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The Signature Assignment paper is a culminating argument paper that includes the four perspectives of inquiry presented in the first two papers with the addition of an abstract, an introduction, and a conclusion. The content from the perspective papers submitted in Weeks 3 and 4 should be revised based on instructor feedback for inclusion in this assignment.

This paper should include a newly composed introductory section and a new final conclusion section that presents your discussion of, and argument for, the solution. Your argument, or rationale, for the solution that you propose is the focus of this paper.

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Feedback from teacher: (We had a substitute this week and she was very picky)
The writing lacks clarity, conciseness, or organization. Several errors in punctuation, spelling, and
capitalization detract from the readability of the paper.
Reflects incomplete knowledge of APA Style with many errors. Meets few length and
formatting requirements of the assignment. At least one source is used but is not cited
properly, is not reputable, or is inappropriate for the audience or topic. The source does
not support ideas.
Truthfully I am not sure what shes talking about but she said I needed to make sure and use the
grading rubric to make changes for the final paper.
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Cultural and Ethical Considerations to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emission with EV’s
Introduction
The transportation sector falls among the world’s most significant energy usage causes.
Dummett (2017) indicate that automobiles alone use diesel and petrol, which causes about
16.67% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Also, the automobile industry contributes to the
majority of the air pollution present in urban regions. Fossil fuels are one of the major
contributors to greenhouse emissions. Electric vehicles have been proposed to be the answer to
combat this problem. The length of time it will take to implement an electric vehicle program
with a power grid, the production of lithium batteries and the fact that electric cars are out of the
reach of many budgets, make them a poor solution to combat greenhouse emissions. In this
light, the current global trend aims to increase the adoption of electric cars (EVs) as a feasible
way to minimize greenhouse gas emissions by conventional vehicles, which rely on the
combustion of fossil fuels (Dummett, 2017). However, heated arguments rise that the approach
might not work.
However, before asserting the issue, it is critical to consider its cultural and ethical
values. Therefore, this paper divides into two sections. The first part tries to unveil the
underlying cultural opinions, cultural values that influence the problem, cultures that are more
impacted by it, and potential cultural values that are likely to affect the issue of using EVs in
combating greenhouse emissions. The second part discloses the ethical side of the matter, where
factors like various laws about the problems are discussed. Also, this section touches on ethical
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obstacles influencing the community’s potential to address the issue and how ethical theories
apply to it.
Cultural Perspective
Level one question: what cultural values are at play in EV adoption?
While the global need to attain a sustainable environment, the use of electric cars is the
ultimate answer to most. Its viability lies in the capability to emit less carbon dioxide than the
conventional cars burning fossil fuels to release energy. Despite being more reliable in
minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, its adoption will take milestones to achieve. In most
countries, the market for EVs is slow (Stephenson, 2018). At the same time, adoption of EVs
varies from one country to another. that comes from different cultural forces defining each
country’s perception and need for EVs
The cultural order, physical artifacts, and energy routines that express and impact
customer habits have been theorized as “energy” or “sustainable culture” (Stephenson, 2018).
The concept of “social arguments,” or a common understanding of current societal goals and
objectives, is pertinent to this study. It considerably alters EVs’ development, distribution, and
use, sometimes in unforeseen ways (Sovacool & Griffiths, 2020). Despite this, culture,
particularly deemed acceptable values or strongly supporting habits, is frequently invisible,
particularly to people inside a specific society. However, its impact is vividly resonated by how
people react toward EVs in the pursuit of combating greenhouse gas emissions.
Cultural values have complicated and impeded the rate of EVs adoption to promote more
efficient and sustainable forms of the transport system. Without relying on or digging deep into
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EVs’ energy supply, cultural customs impact the demand and purchase of EVs. That has a
significant consequence since, without demand and purchases, transforming the world to adopt
EVs in fighting greenhouse gas emissions becomes hectic. It will take centuries to finally
convince the whole world that embracing EVs is the ultimate solution to their problem. In the
pursuit of enhancing low carbon emission by using EVs, Sovacool and Griffiths (2020) show
cultural barriers like aggressive driving, eco-driving, and speeding. Different countries possess
distinct norms and beliefs that make them engage in such practices, despite the environmental
impacts they offer.
Level Two question: How does aggressive driving impedes the use of EVs to combat
greenhouse gas emission?
