Dissertation Topic – 4-Day Work Weeks to Improve Work-Life Balance in Nonprofit Organizations
Part 2 Annotated Bibliography
In this Assignment, you will be sourcing and analyzing more resources from the Walden library and other databases you use as you continue to develop your annotated bibliography. This is Part 2 of a three-part annotated bibliography. You will cover Part 3 in Week 8. As you work on this Assignment, consider the feedback offered by your colleagues and Instructor from the Week 6 Discussion; also, consider how you can apply their suggestions from this weekÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Discussion. As you find and evaluate more resources, consider also: are you able to see an emerging storyline? Do you notice any shared themes? Are you better able to transition from literature review to possible research problems?
for this Assignment:
Return to the Walden library and find
five additional articles
that could be used in a literature review on your dissertation topic
two of these articles
using the guidelines provided in Components Annotated Bibliography Attachment
You will use this analysis to complete this weekÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Assignment. (Note: You will analyze the other three articles next week.)
Based on your analysis of the
two selected articles
, develop and submit an annotated bibliography using these two articles you selected.
Cornell University Library. (2015).
How to prepare an annotated bibliography: The annotated bibliography
. Retrieved from http://guides.library.cornell.edu/annotatedbibliography
Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences. (n.d.).
Critically reading journal articles
. Retrieved June 5, 2016, from
Purdue Online Writing Lab. (2016). Annotated bibliography samples. Annotated bibliography samplesRetrieved from
Barnes, A. (2020). The 4 Day Week: How the Flexible Work Revolution Can Increase
Productivity, Profitability, and Well-being, and Create a Sustainable Future. Piatkus.
This reading focuses on creating a more productive work environment by revolutionizing the
workweek. It focuses on an experiment conducted by Barnes, who owns a New Zealand
company and requests his employees to create a new working structure to increase output. It
reveals that people are more fulfilled with the implementation of new work regimes, and they
are able to focus better on work (Barnes, 2020). It is evident that the workplace has experienced
a new outlook, and this is due to the changing work environment. This reading gives a practical
approach by guiding the business leaders and employees concerning methods of ensuring
success in the workplace. It concentrates on the analysis of data from different sources in order
to make an informed decision. It is evident that the revolutionizing of the workweek will have
a major impact on employee well-being. Furthermore, if the organization is able to consider
employee needs by implementing the four-day workweek, this will lead to overall better
outcomes at all levels.
The reading uses compelling evidence to give an update concerning methods of
improving work productivity by using new methods of managing the employees. In this
reading, Barnes conducts an experiment in his own business and asks his personnel to create a
new working schedule that allows them to meet their targets. The outcomes from this particular
experiment were shocking and especially because the employees became happier, healthier,
and also more engaged in their personal lives (Barnes, 2020). Because of this, they became
more productive, leading to better outcomes in the workplace. This reading guides management
and staff concerning how to adapt to more productive routines. It focuses on preparing the
business for productivity and also for better adaptability to the new working philosophy. This
reading gives a breakdown concerning new methods of innovation in the workplace and
focuses on how this can be implemented for better workplace outcomes. It explains how to
increase workplace productivity and outputs while also implementing new strategies in the
workplace. It is vital for organizations to devise methods of ensuring employee wellness by
considering their needs at all levels. It is vital to consider how to improve employee wellness
by improving working conditions. This will lead to increased productivity, worker engagement
as well as better work-related conditions.
Jones, E., & Jones, R. (2017). Leadership style and career success of women leaders in
nonprofit organizations. Advancing Women in Leadership Journal, 37, 37-48.
