other than the
theory used in the personal
position paper.
Moral Principles Discuss a
minimum of two (2) moral
principles that support the
solution for this dilemma
(see textbook page 297).
In conclusion, explain “this author’s
perspective” compared to scholarly
research reviewed.
Professional nursing organizations include but are not
limited to the AORN, ENA, CCNA, Association of Nurse
Executives (AONE), and the Academy of Medical-Surgical
Nurses (AMSN). Standards are typically accessible to nonmembers. The ANA and American Medical Association also
have many position statements. (You have already applied
the Code of Ethics in your first paper. Do not repeat use here.)
Briefly explain whether scholarly
sources are consistent with this
author’s values.
Scholarly Writing: This scholarly
paper is a maximum of 6 pages
written in your words, & conforming
to APA guidelines. No quotations
from other authors or information
copied from websites will be
Do not repeat the theory used in your position paper. Go to
Bonde and Firenze (week 1) – discuss the application of one
of the other theories. Note this 20-point discussion and it
requires an in-depth answer applying this “new to you”
ethical theory to the specifics of the dilemma.
Refer to the table in Westrick, p. 297 for relevant moral
principles. These are not personal values from the Position
paper. Select the most appropriate two principles and
discuss how they apply to the dilemma.
Write from “this author’s” perspective. Reflect on personal
values identified in your Position Paper. Reflect on sources
reported above. No personal pronouns in this paper!
Do the sources found support your proposed solution to
resolve this dilemma? Are sources mostly compatible with
your perspective and values? If they are not, how do you
resolve this? One approach would be to examine a strongly
held value that relates to your perspective, then compare
what you found in a scholarly source discussed in a section
No quotations are allowed. If this requirement is ignored
the paper will be returned and a standard late penalty
applied to any resubmission. Carefully review your Turn-It-In
report and make necessary revisions before submitting your
final for grading.
Headings are required in this paper,
as is 3rd person voice. Scholarly
writing includes, but is not limited to,
the use of scholarly resources
published within the past 5 years,
unless referencing a classic work.
Headings are required in this paper. The headings used
The quality of a minimum of 5
scholarly sources will be given
significant consideration in grading.
Review sentence structure & clarity,
include appropriate in-text and
citations, and ensure all content is
The quality of sources will be given significant
consideration. A minimum of five, current, scholarly sources
are required. If uncertain about what may be a valuable
resource, please ask the instructor.
are your choice. Recommended are based on the 4 types of
scholarly sources (Legal Standards, Professional Guidelines,
Ethical Theory, and Moral Principles).
Plagiarism, including failure to
paraphrase content written by
others, can result in a “0” for the
assignment and failure of the course.
Ethical dilemma: Who should control Reproductive decision on defective fetus
Legal Ethical Aspects of Nursing
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ethical dilemma on who should governor
reproductive choices once fetal defects are identified. This and other reproductive issues have
been and still is a major conflict in healthcare globally. The writer will also explore the solution
of respecting the parent’s rights to autonomy and self-determination after enough information
regarding their choices is given. The relevance of this dilemma to healthcare in the United States
is that even though the U. S is one of the 67 countries to allow abortion on request, there is
variation in limitations set by each state for adults and minors. Many states have put some limits
on abortion and uphold restriction on funding. As it related to nurses, it is the nurse’s duty to
respect the parent’s choice and advocate for the parent’s rights to choose. Every patient should
be treated with dignity and respect, regardless of their socioeconomic status. Their moral
principles and cultural believes should also be preserved at all cost. In doing so, this will ensure
the quality care each patient desire.
The issue of abortion has been brought up in many legal precedents. The 1973 case of
Roe VS. Wade was a landmark case in the U.S Supreme Court. The ruling in the case protects
women’s rights to privacy under the 14th Amendment of the Constitution (Landmark Cases,
2020). This Amendment upholds citizen’s rights to equal protection, outlaw states from not
granting persons their freedom without due process, and support every citizen being equally
protected by the laws (National Institution Center, 2020). Whole Women’s Health v. Hellerstedt
was also a Supreme Court decision in 2016, granting women unrestricted access to safe, legal
healthcare service that generates unwanted burden on women seeking abortion (The Supreme
Court of the United Stated, 2016). Even though with some restrictions and requirements, the
2019 Florida Statutes also upholds parent’s rights to abortion care. Abortion care can be
performed in the state of Florida only by a license physician; a signed consent, stated directed
counseling and an ultrasound is required prior. The pregnancy should also be done before 24
weeks of gestation (The Florida Legislature, 2020).
Nurses have a responsibility to provide healthcare needs to patients while respecting their
rights to privacy, and their rights to make their own decisions regarding their personal care.
According to the American Nurses Association (ANA) (2016), The ANA have shown support in
advocating for quality and affordable health care for everyone, not excluding services related to
reproductive health. The ANA also supports every person being granted their rights to privacy
and autonomy without unwarranted barriers (ANA, 2016). As health care professionals, nurses
are devoted to support the wellbeing and security of patients, identify that regulation that limits
the patient’s access prevent nurses from providing the care they are trained and dedicated to
providing (American Academy of Nursing, 2015). The American Academy of Nursing also
commended the U.S. Supreme Court’s verdict in Whole Women’s Health v. Hellerstedt, deeming
it the most substantial abortion case in 20 years (American Academy of Nursing, 2015).