Societies are against EVs for a reason. The most common causes of energy wastage in
transport are not just those who drive EVs or fossil fuel cars. Cultural behaviors are shaping how
people carelessly use cars to enhance greenhouse gas emissions, whether it is a hybrid electric
car or a conventional fossil fuel one. Bad driving, excessive acceleration, horn blasting, traffic
maneuvering, swearing, making inappropriate gestures, headlamp dazzling, red-light violation,
and obstructing the overtaking lane are all dangerous driving practices that significantly affect
energy usage and environmental degradation (Yong & Park, 2017). Various driving habits and
road variables significantly influence exhaust fumes in Germany (Stephenson, 2018). According
to Stephenson (2018), aggressive driving produces between 0 to 40% more co2 and about 50 to
250% more nitrogen oxide pollutants than regular driving (Stephenson, 2018). Erratic driving
also has a major influence on Portugal’s energy usage and emission levels. Stephenson (2018)
shows that the country experiences energy usage climbing drastically by around 200% and
greenhouse gas emissions jumping by about 330% when drivers maintain non-aggressive driving
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practices, with aggregate societal daily expenditures totaling up to about €52,500 (Stephenson,
2018). that is far from efficient energy saving needs.
Reckless driving appears to be influenced by cultural standards of machismo,
masculinity, and “speed” (Stephenson, 2018). Men in the U.S. are more prone to be angry and
upset while travelling, to speed vehicles (wasting energy), and also to horn at cars at traffic
junctions (potentially leading to aggressive driving and subsequent traffic fatalities) owing to
masculine standards (Stephenson, 2018). Men report increasing levels of excessive speeding than
women in Serbia and Romania (Stephenson, 2018). As to French drivers, masculine values have
resulted in a “fast” mentality, with about 50% of many males regularly admitting to exceeding
the speed limit (Stephenson, 2018). Another reason for such conduct is European cultural
standards regarding assertiveness and dominance to demonstrate power and prestige among
colleagues (Adnan et al., 2017). Even individuals driving hybrid EVs might be influenced by
cultural norms as well, according to Adnan et al. (2017). Numerous car operators have tried to
recharge their automobiles by pushing the internal combustion of the car engine vigorously and
then utilizing the regenerative braking system in EVs. Such ill practices still cause greenhouse
gas emissions, just like other normal cars.
Ethical Perspective
Level one Question: what ethical concern on Li-ion battery manufacture for EVs?
The move toward renewable initiatives are highly recommendable and commendable.
Anthropogenic global warming is one of the most pressing human rights issues of modern-day,
with urban centers choked by exhaust pollution. EVs will enhance air quality and reduce
greenhouse gas emissions, driving the world to the brink of disaster. However, most EVs will not
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be as ethically “green” as people think. According to Amnesty International (Dummett, 2017)
research, cobalt extracted by adults and children in highly dangerous settings might be making
its way into the distribution networks of most of the world’s top automakers. Thus, the primary
ethical consideration surrounding EVs adoption in minimizing greenhouse gas emissions
revolves around the immoral practices presented within Cobalt and Lithium mines. Young
children are fond of working in these extraction sites with minimal to no pay. In addition, other
human labor rights like better pay or maintaining a favorable work environment even for adults
are out of the question.
Level Two Question: how does cobalt mining in DRC encourage the rise of ethical issues in
EVs adoption?
Cobalt is an essential element of the recharged li-ion batteries that power EVs. The
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) produces more than 50% of the planet’s cobalt (Thomas,
2021). Notwithstanding its natural wealth, the DRC is among the third world countries with poor
leadership and economic growth, plagued by periods of violence and corrupt administrations.
Due to the poor financial status and lack of sustainable food supply, numerous Congolese
men, women, and even young children have been forced to excavate their mines as few
institutional employments exist. According to Thomas (2021), more than 19% of quarries in the
country are small-scale, with most employees being children. These kids, ages 3 to 17, must
work in deplorable and unsafe circumstances, often without even shoes to wear. In addition,
Thomas (2021) indicates that individuals who claim they are exposed to extreme work schedules,
degrading employee treatment, abuse, harassment, racism, hazardous working conditions, and
neglect of necessary health provisions are the underlying ethical considerations in EVs
production.