This reading examines the link in styles of leading and aspects leading to success in
organizations. It uses a new model that identifies transformational and transactional and passive
styles of leadership; it uses a career success index that can sum up codes of data regarding job
satisfaction, work satisfaction, and tenure in a nonprofit organization (Jones & Jones, 2017). It
focuses on the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership styles for
better outcomes in the organization’s management. Women in the workplace often find it
difficult to achieve career advancement due to discrimination. The leadership style has an
important role to play in the career success of women. Furthermore, the implementation of a
more proactive method of leading will lead to better overall outcomes at all levels. Women
continue to face difficult work environments, and this has a negative role on their career
New models of leading and making decisions play a major role in the advancement of
oneÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s career. Transformational and transactional leadership is vital in ensuring effective
organizational outcomes and improving leadership in the organizational setting. This particular
study’s theoretical framework focuses on women and their ability to advance in their careers
Jones & Jones, 2017). It uses a quantitative method in this scenario and assists in examining
potential relationships between variables. It includes the use of a Multifactor Leadership
Questionnaire, and this helps in the identification and measurement of the propensity of
leadership styles. It is evident that the use of new models of leadership has a positive impact
on women and their careers, leading to positive outcomes. This study is instrumental in
determining women’s career success based on the use of different leadership styles. Through
the reading, one gains an insight concerning different aspects of leadership and the role that
this has to play in improved organizational outcomes. It also gives a clear explanation of the
different challenges that women face in the work environment.
Sims, R. R., & Bias, S. K. (2019). Human Resources Management Issues, Challenges, and
Trends:” Now and Around the Corner.” IAP.
This reading focuses on exploring and providing an updated look at challenges and
trends, and issues that face human resource management. It also looks at how this profession
continues to become more adaptive, resilient, and also customer-related issues. It gives a clear
breakdown of the issues impacting employees in the organization, such as work-life balance.
It gives a breakdown of employment issues and solutions to these workplace settings (Sims &
Bias, 2019). It focuses on human resource management’s roles and how it can formulate
policies for better work productivity. It explains the unique role of the HR department in the
running of the organization. It also gives a depiction of the HR needs of the organization and
methods of meeting these different needs. Focussing on globalization and human resource
management, this reading reveals the environment in which the organization operates and
functions. There are a number of HR issues, challenges, and opportunities that HRM
professionals and their organizations face. It gives a breakdown of the different aspects of HRM
and how this can be implemented for better organizational outcomes.
Another important aspect mentioned includes organizational drift and how HR
professionals in organizations can deal with it. It also gives a breakdown of how to manage
organizational change, such as sociodemographic and technological changes impacting the
organization (Sims & Bias, 2019). Workplace equality is also mentioned, and this reading
explains recent changes in legislation which aim to promote equality in the workplace. It also
assesses social media and gender-related HR policies in light of policies created to deal with
issues such as harassment and bullying, and discrimination in the workplace. Through this
reading, there is a clear depiction of organizations’ redesigning and development and their
business strategies to meet current requirements.HRM plays an important role in the
functioning of the organization, and this reading gives a definition of the roles and
responsibilities of the HRM department within the organizational setting. It gives a breakdown
of strategies that can be used in the implementation of new HRM models to improve
organizational performance. The reading gives a breakdown of HRM practices and the
practices that can help improve the work environment. It emphasizes the human resource
management team and effectively implements policies for improved outcomes for the
Rao, I. (2017). Work-life balance for sustainable human development: Cultural intelligence as
an enabler. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 27(7), 706-713.
This reading looks at the relevance of maintaining a proper balance of work and life,
and this is beneficial. This leads to better performance in the work setting and also improves
employee output. Furthermore, it encourages sustainable practices for working and improves
the ability to focus on work improvement. Best outcomes can be realized when there is a proper
balancing of work and personal life. Commitment and engagement are vital as this leads to
better outcomes for the employees. If individuals are unable to maintain a work and personal
life balance, it will result in poor work-related performance. The work-family culture will have
an important role to play in the level of performance of employees. It gives a breakdown of
how a proper balance of work and personal life can impact the organization. Furthermore, it
shows the direct and indirect impacts of a work-life balance. This plays an important role in
the workers’ career development since it gives them space to develop their skills while
maintaining their own personal well-being.
Organizations that discourage the use of personal time for workers will usually
discourage the use of arrangements for employeesÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ personal time. The workplace and the home
environment are different settings, and cultural intelligence is required for one to adapt to both
of these aspects. The use of arrangements for employees in the workplace will have a major
impact on outcomes. An imbalance in work-life can usually lead to health disorders, which can
be physical and psychological (Rao, 2017). The use of effective models for the employees will
focus on balancing personal time for workers. The Instrumental model plays a major role in
explaining how work and family can complement each other. Individuals will usually have
many roles to play, and it is important to ensure effective balance. The reading explains the
importance of taking advantage of the instrumental model for better employee outcomes. This
reading reveals the importance of proper balance for employees leads to better outcomes. It
impacts the performance of workers while also ensuring better outcomes for humans.
