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Description

Legal / Ethical Vulnerable Populations Activity

Assignment Description:

The purpose of this activity is to provide students the opportunity to assist individuals who may have special needs during a disaster in areas of education and preparation.

Assignment Directions:

Part I: Working with an Individual

Step 1:

Identify an individual in your community who may have special needs during a disaster. Please refer to the “Examples of High-Risk Vulnerable Populations” table below.

Step 2:

Arrange to meet with the identified individual.

Step 3:

Prior to the meeting

: Review information on the

Utah Special Needs Registry

website – especially related to the “What to do” section.

http://www.specialneedsutah.org/

Depending on the area of special need:

Prepare information

regarding available support services including contact information for interdisciplinary referrals where appropriate. Additional information is available via the American Red Cross, FEMA, Be Ready Utah, and local hospitals / support agencies.

Step 4:

During the meeting:

Teach identified individual (and primary care-givers when appropriate) about the

Utah Special Needs Registry

as well as what to do to prepare for a disaster or an emergency. Go through

“What To Do”

steps and identify individual needs related to preparation as well as the

“Action Checklist.”

Step 5:

***Put patient is uncomfortable with registering in section provided below.

Note:

If the individual is uncomfortable registering with the

Special Needs Registry

, then make comments regarding this in the appropriate section of the matrix (see below).

Step 6:

Answer the Legal / Ethical Scenario questions – Part II (below)

Step 7: Submit

Legal Ethical Vulnerable Populations Activity Matrix

Actions

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Grading: Refer to the grading rubric

______________________________________________________________________

Part II: Legal / Ethical Scenario for Vulnerable Populations

Scenario:

You are at the scene of a disaster (known terrorist bombing) and you come across two victims of the same status (red / immediate care). One victim is lying next to their wheelchair and is gaining consciousness. The other victim is completely unconscious.

Timing is critical and you have been told that you only have 5 minutes to rescue as many victims from the building as possible. The walking wounded have already been evacuated.

Consult the American Nurses Association “ANA Issues White Paper – press release Final” document page 2 –

key recommendations (

Unit E Resources

)

. How will your care of these two victims be influenced related to these recommendations?

Continued Scenario:

Once outside of the building, you join patients in the treatment area. You come across a circumstance where you are required to perform emergency medical treatment outside of your normal scope of practice (usually performed by a physician) in order to save a life.

Will you continue with the procedure?

Consult the Utah Good Samaritan Act (attached). Are you legally protected to perform this procedure?

____________________________________________________________________

Examples of High-Risk Vulnerable Populations

& Additional Assistance Required

Disability / Special Need

Additional Steps

Visually impaired

May be extremely reluctant to leave familiar surroundings when the request for evacuation comes from a stranger. A guide dog could become confused or disoriented in a disaster. People who are blind or partially sighted may have to depend on others to lead them, as well as their dog, to safety during a disaster.

Hearing impaired

May need to make special arrangements to receive warnings.

Mobility impaired

May need special assistance to get to a shelter.

Non-English speaking persons

May need assistance planning for and responding to emergencies. Community and cultural groups may be able to help keep people informed.

People without vehicles

May need to make arrangements for transportation.

People with special dietary needs

Should take special precautions to have an adequate emergency food supply.

People with medical conditions

Should know the location and availability of more than one facility if dependent on a dialysis machine or other life-sustaining equipment or treatment.

People with mental disability

May need help responding to emergencies and getting to a shelter.

People with dementia

May want to be registered in the

Alzheimer’s Association Safe Return Program

Reference: The information in this table was obtained from the Utah Special Needs Registry. See