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Based on those provisions, the adoption of EVs does not concur with the common ethical
theories that emphasize the greater good. Moral Codes are efforts to give a coherent,
unambiguous understanding of human ethical responsibilities. However, from practical virtue
ethics to deontological ethics, each practice’s primary focus should bring happiness to the general
community. While EVs will solve a small percentage of greenhouse emissions and increase the
production of more cobalt to help manufacture Li-ion EV batteries, more young children and
human rights will continue to suffer at the costs of EVs (Dummett, 2017). That is a major blow
to Evs’ adoption.
Conclusion
For decades, researchers and various organizations have proposed EVs as a feasible
solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions in the road transportation system. Practically, the
approach can work since EVs are proven to be less harmful than normal cars utilizing fossil fuel.
However, numerous obstacles still hinder the adoption of EVs despite their potential benefits. In
this study, cultural and ethical issues are the primary concerns driving most societies from
embracing EVs. In light of this provision, cultural traits of individuals towards cars proves that
even with EVs implementation, greenhouse gas emission on roads will still be problems. Drivers
from different countries still engage in reckless driving practices like aggressive driving, ecodriving, and speeding. These practices, shaped by different cultural beliefs, are also core factors
behind carbon emissions regardless of the car type (either EV or normal fossil fuel car). In
addition, EVs rely on Li-ion batteries to store power. However, mining of core materials that
build Li-ion batteries area associated with developing countries like DRC, where human people
are deprived of their human and labor rights. Mining in DRC also involves the employment of
young children exposed to adverse working conditions. Therefore, despite EVs’ significant
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outcome on the road, the underlying ethical violation from their battery production makes it hard
to embrace them as a better solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions.
References
Adnan, N., Nordin, S. M., & Rahman, I. (2017). Adoption of PHEV/EV in Malaysia: a critical
review on predicting consumer behavior. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
72, 849-862. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.121
Dummett, M. (2017). The Dark Side of Electric Cars: Exploitative Labor Practices. Time.
https://time.com/4939738/electric-cars-human-rights-congo/.
Sovacool, B. K., & Griffiths, S. (2020). The cultural barriers to a low-carbon future: A review of
six mobility and energy transitions across 28 countries. Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, 119, 109569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.109569
Stephenson, J. (2018). Sustainability cultures and energy research: An actor-centered
interpretation of cultural theory. Energy research & social science, 44, 242-249.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2018.05.034
Thomas, D. (2021). Workers report “colonial-era” abuse at Congolese cobalt mines – African
Business. African Business. https://african.business/2021/11/energy-resources/workersreport-colonial-era-abuse-at-congolese-cobaltmines/#:~:text=Electric%20vehicles%20and%20workers’%20rights,disregard%20for%20
basic%20health%20provision.
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Yong, T., & Park, C. (2017). A qualitative comparative analysis on factors affecting the
deployment of electric vehicles. Energy Procedia, 128, 497-503.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.066
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Feedback from teacher for this paper:
APA is on point, your research is extensive, and your citations are perfect.
2
Electric Vehicles and Climate Change Issues
Introduction
The entire globe strives towards attaining a sustainable environment, free from
greenhouse emissions. According to Picarsic (2020), President Joe Biden committed to
minimizing emissions of the U.S. greenhouse gas by about 50% coming 2030. Central to the
transformation towards a sustainable environment is implementing the renewable energy system
and adopting the use of electric cars. Fossil fuels are one of the major contributors to greenhouse
emissions. Electric vehicles have been proposed to be the answer to combat this problem. The
length of time it will take to implement an electric vehicle program with a power grid, the
production of lithium for batteries and the fact that electric cars are out of the reach of many
budgets make them a poor solution to combat greenhouse emissions. As Li et al. (2020) posits,
the use of electric cars has risen to the limelight because in this race as it uses electricity to
power themselves, compared to conventional cars that burn fossil fuel to run.
The global sales of electric cars rose by about 43% in about 2020 (Li et al., 2020). That is
more than three million cars. In addition, Picarsic (2020) suggests that in about 20 years, the
world will have around 300 to 500 million electric-powered cars. However, reinforcing such
drastic growth will increase the demand for extra raw materials, including rare earth resources,
cobalt, and Lithium (Picarsic, 2020). Mining and producing these resources are costly and
require more energy, human resources, and water. This paper argues that greenhouse gas
emissions continue to expand as electric cars force the extraction of highly critical raw materials
to support their batteries and motors. Moreover, the length of time it will take to implement an
electric vehicle program with a power grid, the production of lithium for batteries and the fact
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that electric cars are out of the reach of many budgets make them a poor solution to combat
greenhouse emissions.