According to the World Health Organization (2020), women should have the right to freely
choose and without intimidation and ferocity the amount, layout, and the time in which their
children are born; they should also have the information and resources to do so, and the right to
be given the maximum standard of reproductive care while doing so.
The Virtue Approach is an ethical theory that supports the writer’s solution. This
approach specifies that in order for one to be ethical they must be consistent with ideal human
virtues (Bonde & Firenze, 2013). Parents who are choosing how to proceed with their pregnancy
have personal virtues that they value to promote individual great. With this, respecting and
supporting their rights to choose is the best ethical approach. The approach also stated that ethics
should be focused on a person’s entire life, not just an isolated action a person perform in a given
situation (Bonde & Firenze, 2013). Parents exercising their right to end their pregnancy when
fetal defects are identified should not be judged solely on that decision. Their good character
should not be overlooked or be tainted based of that decision; it should remain as they attain
certain virtues.
Two moral principles that supports the writer’s solution to this dilemma are autonomy
and freedom. According to Westrick (2014), autonomy allows the patient to maintain their
character and values notwithstanding the nurse’s own values. Despite that patient’s decision,
their understanding should be evaluated, and information should also be provided as it is the
responsibility of the nurse (Westrick, 2014). Freedom grants the parents the ability to
independently choose the method of treatment they desire (Westrick, 2014). The nurse may not
agree with the parent’s decision on how they will proceed with their pregnancy; however, the
nurse must respect that decision. According to Westrick (2014), it is the role of the nurse to
provide the patient with the information needed to make those decision. These two principles
support the parent’s rights to make inform healthcare decisions based on information that they
are given without interference.
As can be seem, the author’s perspective is respecting women’s right to autonomy and
self- determination when it comes to health and abortion care. Freedom, religion, and stability
are the personal values that shapes the writer’s position on this issue. Sources provided support
the writer’s perspective and solution to this dilemma. The Supreme Court decision on Roe Vs.
Wade and Whole Women’s Health v. Hellerstedt protects women’s right to choose and have
access to abortion care without restrictions. The 14th Amendment of the Constitution upholds
citizen’s privacy and equal protection by law. The ANA fully supports individual’s right to
privacy and their right to make healthcare decisions without limitations. WHO also support
women not having limitation set on the number of children they have, when and how they are
born. Even though there are numerous attempts to overturn and to go against these ruling, they
are powerful and important decisions and statement. They are supported by the constitution to
support women and their rights to autonomy and self-determination.
American Academy of Nursing. (2015). Women’s Health. Retrieved from
American Nurses Association. (2016). ANA hails Supreme Court decision to protect women’s
access to reproductive health services. Retrieved from
Bonde, S., & P, Firenze. (2013). A framework for making ethical decisions. Retrieved from
Guttmacher Institute. (2020). State facts about abortion: Florida. Retrieved from
Landmark Cases. (2020). Roe v. Wade: Summary of the decision. Retrieved from
National Constitution Center. (2020). 14th Amendment. Retrieved from
Supreme Court of the United States. (2016). Whole Woman’s Health et al. v. Hellerstedt,
commissioner, Texas Department of State Health Services, et al
The Florida Legislature. (2020). The 2019 Florida Statutes. Retrieved from
Westrick, S. (2014). Essentials of nursing law and ethics. (2nd Ed.). Burlington, MA:
Jones and Bartlett.
World Health Organization. (2020). Abortion. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/healthtopics/abortion#tab=tab_1
Ethical Decision Making
Moral Principles of Ethical Decision Making
own way.
Freedom –
Autonomy — The ability to allow the patient to independently make decisions regarding care and
treatment based on information provided so that the patient can effectively reason in his or her
The patient’s ability to freely determine what method of treatment is most consistent
the patient receives the relevant information needed to make these decisions.
with protecting his or her autonomy and independence. The nurse has an obligation to ensure that
patient. The patient has a right to expect beneficence.
Beneficence – The expectation of the patient that the nurse will do good and prevent harm to the
To protect the patient from harmful circumstances or decisions and to
promote, not ignore, treatments that will not harm and forbid those that will cause harm.
– Information given to the patient must be truthful so that informed decisions can
be made by the patient. This protects the patient’s autonomy.
Confidentiality/privacy — Endorses the theory of self-ownership, the right to privacy, and
freedom from harm due to a breach of that privacy. The patient expects that this right will
not be violated by the nurse.
Fidelity – The patient has the expectation and right to expect that the nurse will remain faithful
and trustworthy to each understanding and agreement.
Justice – The nurse’s moral obligation to treat all people fairly, without prejudice or regard for
their socioeconomic status, personal characteristics, or disease process.
personal character, or nature of the illness.
Every patient should be treated with dig-
Nurse’s Role
To further ensure this respect, the nurse
According to the American Nurses Asso- nity and worth, taking into account the dif-
ciation (ANA, 2001) Code of Ethics for ferences and special needs of each patient.
Nurses with Interpretative Statements, the
nurse is committed to respect the dignity must make decisions through a reason-
freedom to make choices to receive that judgments, clinical observations, and the
of each patient and to foster each patient’s ing process that incorporates professional
e patient and the primacy of the patient’s This process is a vital component of nurs-
to which he or she is entitled. Respect for practical matters of technical feasibility.
interests is the basis for this commitment. ing. In doing so, the nurse needs to be cer-
As such, the nurse has a duty to respect the tain that any approach that is taken does
[ regardless of socioeconomic status,
not violate the moral principles that need
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