Wadsworth, L. L., & Facer, R. L. (2016). WorkÃ¢â‚¬â€œfamily balance and alternative work schedules:
Exploring the impact of 4-day workweeks on state employees. Public Personnel
Management, 45(4), 382-404.
This reading focuses on work-life balance and alternative work schedules leading to
better outcomes. It also examines the impact that this has on improving the workplace
environment. It concentrates on the engagement of workers when the organization is changing
work schedules (Wadsworth & Facer, 2016). It also explains the impact of four-day workweeks
in improving employee outcomes and the impact of the implementation of such arrangements
in the workplace, based on research evidence conducted in this scenario. The reading focuses
on the four-day worksheet which the State of Utah implemented and the impact that this had
on the employees. It reveals that there have been no notable changes in personal life and work
balancing or scheduling work times. It explains how the implementation of new work schedules
based on a four-day workweek can impact the organization. It is important for organizations to
consider integrating a four-day workweek since this may improve the organization’s overall
performance. When the employees are allowed to work for four days a week, then this leaves
them with sufficient time to attend to their personal lives. In turn, the employees will be more
energized and able to focus on their work. This also creates a situation where the employee can
perform better at work because they are physically and emotionally well-rested. The proper
management of employee schedules can play an important role in improving work-related
The reading shows the relevance of effectively planning work schedules for the
employees. It gives a better understanding of the worker’s attitudes towards the compressed
workweek schedules (Wadsworth & Facer, 2016). From this reading, it is evident that the fourday workweek can be implemented in the organizational setting. It can lead to positive
outcomes such as improved performance in the workplace, higher productivity, and better
relations in the workplace setting. Implementation of the four-day workweek has proven to be
effective since it can ensure better organizational outcomes in both the long term and the short
term. It would be important to develop new strategies to ensure that employees can perform
more effectively in the four-day work week. It is necessary to consider the impact of scheduling
on the employees, especially because workers are sensitive to changing work schedules.
Sample Annotated Bibliography
Program Name or Degree Name (e.g., Master of Science in Nursing), Walden University
COURSE XXX: Title of Course
Month XX, 202X
Sample Annotated Bibliography
Autism research continues to grapple with activities that best serve the purpose of
fostering positive interpersonal relationships for children who struggle with autism. Children
have benefited from therapy sessions that provide ongoing activities to aid autistic childrenÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s
ability to engage in healthy social interactions. However, less is known about how KÃ¢â‚¬â€œ12 schools
might implement programs for this group of individuals to provide additional opportunities for
growth, or even if and how school programs would be of assistance in the end. There is a gap,
then, in understanding the possibilities of implementing such programs in schools to foster the
social and thus mental health of children with autism.
Kenny, M. C., Dinehart, L. H., & Winick, C. B. (2016). Child-centered play therapy for children
with autism spectrum disorder. In A. A. Drewes & C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Play therapy in
middle childhood (pp. 103Ã¢â‚¬â€œ147). American Psychological Association.
In this chapter, Kenny et al. provided a case study of the treatment of a 10-year-old boy
diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ADS). Kenny et al. described the rationale and
theory behind the use of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) in the treatment of a child
with ASD. Specifically, children with ADS often have sociobehavioral problems that can
be improved when they have a safe therapy space for expressing themselves emotionally
through play that assists in their interpersonal development. The authors outlined the
progress made by the patient in addressing the social and communicative impairments
associated with ASD. Additionally, the authors explained the role that parents have in
implementing CCPT in the patientÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s treatment. Their research on the success of CCPT
used qualitative data collected by observing the patient in multiple therapy sessions.
CCPT follows research carried out by other theorists who have identified the role
of play in supporting cognition and interpersonal relationships. This case study is relevant
to the current conversation surrounding the emerging trend toward CCPT treatment in
adolescents with ASD as it illustrates how CCPT can be successfully implemented in a
therapeutic setting to improve the patientÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s communication and socialization skills.
