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Curtisha D402 Introduction:

Breaking sterility during surgical procedures is an issue that we face globally within healthcare systems. This is a huge issue because the breaking of sterility complicates surgical procedures. Patients gain complicated surgical site infections which can be debilitating, and it can also affect the healthcare staff. This major issue leads to financial loss in quite large numbers for the facility implementing the procedure, but the main issue is the harm that it causes the patient. There are more than 10 million patients who undergo surgical procedures as an inpatient every year, which accounts for more than ¼ of all hospital stays. More commonly we see cesarean sections, orthopedic procedures, intra-abdominal procedures, and neurosurgical procedures. And of all these surgical procedures, surgical site infections occur in about 2 to 4% of all patients who undergo inpatient surgical procedures (PSN, 2017). Implementing strict guidelines which lead to punishment if not followed is how I believe we can achieve more efficient use of sterile procedure during surgery. This paper begins by introducing what sterility is and what a surgical site infection is. The paper will be going into the historical, mathematical, cultural, and ethical perspectives of sterility and surgical site infections. The paper breaks down the evolution of sterility in surgical procedures over the years since it was created in the 1940s regarding the historical part of it. Mathematically, the extensive costs of healthcare acquired infections and surgical site infections is described in here as well. The paper compares the occurrence rate of SSIs in the US versus other countries for the cultural aspect. Ethically, it discusses two important principles of ethical decision making in healthcare, which are autonomy and non-maleficence. I used Google Scholar as well as WCU’s library database to find articles relating to my topic. I used keywords such as “surgical site infection”, “sterility”, “sterile procedure”, and “hospital acquired infection”. From there I eliminated “hospital acquired infection” and relied more on articles that spoke about “surgical site infection”. I also removed a “sterile procedure” so I would have less keywords in my search.

Sally D402: Introduction:

During times of illness there is heightened anxiety and emotions by both patients and family members. There is fear and uncertainty and an overall sense of unrest. Should patients be allowed to have family accompany them for health care treatment and hospitalization? Does family presence make a difference in overall patient care and recovery as well as family member psychological well-being? Beesley et. al (2016) wrote, “patients may experience less fear and anxiety during procedures when a loved one is present” (Beesley et. al, p. 1156, 2016). It is also thought that when family members who witness procedures benefit psychologically through knowing that everything is being done for their loved one (Beesly et. al, p. 1156, 2016). But, so much changed during the Covid – 19 pandemics. Each hospital adopted its own policies regarding visitors. Haziq Siddiqi (2020) reported that, some hospitals adopted policies that would allow one visitor for pediatric, pregnant or end of life patients, while others permitted no visitors, which left patients to spend their final moments alive, alone (Siddiqi, p. 1, 2020). This is not acceptable and needs to be improved immediately. This paper will present the historical, mathematical, ethical, and cultural perspective regarding this important subject. First it will examine why historically physicians have been hesitant about involving family during procedures and how this became an even more complicated subject during the recent Covid – 19 pandemic and surges that are occurring because of the Covid – 19 variants. The mathematical perspective will examine a quantitative research paper that examined 17 scientific papers that all discussed the various hospital and nursing home visitor restrictions policies and how these restrictions effected patients and visitors in their treatment and recovery process. The ethical perspective will be discussed through the review of a study conducted in which Dutch physicians discussed the ethical dilemmas they faced while visitor restrictions were in place during the Covid – 19 restrictions and how it affected their patients as well as themselves. Lastly, the cultural perspective will be discussed as the disparities in treatment, the potential long-term effects and communication challenges with minority patients including, non-English speaking patients and family members were examined in two studies. The information for this research paper was obtained from using the Google Scholar search engine. The search was first broad using terms ‘importance of family presence in hospitals. Then made more specific, ‘hospital visitor policy Covid 19’ and ‘ethical dilemmas on healthcare workers Covid 19’. Lastly, a search for ‘cultural disparities Covid 19 visitor restrictions. The filters set were 2018 -2022 and scholarly and peer reviewed.

Drafting Your Abstract
Your Topic Area:
DRAFTING THE ABSTRACT – Draft the abstract of your final paper. Remember to meet the limits of
150-250 words in the final version of the abstract. You may handwrite or type your draft in the spaces
provided, or you may word process, and attach your abstract. This is a draft. You will revisit it when
you have completed your final paper, and revise it as needed, based on your final product.
Part 1 –
State the issue/topic & problem
This should be based on your problem statement, but revised for brevity:
Part 2 –
Explain the methods/procedures/approaches
Outline the perspectives of inquiry in your preferred order. If appropriate, discuss
the research process you used, and/or the key research sources you employed:
Part 3 –
Reveal your results and findings (understandings from inquiry papers)
Briefly describe the key take-aways or major/main points from each of the inquiry sections:
Part 4 –
Disclose/expose your concluding solution
Avoid the details, but divulge the solution you will propose in the concluding section:

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