Historical Perspective
Components of EV batteries
The primary reason why electric cars do not fall under effective solution to
environmental issues commence at the beginning of their origins. As mentioned above, the new
demand for EVs means people expect hundreds of millions of electric cars on the roads.
However, they will need batteries to power their electric energy supply, which solely depends (at
least in the upcoming days) on lithium-ion batteries. According to Wang et al. (2017), these
batteries use complicated terminals made of graphite on the anode and various materials like
Nickel, cobalt, and manganese, among other numerous alternatives on the cathode. Currently,
Nickel, cobalt, and manganese batteries are the leading ones in the market (Wang et al., 2017).
Wang et al. (2017) show that the Tesla Company uses Lithium, cobalt, aluminum, and Nickel,
which has increased the demand for these minerals being that Tesla is arguably the global leader
in EV production. According to Li et al. (2020), chemistry is working by reducing reliance on
lithium-ion phosphate technique or a set of cobalt-free technology. That forces it to rely more on
Nickel.
Where do they come from, and what environmental impacts do they have on those areas?
Currently, EVs cannot survive without minerals like Lithium, Cobalt, among many more.
Picarsic (2020) indicates that Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia lead in lithium production while the
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) leads in producing cobalt. Even though that might make
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these countries famous in terms of essential minerals, they offer Li et al. (2020) emphasize that
mineral extraction in those areas is associated with intense environmental pollution and constant
human rights abuse. On that note, Cobalt extraction in DRC offers a better way to undertint the
negative aspect of mineral mining in these locales. Picarsic (2020) shows that various studies
done by human rights watch, among other humanitarian organizations, identify over 40000
children forced to work in harsh mining environments (artisanal cobalt mines and processing
regions). Workers in those areas are not given a fair share of their work and little concern for
safety needs. In addition, that also creates an intense rise in child labor and intensive poverty. All
these factors are against sustainable development plans. Thus, exposing people to continue living
in intense poverty and little education needed to enhance consciousness on environmental
sustainability.
Such problems also resonate with those witnessed in most Lithium-producing regions in
South America. For instance, Picarsic (2020) indicates that Lithium mining in Chile demands
extensive water. Therefore, a significant number of the local farmers remain with no water to
support agriculture. That does not only impact food production and economic development. It
also increases carbon emission as the process by which green plants balance the level of carbon
dioxide with Oxygen is hugely compromised. This issue arises from the lack of water to support
plants’ life or the growth of trees that play a critical role in CO2 absorption to limit the effects of
GHGs on local climates. Hence, lithium mines leave Chile an incredibly diverse ecosystem
without adequate means of minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Together with those
detrimental physical impacts on the environment, Lithium producing countries also face poor
working conditions and unfavorable terms in occupation.
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Similarly, to the DRC Cobalt mines, Chile also faces poor working conditions, which
adversely impact the country’s environmental sustainable goals. The constant dispute in mining
regions is even more detrimental, which causes death for both individuals and animals (Li et al.,
2020). Those fights also cause expansive environmental pollution from the burning of farms and
other properties. Picarsic (2020) indicates that even Chinese mining regions experience such
issues. There have been instances where people encounter massive death of fish and other large
animals floating in rivers (Li et al., 2020). Picarsic (2020) states that some people argue that
those dangers are caused by the leakage of evaporation pools found within mineral mining
regions. Despite those tragic outcomes of mining these minerals, the demand is on the verge of
rising drastically as the number of EVs continues to rise. That implies that greenhouse gas
emissions will continue to rise if nations continue to explore such detrimental approaches to
mineral extraction, and the hope of attaining a sustainable environment continues to die.
What is the problem with recycling EV batteries?
Environmental problems caused by the production of EV batteries are apparent.
However, using EVs on the road gives a solid reason that they emit less carbon than
conventional vehicles using fossil fuels. Nevertheless, the problem also arises in recycling EV
batteries. Picarsic (2020) indicates that conventional car producers can recycle about 99% of
their lead batteries (batteries used in cars using gasoline). On the other hand, this is a different
story on EVs Lithium-ion batteries. Picarsic (2020) states that they are composed of numerous
complicated mixes of chemicals and minimum quantities of Lithium, which destroys their
market once used. For example, the EU market tried to recycle lithium-ion batteries but threw
more than what they collected. Picarsic (2020) posits that it happened that way since there was
no justification to certify the price or regulation of recovering them by the hydrometallurgical
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processes. Regardless of the cause, such instances make EVs fall far from greener. Li et al.