www.specialneedsutah.org

Utah Good Samaritan Act
78-11-22. Good Samaritan Act.
(1) A person who renders emergency care at or near the scene of, or during an
emergency, gratuitously and in good faith, is not liable for any civil damages or penalties
as a result of any act or omission by the person rendering the emergency care, unless the
person is grossly negligent or caused the emergency. As used in this section,
“emergency” means an unexpected occurrence involving injury, threat of injury, or illness
to a person or the public, including motor vehicle accidents, disasters, actual or
threatened discharges, removal, or disposal of hazardous materials, and other accidents or
events of a similar nature. “Emergency care” includes actual assistance or advice offered
to avoid, mitigate, or attempt to mitigate the effects of an emergency.
(2) A person who gratuitously, and in good faith, assists governmental agencies or
political subdivisions in the activities described in Subsections (2)(a) through (c) is not
liable for any civil damages or penalties as a result of any act or omission unless the
person rendering assistance is grossly negligent in:
(a) implementing measures to control the causes of epidemic and communicable
diseases and other conditions significantly affecting the public health, or necessary to
protect the public health as set out in Title 26A, Chapter 1, Local Health Departments;
(b) investigating and controlling suspected bioterrorism and disease as set out in Title
26, Chapter 23b, Detection of Public Health Emergencies Act; and
(c) responding to a national, state, or local emergency, a public health emergency as
defined in Section 26-23b-102, or a declaration by the President of the United States or
other federal official requesting public health-related activities.
(3) The immunity in Subsection (2) is in addition to any immunity or protection in
state or federal law that may apply.
Amended by Chapter 90, 2004 General Session
Last revised: Thursday, July 19, 2007
__________________________________________________________________
“A principle of TORT LAW that provides that a person who sees another
individual in imminent and serious danger or peril cannot be charged with
NEGLIGENCE if that first person attempts to aid or rescue the injured party,
provided the attempt is not made recklessly.
The Good Samaritan doctrine is used by rescuers to avoid civil liability for
injuries arising from their negligence. Its purpose is to encourage emergency
assistance by removing the threat of liability for damage done by the assistance.
However, the assistance must be reasonable; a rescuer cannot benefit from the
Good Samaritan doctrine if the assistance is reckless or grossly negligent.
Three key elements support a successful invocation of the Good Samaritan
doctrine: (1) the care rendered was performed as the result of the emergency, (2)
the initial emergency or injury was not caused by the person invoking the
defense, and (3) the emergency care was not given in a grossly negligent or
reckless manner.
Assume that a person has slipped on ice and broken a vertebra. The victim is
unconscious, the accident has occurred in a desolate area, and the weather is
dangerously cold. A passerby finds the injured person and moves the person to
warmth and safety, but in the process aggravates the spinal injury. In a civil suit
by the victim seeking damages for the additional injury, the passerby may
successfully defeat the claims under the Good Samaritan doctrine.
The Good Samaritan doctrine is also used as a defense by persons who act to
prevent or contain property damage. Assume that a passerby notices a fire has
started just outside a cabin in the wilderness. If the passerby breaks into the
cabin to look for a fire extinguisher, the passerby will not be liable for damage
resulting from the forced entry. However, if the passerby runs down the cabin
with a bulldozer to extinguish the fire, this will probably be considered grossly
negligent or reckless, and the Good Samaritan doctrine will not provide
protection from a civil suit for damages to the cabin.
The line separating negligence from gross negligence or recklessness is often thin.
Hardingham v. United Counseling Service of Bennington County, 672 A. 2d 480
(Vt. 1995), illustrates the negligent acts that the Good Samaritan doctrine
protects. In this case, the plaintiff, David Hardingham, sued United Counseling
Service (UCS) when he became blind after drinking windshield wiper fluid.
Hardingham, a recovering alcoholic, was employed by UCS as an emergency
services counselor. When Hardingham began drinking again, employees of UCS
went to his apartment and discovered him in an inebriated condition. During
their visit, they saw Hardingham drink windshield wiper fluid. They called the
police, who took Hardingham to a hospital. At the hospital, none of the UCS
workers informed medical authorities that Hardingham had drunk the dangerous
fluid. Doctors did not learn until the next day that Hardingham had overdosed on
methanol, a component of windshield wiper fluid, and Hardingham eventually
lost his sight.
Hardingham never got a chance to present his case to a jury. The Chittenden
Superior Court granted SUMMARY JUDGMENT to UCS, holding that there was
insufficient evidence to support an allegation of gross negligence by the
organization. The Supreme Court of Vermont affirmed this decision. According to
the court, the actions of the defendants ‘probably saved plaintiff’s life.’ Although
the defendants may have been negligent in failing to disclose that Hardingham
had swallowed enough methanol to threaten his life, ‘no reasonable person could
conclude that defendants showed indifference to plaintiff or failed to exercise
even a slight degree of care.’
Justice John Dooley dissented, arguing that the case presented a QUESTION OF
FACT for a jury to decide. The defendants ‘failed to tell the emergency room
physician the most significant fact that wasn’t obvious from plaintiff’s condition—
that plaintiff had consumed windshield wiper fluid.’ Dooley lamented that ‘the
greatest difficulty plaintiff faces in this case is to persuade us to accept that good
samaritans should ever be liable.’
Section 324 of the Second Restatement of Torts describes the Good Samaritan
doctrine in an inverse fashion. According to section 324, a person is subject to
liability for physical harm resulting from the failure to exercise reasonable care if
the failure increases the risk of harm, if the rescuer has a duty to render care, or if
others are relying on the rescuer.
Many states are content to follow the Good Samaritan doctrine through their
COMMON LAW or through similar previous cases. Some states have general
statutes mandating the doctrine. Utah, for example, has a Good Samaritan act,
which provides in part that
[a] person who renders emergency care at or near the scene of, or during an
emergency, gratuitously and in GOOD FAITH, is not liable for any civil damages or penalties
as a result of any act or omission by the person rendering the emergency care, unless the
person is grossly negligent or caused the emergency. (Utah Code Ann. 78-11-22).
Some states have enacted statutes that protect specific emergency care or
assistance. Indiana, for example, protects the emergency care of veterinarians
(Ind. Code 15-5-1.1-31). Alabama provides IMMUNITY to those who assist or
advise in the mitigation of the effects of the discharge of hazardous materials
(Ala. Code 6-5-332.1). Some states also provide protection to those participating
in the cleanup of oil spills. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act (Pub. L.
No. 101-380, 33 U.S.C.A. 2701–2761 [1994]), which gave immunity from liability
to persons who participate in oil cleanup efforts. Like any Good Samaritan law,
the statute does not protect a person who is grossly negligent or reckless.”
This information was obtained from: http://law.jrank.org/pages/7182/GoodSamaritan-Doctrine.html
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
March 14 2008
CONTACT:
Mary McNamara, 301-628-5198
mary.mcnamara@ana.org
Mary Stewart, 301-628-5038
mary.stewart@ana.org
www.nursingworld.org
ANA ISSUES POLICY PAPER WITH GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
ALL HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS WHO RESPOND TO EMERGENCIES,
DISASTERS OR PANDEMICS
White Paper Makes Clear: ‘No Emergency Changes the Basic Standards of Practice, Code of
Ethics, Competence or Values of the Professional’
SILVER SPRING, MD – As a result of the American Nurses Association’s (ANA) effort to
significantly engage registered nurses and the nursing profession in the association’s policy
development process, today ANA released a timely policy paper “Adapting Standards of Care Under
Extreme Conditions: Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme
Emergencies.”
“America’s nurses understand the difficult decisions that must be made during a disaster. We have to
shift our clinical goals from making day to day decisions for the individual to achieve the greatest
good for the greatest number of people. This means that care decisions are about what can be done
given the limited resources and extreme conditions at the time,” said President Rebecca M. Patton,
MSN, RN, CNOR.
The policy document addresses individual health professionals who find themselves providing care
during an extreme emergency when the usual resources – both human and material – may not be
available. The paper’s guideline are based on critical “foundational” documents including emergency
preparedness and response competencies expected of health professionals, scope and standards of
care documents issued by professional organizations, such as the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses and
a wide range of guidelines on care in emergencies produced by professional organizations,
MORE
Page 2/White Paper
governmental agencies or specific institutions. Visitors to ANA’s Web site, NursingWorld, can
locate it through the following link
http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/HealthcareandPolicyIssues/DPR/TheLawEthicso
fDisasterResponse/AdaptingStandardsofCare.aspx.
In developing this policy paper, ANA held the first in a series of policy conferences, “Nursing Care
in Life, Death and Disaster” in June 2007 – and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to advise
the association on the policy questions related to standards of care and to develop strategies that
guide health professional’s institutions and policy makers in challenging circumstances. All
participants of the policy conference had an opportunity to review the document and provide
significant feedback to the expert panel.
Key Recommendations:
¾ Registered nurses and other health professionals must prepare themselves and their families
for potential emergencies, including the potential for the health professional to be away for
extended periods during an emergency.
¾ Registered nurses and other health professionals must use their professional competence to
provide the best care possible given the resources and physical conditions under which they
are working.
¾ Health facilities and other practice sites must provide opportunities for professional decisionmaking about adapting standards in drills and exercises on a regular basis.
¾ Health facilities and other practice sites must conduct psychosocial needs assessment for
those responding, and arrange for assistance if needed.
¾ Emergency response planners should ensure the health institutions and professionals are
included in all planning for legal declarations of emergencies to assure that concerns about
patient care guidelines and relevant regulations are considered.
¾ Emergency response planners should assist in developing plans to return to pre-event status
as quickly and smoothly as reasonable.
###
The ANA is the only full-service professional organization representing the interests of the nation’s 2.9 million
registered nurses through its 54 constituent member nurses associations. The ANA advances the nursing profession
by fostering high standards of nursing practice, promoting the rights of nurses in the workplace, projecting a
positive and realistic view of nursing, and by lobbying the Congress and regulatory agencies on health care issues
affecting nurses and the public.
Support Agencies / Helpful Information
Agency
The American Red Cross
Web Address
http://www.redcross.org/
Northern Utah Chapter – The
American Red Cross
http://www.redcrossutah.org/

