I’m working on a writing Memorandum and need a sample draft to help me study.
Writing Assignment #3
Proposal Memo to the Decision-maker
Summary of assignment
Task: You will complete the following:
o Identify the decision-maker or group of decision-makers to whom you will write
o Consider the secondary research you conducted on your topic for writing
o Consider what primary research you will need to conduct for your research-based
o Write a proposal memo to your decision-maker asking for permission to conduct
Length: 800-1100 words
Format: A template for the memo is provided on page 2.
How This Assignment Informs Writing
This proposal memo is a preliminary step you take prior to writing your final paper, which is the
research-based report (writing assignment #4). Your final paper in WRTG 394 will be a report in
define a problem in your workplace or community persuasively and accurately.
propose a solution or solutions to the problem or issue.
As part of defining the problem and proposing a solution, you must conduct primary research.
You might also need to conduct some additional secondary research. In Writing Assignment #3,
the proposal to conduct research, you are persuading a decision-maker or group of
decisionmakers to authorize you to begin conducting this research that will end up in your final
The main purposes of the research proposal memo are to accomplish the following:
Demonstrate that the problem youÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ve identified for Project #4 is significant enough to
Present a feasible plan or blueprint for your research.
Set forth potential benefits to the organization or community from the research that justify
the use of time and resources.
Template for Submitting Your Memo
Note: Please use the format outlined below, including the headers provided in bold, for the
[Decision Maker Name(s) and title(s)]
[Your Name and title]
Request to Conduct Research on [Ã¢â‚¬Â¦]
[Write one or two sentences in which you mention why you are writing this memo.]
What the Problem Is and Why It Needs to Be Investigated
[In a series of paragraphs, describe the problem to which you are going to propose a solution and
explain why you think this problem is important.]
What Secondary Research I Have Conducted about the Problem
[In one paragraph describe secondary research you have conducted on the problem and solution.]
What Primary Research I Will Conduct about the Problem
[In a series of paragraphs, describe primary research you will conduct on the problem and
Why We Will Benefit from My Research and Recommendations
[In one or two paragraphs, describe your recommendations to the problem/situation you are
describing. Include a description of the potential benefits that your organization or community
will incur by authorizing your research and considering your recommendation.]
[In one or two sentences, conclude your memo by repeating the request for authorization and
reminding of the benefits of your conducting the research and considering your
Advice on Conducting Primary Research
DUE TO THE DANGERS RELATED TO THE CORONA VIRUS PANDEMIC,
PRIMARY RESEARCH IS NOT REQUIRED FOR THE RESEARCH REPORT
ASSIGNMENT. IF POSSIBLE, STUDENTS CAN CONDUCT INTERVIEWS OR
SURVEYS REMOTELY (BY USING A SYSTEM SUCH AS ZOOM) OR VIA EMAIL
RELYING ON WRITTEN RESPONSES
When considering primary research, consider the strategies outlined in the following material from
weeks 3 and 4:
Ã¢â‚¬Å“Strategies for Qualitative Interviews Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Harvard UniversityÃ¢â‚¬Â (from week 3)
Ã¢â‚¬Å“Designing Effective Questions and QuestionnairesÃ¢â‚¬Â (from week 3)
Ã¢â‚¬Å“Writing Interview Protocols and Conducting InterviewsÃ¢â‚¬Â (from week 4)
PLEASE NOTE: While you might not be able to conduct primary research for WA #4, the
Research Report, for THIS assignment, WA #3, the Proposal Memo, you should complete the
Primary Research section of the memo by discussion the sort of primary research you WOULD
conduct if you were able to do so. This is to help you become familiar with what primary
research is and how a writer obtains it and uses it.
Consider the following examples:
If you are proposing that email be used less frequently for communication and that another
application be used to improve communication, you might interview fellow employees on the
situation, and you might take screen captures of alternative communication tools to illustrate how
they work and would improve communication in your office.