(2020) refutes this notion, arguing that the number of industries targeting better means to recycle
Lithium-ion batteries is on the rise as these batteries are growing to become an integral part of
today’s energy storage. However, such ideas cannot apply now since it will take time to reach the
point where Lithium batteries are recycled like those supported by lead-acid.
Mathematical perspective
How to GHGs emissions due to EV production compare with that from conventional cars?
Transforming to EVs will not entirely assist in reducing or eliminating carbon emissions.
According to Louvet (2018), EVs might be more critical in reducing carbon emissions on the
road than conventional vehicles that use fossil fuels. However, the production of Lithium-ion
batteries, which is the most common one, is carbon-intensive. The study provided by Berylls
Strategy Advisors shows that passenger EV batteries typically weigh about 500kg. To produce
that, producers emit about or more than 74% of carbon dioxide, which falls higher than what
production of a conventional car will emit in Germany (Zhang et al., 2019). In addition, Louvet
(2018) shows that the middle-range EV vehicle that possesses a battery raging of about 40
kilowatts per hour that customers purchased in Germany in 2019 need to drive for about 52000
kilometers before its lifetime carbon emission drops below what a relatively gasoline car will
emit. It means luxury EVS, which have at least 120 kilowatts per hour, will need to drive for
about 230000 kilometers to meet the same mark. Moreover, Zhang et al. (2019) accentuate that
greenhouse gas emissions associated with EVs rely on the energy mix used in that particular
country they are made in or regions they are driven. In this perspective, countries that generate
electricity by burning fossil fuels will likely cause EVs to emit more carbon.
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Are these GHGs emissions from EV manufacture sustainable?
In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted during the production of EV batteries
depends on the combination of materials used. However, regardless of the material, Louvet
(2018) emphasizes that heat energy of about 800 to 1000 degrees is needed to synthesize
materials for producing EV batteries. On top of that high degree of heat energy, the carbon
dioxide level produced also rises. Zhang et al. (2019) indicate that about 77% of EV batteries
come from China. That is a place where coal is the prime source of energy. That is more
dangerous as coal emits greenhouse gas (roughly two times) than natural gases. For instance,
Tesla Model 3 uses a lithium-ion battery with about 80 kilowatts per hour (Louvet, 2018).
producing that will cause coal burning, emitting Carbon dioxide of about 3 to 16 tons. At the
same time, the U.S Department of Energy suggests that adopting EVs will reduce Carbon
emissions by 36% a year (Louvet, (2018). The data above indicates that more is emitted during
production than what they will prevent when in operation.
Conclusion
The need to attain a sustainable environment continues to resonate globally. Propositions
have come that shifting to EVs will contribute more to minimizing greenhouse gas emissions.
However, this study identifies that will not be possible. The use of electric cars might be safe on
the road, emitting less carbon than conventional cars, but the production process consumes more
energy and power. That showcases itself more in the production of EV batteries. EVs utilize
critical raw materials primarily for batteries and motors. Currently, EVs use Lithium-ion
batteries, which need elements like Lithium and cobalt. Extracting these minerals falls far from
what would be considered environmentally sustainable. Most of them come from DRC, Chile,
among others, where the problem of environmental contamination is in the limelight. Also,
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mining these elements involves intensive labor, water, and expensive resources. DRC and Chile,
for instance, face issues of child labor, depletion of other natural resources like water, and other
environmentally hazardous aspects.
Consequently, that lowers the maintenance of the nations’ sustainable goals. Moreover,
the association of EVs with environmental safety solely relies on the amount of carbon emitted
while using them on the road. More studies, however, show that producing Lithium-ion batteries
used in EVs is more detrimental, covering the positive impact in the end. Even recycling issues
make conventional car batteries (lead-acid) more favorable than EVs, which cannot be easily
recycled. Thus, EVs are still not the best solution to support a green environment.
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References
Li, M., Feng, M., Luo, D., & Chen, Z. (2020). Fast charging li-ion batteries for a new era of
electric vehicles. Cell Reports Physical Science, 1(10), 100212.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrp.2020.100212
Louvet, B. (2018). Is the electric car really clean? Revue Generale Nucleaire, 26-29.
https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:49076465
Picarsic, N. (2020). Risky Business: The Hidden Costs of EV Battery Raw Materials.