Nursing Emergency Preparedness
Education Coalition
(International)
http://www.nursing.vanderbilt.edu/incmce/
Federal Emergency Management
Agency
http://www.fema.gov/areyouready/
Citizens Corps
http://www.citizencorps.gov/
Medical Reserve Corps
http://www.medicalreservecorps.gov/HomePage
Utah Special Needs Registry
http://www.specialneedsutah.org/
Division of Homeland Security
http://www.emergencymanagement.utah.gov/eqlady/
Be Ready Utah

Home

Ready.Gov
http://www.ready.gov/
CERT – Community Emergency
Response Teams
https://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/
Volunteers in Police Services
http://www.policevolunteers.org/
The National Neighborhood
Watch

National Nurse Response Team
http://www.hhs.gov/aspr/opeo/ndms/teams/nnrt.html
National Disaster Medical System
http://www.hhs.gov/aspr/opeo/ndms/index.html
The National Association for
Search and Rescue
http://www.nasar.org/nasar/
Amateur Radio Disaster Services
http://www.ares.org/
International Committee of the
Red Cross
http://www.icrc.org/
Doctors Without Boarders
http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/home.cfm
Adapting Standards of
Care under Extreme
Conditions:
Guidance for
Professionals
During Disasters,
Pandemics, and
Other Extreme Emergencies

Adapting Standards of Care
Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During
Disasters, Pandemics, and Other
Extreme Emergencies
Prepared for the
American Nurses Association
by the Center for Health Policy,
Columbia University School of Nursing
Published March 2008
Letter
S
tarting in 2006, the American Nurses Association (ANA) embarked on a
new effort to significantly engage registered nurses and the nursing profession in ANA’s policy development process on a timely policy issue impacting the profession. ANA’s policy conference, Nursing Care in Life, Death and
Disaster and the resulting policy document, Adapting Standards of Care under
Extreme Conditions: Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics,
and Other Extreme Emergencies, are the first in a series of policy conferences
convened by ANA to engage and involve the nursing public. This resulting
policy document speaks to individual health professionals who find themselves
providing care during an extreme emergency when the usual resources – both human and material – may not be available. Under these conditions, health professionals are often faced with questions and concerns related to the standard of care
that can be realistically provided.
In developing this policy paper, ANA sought to engage the nursing public
through a variety of feedback mechanisms. First, a multidisciplinary expert panel was convened to advise ANA on the policy questions related to standards of
care and to develop strategies that can guide health professionals, institutions and
policy makers in such challenging circumstances. Secondly, and more importantly, ANA hosted a conference of nursing professionals to provide participants
with an opportunity to review the document and provide significant feedback to
ANA and the expert panel. Finally, members of the general nursing public and
other stakeholders had an opportunity to review the document and again provide
feedback to ANA and the expert panel. This final policy paper reflects much of
the input received and is a product of those who participated.
Thank you to all of the conference participants and to the members of the expert
panel for participating and offering your professional feedback to ANA. Your
comments are valued and were thoroughly considered. ANA looks forward to
your participation in future policy conferences.
Sincerely,
Rebecca M. Patton, MSN, RN, CNOR
President
American Nurses Association
Linda J. Stierle, MSN, RN, CNAA,BC
Chief Executive Officer
American Nurses Association
Acknowledgments
This project was supported by grant number 1 R13 HS016894 from the Agency
for Healthcare Research and Quality.
The American Nurses Association appreciates the support of the Association of
State and Territorial Directors of Nursing (ASTDN) for this project.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.

Contents
Introduction and Purpose ……………………………………………………………… 4
Definitions and Foundations ………………………………………………………….. 6
Table 1. Ethical Principles in Emergency Care . …………………… 9
Table 2. Emergency Preparedness Competencies
for Clinicians ……………………………………………………………….. 11
Challenges to Meeting Usual Care Expectations …………………………… 13
Meeting These Challenges ……………………………………………………………. 16
Recommendations for Emergency Event Care ……………………………… 18
Individual Registered Nurses or
Other Health Professionals …………………………………………… 18
Health Facilities or Practice Sites ………………………………………. 19
Emergency Response Planners ………………………………………….. 20
Post-Event Considerations ………………………………………………… 21
References …………………………………………………………………………………… 22
The Policy Workgroup ………………………………………………………………… 23
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.

Introduction
and Purpose
P
olicy makers and health professionals, including registered nurses,
physicians and others, have asked a range of important questions
regarding the ethics and standards that apply to decisions about care
made during unusual or extreme circumstances such as those resulting
from emergencies, disasters or pandemics. The decisions include changes
in usual practices due to changes in resources available, or practice in unusual settings, or practice in a setting or with patient care needs unfamiliar
to the clinician.
The American Nurses Association, in response to these questions, convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to identify more precisely the significant policy questions that need to be addressed and to develop strategies that can guide health professionals, institutions and policy makers in
such challenging situations. This White Paper is based on the deliberations
of that panel, informed by feedback received from participants in a national meeting on care during disasters and a review of state and national
guidelines for standards of care in other settings and professions.
Terminology becomes extremely important in any document such as this.
One of the most vexing is how to describe the challenging process of making the best use of the competencies of the health professionals who are
available to provide care during an emergency event without inadvertently
opening ongoing inter-professional debates such as those about scope
of professional practice. Even though—under some declared emergency
situations in some states—licensing laws may be suspended or altered,
licensed health professionals should continue to be bound by professional legal requirements even when applying their skills and knowledge
in extreme circumstances. A dentist does not become a surgeon, a nurse
does not become a pharmacist, a physician does not become a radiation
technologist. The authors of this paper do not intend for it to be used other
than to guide sound practice of each health profession by the members of
that profession when a community emergency occurs.
The document speaks primarily to the individual professional in a care
giver or service provider role, whether:
• at the immediate site of a disastrous event when it happens,
• at the usual place of work when it is affected by the disaster, or
• at some other site because of relocation of usual place of work or work
in a volunteer program or unit.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.