For a report on proposing a new traffic light, you might take pictures of the intersection where such
a traffic light could be built, and you might interview residents to get their perspective on the traffic
For a report to the program chair of your major at UMGC suggesting changes to the curriculum,
you might interview or survey fellow students, interview or survey hiring managers in the field,
and/or interview or survey students who are majoring in the same field at another institution.
For a report on recycling facilities, you might take pictures of the office environment to show that
current recycling facilities are inadequate, and you might interview fellow workers about whether
they find it easy to recycle materials at your office.
Examples of How to Make Topics Specific for the Final Report in WRTG
If you wish to write a report to your supervisor at work suggesting that email be used less
frequently for communication and that another application, such as texting, be used to improve
communication, you cannot simply prepare a report on the benefits of texting in the workplace. You
must establish that your specific office has problems in communicating by email and indicate the
benefits of using alternative communication systems, such as texting, for your workplace
If you write a report to your neighborhood community association that a traffic light be posted at a
particular intersection, you cannot simply prepare a report on the benefits of traffic safety. You
must show that the specific intersection in your neighborhood needs a traffic light in order to
If you write a report to the program chair of your major at UMGC recommending changes to the
curriculum, you cannot simply prepare a report on the benefits of a certain class. You must show
that the specific curriculum for your major at UMGC lacks something that your suggested
adjustment will provide.
If you write a report on recycling facilities at your workplace, you cannot simply prepare a report
on the benefits of recycling. You must show that the recycling facilities at your specific workplace
are inadequate or need improving.
Submitting the assignment:
You will submit a draft of the memo to the assignment folder. The instructor will provide
comments to it and work with you on a second draft if necessary.
SYNTHESIS LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction and Scope
It is evident from various articles and real-life situations how the minority are being treated
whenever they are in a dominant society. Co-cultural theory helps to explain how this is
triggered in most of our communities. The co-cultural approach offers a phenomenological
structure for understanding the intricate relationship between communication, power, and culture
(Razzante & Orbe, 2018). Co-culture explains how the minority individual in our society
interacts with the major groups. The way one interacts with other people in a new environment is
different from interacting in an environment that you fully own. Being in a new environment
with new people will tend to make one shy since the individual does not have the power to
change the dominant society’s culture (Han & Price, 2018).
The co-cultural theory explains the behavioral relationship between the minority and the
majority in a given setting and how it can be improved to create a good and comfortable
environment for all. The gap that exists in the society that various articles are suggesting is unfair
treatment of minority people. They include those differing in race or ethnicity. Therefore, as
explained from multiple reports, this theory informs us of the weak areas that society has to
Understanding different people by knowing the challenges that they go through will enable
us to appreciate them. It is essential to understand that all people are the same and they have
equivalent potential. Gender, race, or ethnicity should not make someone think that a specific
individual is incapable of performing a particular activity. We should learn to respect, cooperate
with other people, and thus move on together in achieving the best.
SYNTHESIS LITERATURE REVIEW
Source Articles and Relevant Themes
The factors that result in a bad relationship between the majority and the minority in the society
Assuming that the male gender is more superior to the female gender.
White residents in the United States being more powerful than the black community.
Disrespecting the LGBTQ community.
In this way, communication among the two groups in society becomes difficult (Matsunaga &
Theme 1: Cultural & Ethnic values on the actions of gay men
According to a study conducted by Bie & Tang (2016), the co-cultural understanding was
used to scrutinize Chinese gay men’s coming-out practices through a descriptive analysis of sixty
self-reported sections online. It discovers that the Chinese gay men’s resolution to come out, their
statement orientations, and the results of their coming out are prejudiced by traditional Chinese
ethnic values, which include family, duty, and marriage. The findings obtained from the study
implied that different social relationships among diverse people affect the communication
orientations that are adopted.