Automotive World.
Wang, X., Xiao, R., Li, H., & Chen, L. (2017). Quantitative structure-property relationship study
of cathode volume changes in lithium-ion batteries using ab-initio and partial least
squares analysis. Journal of Materiomics, 3(3), 178-183.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmat.2017.02.002
Zhang, Y., Wang, H., Li, W., & Li, C. (2019). Quantitative identification of emissions from
abused prismatic Ni-rich lithium-ion batteries. ETransportation, 2, 100031. DOI:
10.1016/j.etran.2019.100031
Electric Vehicles and Greenhouse Emissions
Drafting Your Abstract
Brandy Cherry
West Coast University
Captsone 402
Professory Garcia
6/11/22
Drafting Your Abstract
Your Topic Area:
____Electric Vehicles and Greenhouse Emissions____________________
DRAFTING THE ABSTRACT – Draft the abstract of your final paper. Remember to meet the limits of
150-250 words in the final version of the abstract. You may handwrite or type your draft in the spaces
provided, or you may word process, and attach your abstract. This is a draft. You will revisit it when
you have completed your final paper, and revise it as needed, based on your final product.
Part 1 –
State the issue/topic & problem
Every nation strives toward attaining a sustainable environment. However, the primary challenge still hindering
the process lies in the transport industry, which is responsible for a large portion of greenhouse gas emissions.
Therefore, there has been a proposal that adopting electric cars can contribute to minimizing carbon emissions.
Despite being more reliable in terms of carbon emission on the road than conventional cars, it will take decades
to adopt Electric Vehicles (EVs) on the road fully.
Part 2 –
Explain the methods/procedures/approaches
The study, therefore, focuses on secondary data analysis to come up with well-informed ideas to draw an
assertion on EVs and greenhouse gas emissions. In this light, the study identifies credible article sources,
reliable websites, books, and other primary or secondary sources. Areas of focus included scholarly dataset
websites like JSORT, EEIC, and Google Scholar, among many more. Also, implementing keywords like
“electric cars” and “greenhouse gas” assisted in landing on the correct information needed for the study.
Part 3 –
Reveal your results and findings (understandings from inquiry papers)
Based on the information revealed by the research sources, EVs are not likely to solve greenhouse gas emissions
any time soon. They rely on Li-ion batteries, which causes more carbon emissions and violates human rights in
countries they are mined. Various ethical and cultural values also limit the adoption of EVs. Additionally, the high
costs of buying and maintaining EVs remain a critical challenge to their adoption.
Part 4 –
Disclose/expose your concluding solution
Regarding the significant challenges associated with EVs production, maintenance, and extreme carbon
emission during its battery manufacture, encouraging the adoption of EVs to minimize greenhouse gas
emissions is not an ideal solution.
1
Title Page Information Appears at the Top Half of the Page
Your Name Here
University Name
Course Number: Course Name
Instructor’s Name
Due Date
2
Abstract
The abstract should be a single paragraph in block format (without paragraph indentation)
with no citations (unless absolutely necessary). Abstracts should not exceed 250 words
maximum. The abstract should be one paragraph and introduce your thesis (background) in 2-3
sentences, state your thesis in 1-2 sentences, 1 sentence each from your perspectives (total 4-6
sentences), and 2-3 sentence conclusion, future direction or opportunities for research
Keywords: what words did you use to find information for your paper?
3
Repeat title of Paper Here
Introduction
The first paragraph should provide an overview of the problem, the thesis statement, and
some general background information supported by scholarly source(s).
The second paragraph should provide an overview of the purpose of the paper. Information
regarding the four perspectives used including definitions and explanations of each perspective
should be incorporated.
The third paragraph should discuss how information was obtained for the paper. What
databases were searched? What terms were searched? What filters were applied? This should be
written in full sentences rather than a bulleted list.
Historical Perspective
Level 1 question
Enter answer level 1 question paragraph here with citations (Garcia, 2022). If you have
more questions, enter each question with a separate sub heading and answer the question in the
paragraph that follows. If you quote make sure you “enter the quote as you would and make sure
you close quotes” (Garcia, 2020). Or if you choose, you can state: according to Garcia (2020),
but please make sure you cite correctly like this example.
Level 2 question
Enter answer level 2 question paragraph here with citations (Garcia, 2022). Do the same
with each question.