No document can contain all of the answers to the many questions that
will arise during situations such as these. There are no pre-determined
answers to the specific questions that arise in any emergency event, but the
perspectives provided should assist a registered nurse, advanced practice
nurse, physician, dentist, or other professional, whether working in a hospital, office, public health agency, community setting, faith-based organization, shelter, or transport.
Beyond individual practitioners, this document can provide valuable
guidance to a wide range of health professionals, including employees
of health organizations (e.g., hospitals, community-based clinics, public
health agencies), emergency planners, other public health partners (public
health advisors, public health educators), and health profession educators.
It is important to remember that the following material cannot and will
not serve as a substitute for two paramount requirements of overarching
significance:
• The responsibility of every professional to maintain a state of professional readiness for emergency response.
• The responsibility of every organization or institution to plan for and
practice emergency response.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.

Definitions
and
Foundations
T
he practice expectations for any registered nurse or other health
professional are a combination of general standards of professional
practice, standards of performance , professional codes of ethics,
legal regulation, personal and institutional values, individual competencies and the specific workplace and situational context. The context will
change when there is an extreme emergency,1 even before it can be officially “declared” by an institutional or governmental authority, but how
will these other standards, codes, regulations, and values change in such
a situation? No emergency changes the basic standards of practice, code
of ethics, competence or values of the professional. (Legal structures for
health professionals MAY change IF the emergency is in a state that allows
for such alterations under emergency powers.) The specific application
of standards will be based on the reality of the specific situation, such as
presence or absence of usual equipment, medications or colleagues.
As attention to emergency preparedness has expanded during the early part
of the 21st century, multiple deliberations have informed the discussions
of expectations, needed skills or institutional requirements. This analysis
is based on, and consistent with, the principles of the National Incident
Management System (NIMS) and the National Incident Response Plan,
particularly the “all hazards” approach. The particular focus here is those
times during an emergency when the health professional is in a situation of
increased need for logistics/resources, when there are both an increase in
the numbers of critically ill or injured patients seeking care and a decrease
in the full range of usual structures and supports. Although NIMS and the
National Response Plan are very helpful, they are not specifically designed
to guide nurses, physicians or other licensed health care professionals
working in these unusually challenging situations in ethical, legal, safe,
efficient and compassionate care.
While every care decision is an individual one, all emergency preparedness, including NIMS, begins with a community perspective. Health professionals should be actively supporting community engagement in emergency planning that pays attention to population diversity and is culturally
competent. Decisions made in the planning process should be transparent
to community members, who should receive regular information about
preparedness. Nurses and all health professionals, whether their practice is
primarily in community settings or within institutions, should be engaged
in the planning, training and exercising for emergencies and modeling
good preparedness practices to other community members.
The most common cause of an extreme emergency is an unusual environmental condition
(e.g. flood, power failure), whether due to forces of nature or human action.
1
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.

Foundational documents that inform this discussion include: emergency
preparedness and response competencies expected of health professionals,
scope and standards of care documents issued by professional organizations such as the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses, and a wide range of
guidelines on care in emergencies produced by professional organizations,
governmental agencies (federal, state, and local), or specific institutions.
Standards are authoritative statements by which a profession describes the
responsibilities for which its practitioners are accountable. The American
Nurses Association (ANA), the professional organization for all registered
nurses, has assumed the responsibility for developing generic standards
that apply to the practice of all professional nurses. Standards provide
direction for professional nursing practice and a framework for the evaluation of this practice. Written in measurable terms, standards define the
nursing profession’s accountability to the public and the outcomes for
which registered nurses are responsible.
The Standards of Nursing Practice consists of “Standards of Practice” and
“Standards of Professional Performance” (ANA, 2004). The Standards of
Practice describe a competent level of nursing care as demonstrated by
critical thinking in application of the nursing process (encompassing all
significant actions taken by registered nurses and forming the foundation
of the nurse’s decision-making), with components of assessment, diagnosis, outcomes identification, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
Several themes span all areas of nursing practice (and most health professions), are fundamental to many of the standards, and have emerged as
being consistently and significantly influential in current nursing practice.
These themes include:
• Providing age-appropriate and culturally and ethnically sensitive care
• Maintaining a safe environment
• Educating patients about healthy practices and treatment modalities
• Assuring continuity of care
• Advocating for patients
• Coordinating the care across settings and among caregivers
• Managing information
• Communicating effectively
• Utilizing technology
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.

The Standards of Professional Performance describe a competent level of
behavior in the professional role, including activities related to quality of
practice, education, professional practice evaluation, collegiality, collaboration, ethics, research, resource utilization, and leadership.
ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretative Statements (2001)
is built on nine ethical provisions that, regardless of setting, constitute
a framework to support nurses in their practice. The Code addresses the
nurse’s responsibility and obligation to practice with compassion, respect,
and commitment to patients; to preserve integrity and safety; to maintain
competence; to collaborate on multiple levels; and to articulate values
and shape policy. While the Code of Ethics for Nurses is not a source of
concrete answers, every nurse has an obligation to be familiar with and to
practice in accordance with the Code and its provisions.
As a basis for ethical decision-making during extreme conditions, the
15 ethical guidelines compiled by the University of Toronto Joint Centre
for Bioethics for a Canadian discussion of pandemic influenza planning
(2005) provide a comprehensive foundation for the current effort and appear as Table 1. While individual professionals will not have time to contemplate a table such as this while in the midst of an emergency situation,
prior familiarity with and training on these concepts would prove helpful.
Further, embedding these values in institutional and community plans both
prior to and during emergencies will guide individual clinicians as they
make specific decisions about individual patients.
In this country, the Joint Commission (JC) has approved revisions to
Emergency Management Standards for Hospitals, Critical Access Hospitals and Long Term Care programs, which will become effective January 1, 2008. These revisions (replacing Standard EC.4.10 with Standards
EC.4.11 through EC.4.18) reflect an “all-hazards” approach to emergency
preparedness that permits appropriate flexibility and effective responses,
with a “scalable” approach to manage the variety, intensity and duration of
the disaster in six critical areas of emergency management: communication, resources and assets, safety and security, staff responsibilities, utilities management, and patient clinical and support activities.
Additionally, the JC has developed two standards relating to use of volunteers: Standard HR.1.25 allows hospitals to assign disaster responsibilities
to volunteer practitioners and Standard MS.4.110 allows the organization
to grant disaster privileges to volunteers eligible to be licensed independent practitioners. Many ambulatory programs (such as community health
centers) participate in JC accreditation programs, and are expected to have
emergency management plans as well.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.