As a result, Bie & Tang (2016) suggested ways in which good relationships should be
established in our societies. Accommodating and amalgamation would improve the majorityminority relations. Accommodating will mean having both people from the two groups and
working together towards achieving the same goal. Since all of them live in one environment,
they must understand and appreciate each other to benefit and respect the opinion that each one
Theme 2: Social and Economic capital based on cultural norms
SYNTHESIS LITERATURE REVIEW
Han & Price (2018) researched capital families in Korea, multicultural and eco-cultural
theory. The study inspected the lived practices and the communicative connections employed by
associates of seven multiethnic people in South Korea. Results show the tangled roles of
symbolic capital, cultural capital, social capital, and economic capital through eco-cultural
communication bearings when intermingling with the majority cluster’s associates. Notably,
findings disclose differences among immigrant wives and Korean husbands. For Korean
husbands, social and economic capital is the supreme critical influential aspect in their selections
of communication alignments. For refugee wives, symbolic and cultural capital is of utmost
Theme 3: Communication differences based on cultural expectations
Another study looked at how race plays a role in the way people communicate. Zirulnik
& Orbe (2019) examines how Black female navigators experience and accomplish their
privileged position as airline carriage pilots and eco-cultural cluster members. Consequently,
Orbe’s eco-cultural philosophy is utilized as a setting to understand precisely how women of
color exchange workstations where White masculine traditional norms are ever-present. With a
phenomenological method, the outgoing lived proficiencies of 2 Black female airline carriage
pilots are studied to divulge specific co-cultural interaction practices enacted. The reading is
offered at this time as a testament to detailed researchÃ¢â‚¬â€that which progresses theory, that is,
extending co-cultural imagining in a new situation, and provides a realistic insight into
significant contemporary issues, including increased diversity in an archaeologically White male
SYNTHESIS LITERATURE REVIEW
Based on the information and findings obtained from the study, the following conclusions
Ã¢Å¾Â¢ Good communication strives to enhance good relationships in society (Murdock &
Ã¢Å¾Â¢ Culture should erase the attitude that different people have about race, gender, and
ethnicity. The study considers it to be one of the elements that strive to slow down a
Ã¢Å¾Â¢ People who do things personally are likely to be left behind than those that cooperate.
Permitting to Simpson & Yinger (2013), communication among the majority and the
minority in society differs significantly. The findings highlighted recommendations in which
improved communication and relationship can be achieved. It includes looking at the bottom line
of the scenario being experienced. It comprises co-culture, culture, power, and communication.
The two authors implied that it is vital to understand how people were brought up, bring the two
different cultures together and educate them on the importance of working together despite
gender, ethnicity, and race.
SYNTHESIS LITERATURE REVIEW
Bie, B., & Tang, L. (2016). Chinese gay menÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s coming out narratives: Connecting social
relationship to co-cultural theory. Journal of Intercultural and International
Communication, 9(4), 351-367.
Han, E. J., & Price, P. G. (2018). Communicating across difference: Co-cultural theory,
multicultural, and capital families in Korea. Journal of International and Intercultural
Communication, 11(1), 21-41.
Matsunaga, M., & Torigoe, C. (2008). Looking at the Japan-residing Korean identities through
the eyes of the Ã¢â‚¬Å“outsiders withinÃ¢â‚¬Â: Extension and application of co-cultural
theory. Western Journal of Communication, 72(4), 349-373.
Murdock, E., & Ferrings, D. (2016). Attitude toward multiculturalism: Majority in the minority
Razzante, R., & Orbe, M. (2018). Two Sides of the Same Coin: Conceptualizing Dominant
Group Theory in the Context of Co-Cultural Theory. Communication Theory, 28(3),
Simpson, G. E., & Yinger, J. M. (2013). Racial and cultural minorities: An analysis of prejudice
and discrimination. Springer Science & Business Media.
Zirulnik, M., & Orbe, M. (2019). Black Female Pilot Communicative Experiences: Applications
and Extensions of Co-Cultural Theory. The Howard Periodical of Communications,
30(1), 76Ã¢â‚¬â€œ91. https://doi.org/10.1080/10646175.2018.1439422
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