However, Kenny et al. acknowledged that CCPT has limitationsÃ¢â‚¬â€children with ADS,
who are not highly functioning and or are more severely emotionally underdeveloped, are
likely not suited for this type of therapy.
Kenny et al.Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s explanation of this treatmentsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s implementation is useful for
professionals in the psychology field who work with adolescents with ASD. This piece is
also useful to parents of adolescents with ASD, as it discusses the role that parents can
play in successfully implementing the treatment. However, more information is needed to
determine if this program would be suitable as part of a KÃ¢â‚¬â€œ12 school program focused on
the needs of children with ASD.
Stagnitti, K. (2016). Play therapy for school-age children with high-functioning autism. In A. A.
Drewes and C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Play therapy in middle cildhood (pp. 237Ã¢â‚¬â€œ255).
American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14776-013
Stagnitti discussed how the Learn to Play program fosters the social and personal
development of children who have high functioning autism. The program is designed as a
series of play sessions carried out over time, each session aiming to help children with
high functioning autism learn to engage in complex play activities with their therapist and
on their own. The program is beneficial for children who are 1- to 8-years old if they are
already communicating with others both nonverbally and verbally. Through this program,
the therapist works with autistic children by initiating play activities, helping children
direct their attention to the activity, eventually helping them begin to initiate play on their
own by moving past the play narrative created by the therapist and adding new, logical
steps in the play scenario themselves. The underlying rationale for the program is that
there is a link between the ability of children with autism to create imaginary play
scenarios that are increasingly more complex and the development of emotional wellbeing and social skills in these children. Study results from the program have shown that
the program is successful: Children have developed personal and social skills of several
increment levels in a short time. While Stagnitti provided evidence that the Learn to Play
program was successful, she also acknowledged that more research was needed to fully
understand the long-term benefits of the program.
Stagnitti offered an insightful overview of the program; however, her discussion
was focused on children identified as having high-functioning autism, and, therefore, it is
not clear if and how this program works for those not identified as high-functioning.
Additionally, Stagnitti noted that the program is already initiated in some schools but did
not provide discussion on whether there were differences or similarities in the success of
this program in that setting.
Although StagnittiÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s overview of the Learn to Play program was helpful for
understanding the possibility for this program to be a supplementary addition in the KÃ¢â‚¬â€œ12
school system, more research is needed to understand exactly how the program might be
implemented, the benefits of implementation, and the drawbacks. Without this additional
information, it would be difficult for a researcher to use StigmittiÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s research as a basis for
changes in other programs. However, it does provide useful context and ideas that
researchers can use to develop additional research programs.
Wimpory, D. C., & Nash, S. (1999). Musical interaction therapyÃ¢â‚¬â€œTherapeutic play for children
with autism. Child Language and Teaching Therapy, 15(1), 17Ã¢â‚¬â€œ28.
Wimpory and Nash provided a case study for implementing music interaction therapy as
part of play therapy aimed at cultivating communication skills in infants with ASD. The
researchers based their argument on films taken of play-based therapy sessions that
introduced music interaction therapy. To assess the success of music play, Wimpory and
Nash filmed the follow-up play-based interaction between the parent and the child. The
follow-up interactions revealed that 20 months after the introduction of music play, the
patient developed prolonged playful interaction with both the psychologist and the parent.
The follow-up films also revealed that children initiated spontaneously pretend play
during these later sessions. After the introduction of music, the patient began to develop
appropriate language skills.
Since the publication date for this case study is 1999, the results are dated.
Although this technique is useful, emerging research in the field has undoubtedly
changed in the time since the article was published. Wimpory and Nash wrote this article
for a specific audience, including psychologists and researchers working with infants
diagnosed with ASD. This focus also means that other researchers beyond these fields
may not find the researcherÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s findings applicable.
This research is useful to those looking for background information on the
implementation of music into play-based therapy in infants with ASD. Wimpory and
Nash presented a basis for this technique and outlined its initial development. Thus, this
case study can be useful in further trials when paired with more recent research.
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