Table 1. Ethical Principles in Emergency Care2
Substantive Values
Value
Description
Individual liberty
Emergency restrictions to individual liberty
should be proportional, necessary and relevant
Protection of the public
Actions that impinge on liberty may be required,
but should be clearly explained
Proportionality
Actions that restrict individuals should be proportionate to harm prevented
Privacy
Individual privacy may be overridden during
emergency conditions
Duty to provide
Health professionals will weigh their duty to provide care with obligations to their own health and
that of their families
Reciprocity
Society has a duty to support those taking extraordinary measures for the public good
Equity Care
Care in emergency conditions may not include
all actions ordinarily available to some during
ordinary times
Trust
Confidence in the choices being made requires
transparency and careful communication
Solidarity
Collaboration is essential in emergency conditions and requires shared vision
Stewardship
Decision must focus on best patient and public
health outcomes given the specific circumstances
Procedural Values
Value
Description
Reasonable
Credible, accountable people must clarify the
rationale for actions taken
Open and Transparent
Public access to basis for decisions must be assured
Inclusive
Stakeholders should be involved in decisions*
Responsive
New information should be incorporated into
decisions
Accountable
Assure mechanisms to hold decision-makers answerable for their actions or inactions*
* These critical ingredients are essential in the planning/guidance development process
and in post-event evaluation, but should not be allowed to impede the process while an
emergency is in progress.
University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics Pandemic Influenza Working Group (2005). Stand
on guard for thee: Ethical considerations in preparedness planning for pandemic influenza. Toronto,
Ontario: University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics.
2
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.