Mathematical Perspective
4
Level 1 question
Enter answer level 1 question paragraph here with citations (Garcia, 2022). If you have
more questions, enter each question with a separate sub heading and answer the question in the
paragraph that follows.
Level 2 question
Enter answer level 2 question paragraph here with citations (Garcia, 2022). Do the same
with each question.
Cultural Perspective
Level 1 question
Enter answer level 1 question paragraph here with citations (Garcia, 2022). If you have
more questions, enter each question with a separate sub heading and answer the question in the
paragraph that follows.
Level 2 question
Enter answer level 2 question paragraph here with citations (Garcia, 2022). Do the same
with each question.
Ethical Perspective
Level 1 question
Enter answer level 1 question paragraph here with citations (Garcia, 2022). If you have
more questions, enter each question with a separate sub heading and answer the question in the
paragraph that follows.
Level 2 question
5
Enter answer level 2 question paragraph here with citations (Garcia, 2022). Do the same
with each question.
Conclusion
Summarize the paper in the first paragraph of the conclusion. The conclusion should have
more than one paragraph. The summary of your paper may be one or two paragraphs. Remember
to address each section in one or two sentences.
The second paragraph you propose solutions to your argument. Your thesis statement was
an argument you were trying to defend, please defend it here.
The last paragraph you address opportunities for research in the topic that you choose.
What information was missing that there should be further research on? What other opportunities
are there to further the field?
6
References
Entries are organized alphabetically and formatted with a hanging indention. Include only the
sources you cited in the text of your paper.
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (7th ed.). https://doi.or/10.1037/0000165-000
Anderson, Charles & Johnson (2003). The impressive psychology paper. Lucerne Publishing.
Smith, M. (2001). Writing a successful paper. The Trey Research Monthly, 53, 149-150.
7th Edition
Abstract and Keywords Guide
N O T E : Abstracts and keywords are not typically required for student papers. Students should consult their instructor or institution to
determine whether to include an abstract and/or keywords.
ABS TR AC T: The abstract needs to provide a brief but comprehensive summary of the contents of your paper.
It provides an overview of the paper and helps readers decide whether to read the full text. Limit your abstract
to 250 words.1
Abstract Content
Abstract Format
The abstract addresses the following
(usually 1–2 sentences per topic):
•
recommended fonts: 11-point Calibri, 11-point
Arial, 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, 12-point
Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or 10-point
Computer Modern2
•
key aspects of the literature review
•
problem under investigation or research
question(s)
•
1-in. margins on all sides
•
clearly stated hypothesis or hypotheses
•
placement: second page of the paper
•
methods used (including brief descriptions of the
study design, sample, and sample size)
•
section label: “Abstract”
•
study results
•
implications (i.e., why this study is important,
applications of the results or findings)
•
°
centered and in bold
°
written on the first line of the page
text:
°
one line below the section label
°
not indented and written as a single paragraph
°
double-spaced
1
Unless requested otherwise; consult your instructor for appropriate formatting guidelines. In academic journals, abstracts typically are limited to no more than
250 words. However, some instructors or journals have different abstract length and formatting requirements.
2
Other fonts are also acceptable so long as they are legible and widely available.
KE Y WORDS: Keywords need to be descriptive and capture the most important aspects of your paper. They
are used for indexing in databases and as search terms for readers. Include three to five words, phrases, or
acronyms as keywords.
Keywords Content
Keywords Format
Keywords address essential paper elements,
such as the following:
•
recommended fonts: 11-point Calibri, 11-point
Arial, 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, 12-point
Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or 10-point
Computer Modern (see Footnote 2)
•
placement: second page of paper
•
written one line below the abstract
•
label: “Keywords:”
•
research topic
•
population
•
method
•
application of results or findings
•
More information on how to write and format an abstract and keywords can be
found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.)
Sections 2.9 to 2.10 and in the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.) Section 1.10.
°
indented (like a regular paragraph)
°
italic (but not bold)
text:
°
written on the same line as and one space after
the label
°
lowercased (but capitalize proper nouns)
°
not italic or bold
°
each keyword separated by a comma and a
space
°
no ending punctuation after the final keyword
°
listed in any order (not necessarily alphabetical)
°
if the keywords run onto a second line,
double-space the two lines and do not
indent the second line
SOURCE: American Psychological Association. (2020).
Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
CREDIT: ST. LOUIS UNIVERSITY PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT

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