The current competencies in emergency preparedness and response for
clinician emergency preparedness training (Columbia University School
of Nursing, 2003) make clear the expectation that licensed health professionals will be prepared to make appropriate healthcare decisions in the
face of emergency conditions. These 11 core competencies for clinicians
are included in Table 2. Supporting these competencies, the International
Nursing Coalition for Mass Casualty Education Nursing Emergency
Preparedness Coalition has provided a detailed and profession-specific
template for education of nurses in the key values and skills in caring for
patients under emergency conditions (Conway-Welch & Weiner, 2004),
covering domains of competencies (e.g., assessment, technical skills, communication), essential knowledge and professional development. As an
additional clinical example, the National Disaster Life Support (NDLS)
education program offered through the AMA provides application of these
competencies specifically to individual care-giving.
In the general ethical framework for health services in the United States,
each presenting patient will receive care and attention that will not be
diverted to the next patient until (1) care for the first patient is underway,
or (2) that patient is transferred or referred. Clinicians are educated, socialized, and supported for a focus on the individual patient or client seeking
care and generally make decisions about laboratory or other diagnostic
tests, medications, hygiene, and activity needs, pain management or other
interventions with only that individual (or the individual and family unit)
in mind.
Decision-making during extreme conditions, however, shifts ethical standards to a utilitarian framework in which the clinical goal is the greatest
good for the greatest number of individuals. As a result, not everyone
may receive the optimal services that might be available at other times or
places. This means that care decisions are not about “the most that can be
done” or “the best that can be done under perfect conditions” but about
what is sufficient given the specific conditions at the time. This might
include expanding the role of family members in monitoring patient status,
or outpatient care for a condition that might otherwise be treated in an
inpatient setting.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
10
Table 2. Emergency Preparedness Competencies for Clinicians3
As a clinician, you should be able to do the following.
n
Describe your expected role in emergency response in the specific
practice setting as a part of the institution or community response.
n
Respond to an emergency event within the incident or emergency
management system of the practice, institution and community.
n
Recognize an illness or injury as potentially resulting from exposure to a biologic, chemical or radiologic agent possibly associated
with a terrorist event.
n Recognize uncommon presentations of common diseases and
distinguish these from common presentations of uncommon
diseases that may be related to a terrorist event or emerging
infectious disease.
n Recognize emerging patterns or clusters of unusual presentations.
n
Institute appropriate steps to limit spread, including infection control measures, decontamination techniques and use of appropriate
personal protective equipment.
n
Report identified cases or events to the public health system to
facilitate surveillance and investigation using the established institutional or local communication protocol.
n
Initiate patient care within your professional scope of practice and arrange for prompt referral appropriate to the identified condition(s).
n
Use reliable information sources (e.g., infection control department,
state or local public health agency, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention) for current referral and management guidelines.
n
Provide reliable information to others (e.g., institutional administration, other patients) as relevant to the specific practice site and
emergency response protocol.
n
Communicate risks and actions taken clearly and accurately to
patients and concerned others.
n
Identify and manage the expected stress/anxiety associated with
emergency events, making referrals for mental health services if
needed.
n
Participate in post-event feedback and assessment of response
with the local public health system and take needed steps to improve future response.
Columbia University School of Nursing, Center for Health Policy (2003). Clinician competencies
during initial assessment and management of emergency events. Retrieved April 23, 2007, from
http://sklad.cumc.columbia.edu/nursing/CHP/orderPubs.php.
3
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
11
The organization of care under extreme conditions, using this utilitarian
framework, should be within an incident command structure (ICS), both in
the individual institution and across the affected community. The decisionmakers will be collaborating with others whose expertise and authority
may have an impact on the professional, such as legal interpretations of
the jurisdiction’s emergency regulations. The health professional assigned
a patient care role is likely to be asked to share care, or delegate some portions of care, to others, such as students from a medical or nursing school,
staff displaced from another institution, or volunteers. This will require
thoughtful attention to one’s own competence and to rapid assessment of
the skills of the others available to assist in the patient’s care. While there
may be some technology specific to the emergency, familiar technological
resources such as computer-based order entry for medications may not be
present, adequate or appropriate. Finally, there will be increased reliance
on all of one’s accumulated competence, as there may not be available the
usual range of colleagues, experts or support services.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
12
Challenges
to Meeting
Usual Care
Expectations
A
s identified above, the circumstances triggering adaptation of standards of care may come in the form of severe natural events such
as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, blizzards or heat waves; humancaused emergencies such as transportation crashes, industrial explosions,
terrorist activities; or infectious disease epidemics such as influenza. These
events (a) may occur singly, concurrently, or sequentially, and (b) may be
local, regional, or national in their impact. In each case, the professional
will be challenged to provide care within situational dynamics such as:
1. loss of essential services, including electricity, water or the
supply chain;
2. loss of infrastructure, including facilities or electronic information;
3. shortage of workers due to transportation loss, worker or
worker family illness/injury, or unwillingness to report to
work
4. size of affected population, requiring triage at a community
level;
5. sudden increase in the number of patients, in marked excess
of capacity or with elevated Injury Severity Score or other
extreme patient conditions; and
6. relocation of care to an alternate facility not equipped for
patient care.
In situations such as the above, there can be severe consequences if changes are not made in care practices, including a dramatic increase in the loss
of life or exposure of patients and staff to unreasonable risks. Essential
decisions about allocation of resources should be made at a system level,
by the hospital incident command structure or the community-wide incident command structure. The individual clinician is responsible for giving the best possible care to patients within the available resources. Even
when these conditions exist and resource allocations or assignments are
made, however, many health professionals remain uncertain about their
legal liability if unable to fully meet their usual guidelines or practices. A
formal declaration of emergency may be associated with legal or regulatory changes (such as suspension of hospital rules regarding staffing levels
or rules regarding who can administer injectable medications), providing
legal immunity. However, some changes in patterns or content of care may
be needed in the absence of or preceding such legal actions, particularly in
the first hours of an extreme event.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
13
It is essential that public health officials, other government officials and
healthcare facility spokespersons inform the public about resource allocation, patient relocation, or other decisions that may lead to adaptation in
the provisions and standards of care. To minimize confusion, such communication should be coordinated with emergency communications structures
at the local level.
For example, if a decision has been made to discharge a large number of
patients who would otherwise remain in the hospital to home care or a
limited care shelter in order to accommodate those in critical need for care
(e.g., those with influenza or other infectious disease during a pandemic or
multiple severely injured or burned patients), the community should be informed of the justifications and details of discharges in order to minimize
the perception that patients are being abandoned. The communication
should further include the steps being taken to provide for patient safety,
medications, access to support services for transported patients and safety
of the public.
Health professional education has included little explicit consideration of
challenges such as those discussed in this document. Even when a clinician is caring for several patients, as is typical for hospital-based nurses,
the expectation is that all requested care will be given, even if time is short
and care is rushed. While some consider this priority setting in the modern hospital to be “triage,” such appropriate priority setting within usual
standards of care does not rise to the level of what is often referred to as
battlefield triage.4 It comes as anathema to most health care providers that
some patients—those commonly called the “walking wounded” and the
“worried well”—might be unable to access care due to resource allocations.
There is the further difficulty in understanding that some extreme conditions might warrant reserving care only for those whose recovery is likely,
avoiding the investment of scarce resources in a rescue attempt for those
whose likelihood of survival is extremely low. Yet these are exactly the
types of resource allocation decisions—such as using the Injury Severity
Score, or ISS (Trauma.org, 2007)—that might be required, and it is essential that professionals be prepared to function under such circumstances.
The emergency specialties and military settings are the two places in which triage of the injured or
acutely ill is not only taught, but routinely practiced.
4
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
14
One caveat: this document primarily discusses the changes in role, assignment, approach to or scope of care for the typical nurse or licensed health
professional working within a care system under unusual conditions. This
“typical” person might be making triage decisions about early discharge
or transfer to a less intense level of care. The triage of incoming patients
who have been exposed to emergency conditions (explosion, chemical
dispersal, massive biologic event) will most likely be made by health
professionals with emergency care credentials, or by experienced health
professionals under the direction of specialists in triage and disasters. Any
health professional working or volunteering in situations in which this role
is likely should seek out additional training in emergency triage in order
to understand the unusual decision criteria involved in conserving scarce
health resources for those most in need of care and most likely to survive
if it is provided.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
15
Meeting
These
Challenges
I
n considering how to meet the challenges of providing care under
extreme circumstances, an organization must first identify those standards that should be maintained at all times, distinguishing them from
those that may more readily be adapted when disastrous circumstances
occur. The most critical standards for clinicians providing care (after triage
has been performed5 and patients have been transferred for care) are:
• maximizing worker and patient safety;
• maintaining airway and breathing, circulation and control of
blood loss; and
• maintaining or establishing infection control (including continuity of medications for conditions such as tuberculosis).
Less important actions that could be delayed, eliminated for some period
of time or assigned to family members, non-licensed assistants or volunteers include:
• routine care activities (e.g., blood pressure checks in nonacute patients, assisted ambulation);
• administration of oral medications,
• extensive documentation of care;
• maintenance of complete privacy and confidentiality; and
• elective procedures.
A combination of existing guidelines or standards of care in a specific
institution and the emergency plan should guide and support changes
in clinician behavior. For example, the all hazards plan of the involved
institution could pre-determine what routine activities are to be delayed or
omitted in the event of a disaster. If there are no pre-established emergency guidelines for needed changes, the judgment of experienced clinicians
should be put to use and changes communicated as part of the Incident Action Plan. In considering the potential for such actions pre-event, jurisdictions can develop emergency guidelines, establishing a multidisciplinary
critical resource planning committee, conducting critical resource vulnerability analysis and priority setting, and establishing baseline ethical principles to guide responses to a range of unusual or emergency conditions.
Pandemic influenza planning for allocation of ventilators is an example
of such planning. Based upon these analyses, the committee can develop
critical resource response plans and protocols, educational tools and emergency exercises and drills.
Assumes that essential chemical or radiological decontamination will have occurred as a part of
the triage/admission process.
5
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
16
Given such pre-event planning, it may be necessary to restate the goal of
care-giving to clarify changes in the standard of care to all involved. In
an emergency, the goal will often be minimizing loss of life and assuring
emergency services for only priority needs, providing the greatest good
for the greatest number. Further, because some level or type of triage will
probably be implemented in the community or the emergency department, the goal of triage (e.g., assuring care for those most likely to benefit
from treatment; minimizing resource drain on those with self-limiting
conditions or injuries so severe as to preclude survival) should be communicated to all professional caregivers to assure consistent allocation of
resources.
During an extreme event, it is possible that reconfiguration of human
and physical resources may allow the goals of care to be met, even under
altered standards of care. To do so, leaders must activate existing plans
for an adapted standard of care (or adapt standards ad hoc), identify and
confirm critical resource shortages and adjust (or terminate) altered care
plans as necessary, communicating those decisions to clinicians and to the
public. This might include delegation of some care to technical or support
staff or integration of family members directly into the care team. Rather
than the current standard of most patients being cared for in single-bed
rooms, patients could be grouped in common areas, facilitating a lower
staff-to-patient ratio than typical. In the community, use of mass medication dispensing sites might replace individual physician office or clinic
visits. Students of health professions should not be overlooked, as emergency response competencies are now being built into curricula.
Volunteers are essential parts of our communities, and it is reasonable to
assume that volunteer nurses, physicians, and others will become a part
of the clinician team during extreme circumstances. These individuals
are not, and should never be, self-directed and self-assigned. Those who
wish to volunteer (1) should do so through organized programs such as
the Medical Reserve Corps, the National Disaster Medical System, the
American Red Cross, or professional volunteer registry and (2) should
only proceed to a disaster response site when activated and expected. The
one exception to this is the very rare event when a health professional is
“volunteered” by virtue of happening to be next to the collapsing building,
flooded school, burning train, or other disaster, and who acts as a Good
Samaritan until other assistance arrives.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
17
Recommendations
for Emergency
Event Care
T
he many recommendations that flow from this consideration have
been referenced in the text above, and are summarized in the following outline. There are three main sections, addressed in turn to
individual professionals, the facilities or organizations that employ them
or within which they practice, and emergency response planners.
Individual Registered Nurses or Other Health Professionals
Pre-event:
n
n
n
n
n
Prepare self and family/significant others for potential emergencies,
including the potential for the professional to be away for extended
periods during an emergency.
Participate in continuing education on emergency preparedness,
with particular attention to the application of NIMS and the National Response Plan within your current practice setting.
Participate in emergency drills and exercises at your practice site.
Know the legal basis for professional care, and the legal structure of
your state regarding health professionals during emergencies.
Provide clear information to any employer or any volunteer organization where you are enrolled about any limitations on availability
or any special skills (e.g., experience with community or emergency
triage) applicable to emergency conditions.
During an event:
n
n
n
n
Use your professional competence to provide the best care possible
given the resources and physical conditions under which you are
working.
Use assigned or announced information resources to clarify any
changes in protocols or staff roles.
Use available rapid training to update readiness to respond to the
specific event.
Communicate difficulties responding as expected through the assigned chain of command as quickly as possible.
Post-event:
n
n
n
Participate in post-event evaluation.
Do a psychosocial needs assessment for self and family, and seek
assistance if indicated.
Participate in activities to facilitate return to pre-event status.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
18
Health Facilities or Practice Sites
Pre-event:
n
n
n
n
Develop descriptions of potential reconfigurations of clinician
teams or physical resources as a part of emergency planning.
Anticipate the inclusion of volunteers with varying levels of professional or technical training into care teams during emergency situations by at least these two actions:
• Coordinate access to volunteers with local public health and
emergency management agencies.
• Establish a mechanism for credentialing of volunteer staff
consistent with federal and state standards (e.g., ESAR-VHP,
the Emergency System for Advanced Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals).
Ensure that emergency plans include capacity for rapid education of
staff specific to the event (just-in-time training by a knowledgeable
professional), including any changes in protocols needed to:
• Maintain a regular inventory of web and other resources specific to a wide range of potential emergency conditions.
• Include human resources and staff development personnel in
all emergency planning processes so they are familiar with
the range of potential training needs and prepare templates in
advance.
Include opportunities for professional decision-making about adapting standards in drills and exercises on a regular basis.
During an event:
n
n
n
Distribute daily information on staffing expectations, including role
of volunteers, to at least:
• Inform your staff how volunteer credentials are being established, and
• Specify any unusual expectations, such as delegation to unlicensed personnel.
If legal changes such as governor’s declaration of emergency has
been invoked, communicate this to staff.
Provide just-in-time training specific to the event, including any
changes in protocols.
Post-event:
n
n
n
Participate in post-event evaluation.
Do a psychosocial needs assessment for those responding, and arrange assistance if indicated.
Return to pre-event status as quickly and smoothly as reasonable.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
19
Emergency Response Planners
Pre-event:
n
n
Ensure that health institutions and professionals are included in
all planning for legal declarations of emergencies to assure that
concerns about patient care guidelines and relevant regulations are
considered.
Ensure that legal counsels to all organizations (public and private)
that employ health professionals are included in community planning for patient care under extreme emergency conditions, including the implications of emergency declarations and the resources
for emergency-related legal guidance through the local emergency
response organization.
During an event:
n
Record all changes in expectations about care to be provided, and
the impact on patients and community, for use in evaluating response and improving plans for future events.
Post-event:
n
n
Participate in post-event evaluation.
Assist in developing plans to return to pre-event status as quickly
and smoothly as reasonable.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
20
Post-Event Considerations
No response to an extreme circumstance is complete until the participants
have moved to the recovery phase, including reestablishing the medical
and public health infrastructure, both physically and in human resources,
disrupted by the disaster. This does not necessarily require fully returning
to the pre-emergency status quo (e.g., in the case of major damage to a
hospital) but simply achieving a level of staffing and supplies that justifies returning to an ordinary level of care for most, if not all, patients and
re-directing those not being served locally to a suitable alternate facility.
As with the discussion of communication earlier, this phase should include
collaboration across a community and consistent messages to the public
about where and when to seek care.
Extreme conditions may arise with or without warning, due to weather,
geology, utility failure, industrial explosion, transportation crash, or deliberate human action. The response of the entire health workforce may make
the difference in the degree of suffering in the community, and in the rate
at which recovery occurs. Being ready to adapt and provide essential care
under extreme conditions is a professional responsibility. It is a responsibility that can be better met if health professionals have considered the
ethics and issues in advance, participated in planning and practice, and remain committed to delivering the best care possible in the circumstances.
§
All health professionals who have been a part of the emergency response
in any role have an obligation to participate in the evaluation of that
response, taking a thoughtful look at what was done, how it worked, and
what could be done better in subsequent events with improved planning,
training, equipment or communication. During and in the aftermath of an
event, there should be attention to the ongoing health (physical and mental) of all responders, their families and significant others.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
21
References
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [AHRQ] (2007). Mass Medical Care with Scarce Resources: A Community Planning Guide. AHRQ
Publication No. 07-0001, February 2007. Rockville, MD: Agency for
Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved September 15, 2007, from
http://www.ahrq.gov/research/mce/.
American Medical Association [AMA] (2003). National Disaster Life Support (NDLS) education program. Retrieved September 15, 2007, from
http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/12606.html.
American Nurses Association [ANA] (2001). Code of Ethics for Nurses with
Interpretative Statements. Washington, D.C.: American Nurses Publishing.
American Nurses Association [ANA] (2004). Nursing: Scope and Standards
of Practice. Washington D.C.: American Nurses Publishing.
American Nurses Association [ANA] (2006). Scope and Standards of Practice
for Public Health Nursing. Washington, D.C.: American Nurses Publishing.
Columbia University School of Nursing, Center for Health Policy (2003). Clinician competencies during initial assessment and management of emergency events. Retrieved April 23, 2007, from http://sklad.cumc.columbia.
edu/nursing/CHP/orderPubs.php.
Joint Commission (2007). Revisions to Emergency Management Standards
for Critical Access Hospitals, Hospitals, and Long Term Care. Retrieved
September 15, 2007, from http://www.naphs.org/documents/EmergencyMgtStandardsFinal.pdf
National Incident Management System (2004). Washington, DC: Department
of Homeland Security.
Trauma.org, 2007. Injury Severity Score
University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics Pandemic Influenza Working
Group (2005). Stand on guard for thee: ethical considerations in preparedness planning for pandemic influenza. Toronto, Ontario: University of
Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics.
Welch, C., & Weiner, E. (2004). International Nursing Coalition for Mass Casualty Education (INCMCE). Retrieved April 15, 2007, from http://www.
incmce.org/.
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
22
The Policy
Work Group
Co-Chairs:
Kristine M. Gebbie, DrPH, RN,
FAAN
Elizabeth Standish Gill Professor
of Nursing
Director, Center for Health Policy
Columbia University School of
Nursing
Kathleen M. White, PhD, RN,
CNAA,BC
Associate Professor
Johns Hopkins University School
of Nursing
Workgroup Members:
Pat Adamski, MSN, MBA
Director of Standards
Interpretation
The Joint Commission
Sherri-Lynne Almeida, DrPH, MSN,
RN, CEN, FAEN
Emergency Nurses Association
Kaye Bender, PhD, RN, FAAN
Dean, University of Mississippi
Medical Center School of
Nursing
Georges C. Benjamin, MD, FACP
Executive Director
American Public Health
Association
Sam Benson, AEMT-P
New York City Office of
Emergency Management
James D. Bentley, PhD
Senior Vice President, Strategic
Policy Planning
American Hospital Association
Roberta Carlin, MS, JD
Executive Director
American Association on Health
and Disability
Colleen Conway-Welch, PhD, CNM,
FAAN
Director, National Emergency
Preparedness Education
Coalition
Dean, Vanderbilt University
School of Nursing
Donna Dorsey, MS, RN, FAAN
Executive Director
Maryland Board of Nursing
Patricia Drehobl, MPH, RN
Coordinating Office for
Terrorism Preparedness and
Emergency Response
(COTPER), CDC
Andrea M. Garcia, JD
National Disaster Life Support
Educational Consortium
(NDLSEC)
Barbara Hatcher, PhD, MPH, RN
Director, Center for Learning and
Global Public Health
American Public Health
Association
James J. James, MD, DrPH, MHA
Executive Committee Chair
National Disaster Life Support
Educational Consortium
(NDLSEC)
Patricia A. La Brosse, APRN,BC
American Psychiatric Nurses
Association
Joseph L. Cappiello, BSN, MA
Vice President, Accreditation
Field Operations
The Joint Commission
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
23
CAPT Roberta Lavin, MSN,
APRN,BC
Director of Human Services
Emergency Preparedness &
Response
Administration for Children &
Families
Department of Health & Human
Services
Nancy McKelvey, MS, RN
Office of the Chief Nurse
American Red Cross
Karen O’Brien, MN, RN
President
Association of State and
Territorial Directors of Nursing
Marilyn Pattillo, PhD, RN, APRN
Assistant Professor, Clinical
Nursing
University of Texas School of
Nursing
Geriatric Nurse Practitioner
Rebecca M. Patton, MSN, RN, CNOR
President
American Nurses Association
Sally J. Phillips, PhD, RN
Director, Bioterrorism
Preparedness Research Program
Agency for Healthcare Research
and Quality
Carol A. Romano, PhD, RN, FAAN
Chief Nurse Officer, USPHS
National Institutes of Health
Clinical Center
Linda J. Stierle, MSN, RN, CNAA,BC
Chief Executive Officer
American Nurses Association
Beth Stover, RN, CIC
McKing Consulting Corporation,
assigned to Coordinating Office
for Terrorism Preparedness and
Emergency Response, CDC
Adapting Standards of Care Under Extreme Conditions
Guidance for Professionals During Disasters, Pandemics, and Other Extreme Emergencies
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
Italo Subbarao, DO, MBA
National Disaster Life Support
Educational Consortium
(NDLSEC)
Raymond E. Swienton, MD, FACEP
The University of Texas
Southwestern Medical Center
The Parkland Heath and Hospital
System
Martha Turner, PhD, RN
Assistant Director, Center for
Ethics & Human Rights
American Nurses Association
American Nurses Association
Mary Jean Schumann, MSN, RN,
MBA, CPNP
Director, Department of Nursing
Practice & Policy
Cheryl A. Peterson, MSN, RN
Senior Policy Fellow
Department of Nursing Practice &
Policy
Kate Markovs, MS, RN
Consultant
Patricia Rowell, PhD, APRN,BC
Senior Policy Fellow
Department of Nursing Practice &
Policy
Writers
Kristine M. Gebbie, DrPH, RN,
FAAN
Elizabeth Standish Gill Professor
of Nursing
Director, Center for Health Policy
Columbia University School of
Nursing
Kathleen M. White, PhD, RN,
CNAA,BC
Associate Professor
Johns Hopkins University School
of Nursing
24
8515 Georgia Avenue, Suite 400
Silver Spring, MD 20910
(800) 274-4262
www.NursingWorld.org
ANA is the only full-service professional organization representing the nation’s 2.9 million Registered Nurses
through its 54 constituent member associations. ANA advances the nursing profession by fostering high standards
of nursing practice, promoting the economic and general welfare of nurses in the workplace, projecting a positive
and realistic view of nursing, and lobbying the Congress and regulatory agencies on healthcare issues affecting
nurses and the public.
© 2008 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved.
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